Revision of –ing participle as Adverbial
主动语态 一般式 完成式 被动语态
doing having done having been doing
being done having bee
II. -ing 分词作状语（Adverbial)的要点：
的连词有：when, while, if, (al)though, whether, or, unless, as if/though等。
1．伴随状语（Adverbial of attending circumstances） They came in, singing and laughing.
2．时间状语（Adverbial of time） Having finished the homework/After finishing the homework,he turned on the TV. When/While climbing the mountain, he broke his glasses. ３．方式状语（Adverbial of way ） He came running into the classroom.
4. 原因状语（Adverbial of cause ） Having failed twice, he didn’t want to try again. 5. 条件状语 ( Adverbial of condition) Turning to the right, you will find a path. 6. 结果状语（Adverbial of result） He did his homework carelessly, making a lot of mistakes.(自然的或必然的结果) 区别：He hurried to the station only to find the train had gone.(意想不到的结果) 7.让步状语（Adverbial of concession） (Though) working as hard as he could, he could not pass the exam.
The –ing Participle as Attributive
I．–ing Participle 作定语的形式： doing
1．前置 （单个分词做定语时，一般放在被修饰的名词前）： *The swimming boy is my brother.
注意：有些分词已经形容词化。 试区别： moving 感人的 inspiring 鼓舞人心的 disappointing 令人失望的 moved 受感动的 inspired 受鼓舞的 disappointed 感到失望的 a frightening voice 令人害怕的语调 a frightened voice 从语调中听出说话人感到害怕 记一记： English-speaking countries, a paper-making machine, spoken English,…
2．后置 （分词短语做定语时，放在被修饰的名词后）： doing, being done *The children playing outside are in Class Two. *Tea, being a universal drink in many countries, is still carefully prepared. *The television being repaired now was bought ten years ago. *Most of the people working in the factory are young people.
1. –ing 分词所表示的动作与谓语动词所表示的动作同时发生。 *正在发生的动作：
The man running over there is our chairman. =The man who is running over there is our chairman.
*Where is the old woman selling eggs? =Where is the old woman who sells eggs?
2. 如果一个分词既要表达进行意义，又要表达被动意义，则用-ing的被动式: being done The question being discussed is important. =The question that is being discussed is important.
3. 如果分词要表示动作是主动的，又在谓语动作之前发生，则要用定语从句表 示。 (完成式having done/having been done不可做限制定语) *The man coming yesterday comes again. (×) *The man having come yesterday comes again. (×) *The man who came yesterday comes again. (√)
4. 要表示定语的动作在谓语动作之后发生, 则要用不定式或定语从句表示 将要发生的动作。 *The students to attend the meeting (who will attend the meeting) （参加会议的）will arrive here tomorrow. a. 如果定语既要表示尚未发生的/将来的动作又要表示被动意义, 则用 不定式的被动式： to be done You are welcome to the party to be given in our class. b. 不定式作定语时，与修饰词一般有逻辑上的动宾关系或主谓关系： I have a lot of words to say.
5. 现在分词作定语表示被修饰名词的动作正在进行或经常发生； 动名词作定语表示被修饰名词的用途。 the sleeping dog the sleeping bag (the dog that is sleeping) (the bag for sleeping)
6. 过去分词（done）作定语表示与被修饰词是被动关系，分词的动作已完成， 但并不强调先于谓语动作。 切记不可误写作：having been done I can’t find my lost pen. =I can’t find my pen which is lost. 归纳：三种非谓语动词作定语的区别： 与被修饰词：主动/被动关系 1. doing/being done 动作特点：正在进行/经常性、习惯性 与被修饰词：被动关系 2. done 动作特点：已完成的状态 与被修饰词：主动/被动关系 3． to do/to be done 动作特点：尚未发生/即将发生
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