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雅思基础写作


Chapter 1
I. Test Format

IELTS Academic Writing Orientation

IELTS has four parts – Listening (30 minutes), Reading (60 minutes), Writing (60 minutes) and Speaking (

11–14 minutes). The total test time is 2 hours and 45 minutes. The Listening, Reading and Writing tests are done in one sitting. The Speaking test may be on the same day or up to seven days before or after the other tests.

II. Academic Writing Format
The Academic Writing test is 60 minutes long. It has two writing tasks of 150 words and 250 words. In Task 1 candidates are asked to describe some visual information (graph/table/chart/diagram), and to present the description in their own words. They need to write 150 words in about 20 minutes. In Task 2 candidates are presented with a point of view or argument or problem. They need to write 250 words in about 40 minutes.

III. Academic Writing Samples
WRITING TASK 1 A You should spend about 20 minutes on this task. The chart below shows the number of men and women in further education in Britain in three periods and whether they were studying full-time or part-time. Summarise the information by selecting and reporting the main features, and make comparisons where relevant. Write at least 150 words.

WRITING TASK 1 B You should spend about 20 minutes on this task. The graph below shows radio and television audiences throughout the day in 1992. Summarise the information by selecting and reporting the main features, and make comparisons where relevant. Write at least 150 words.

WRITING TASK 2 A You should spend about 40 minutes on this task. The first car appeared on British roads in 1888. By the year 2000 there may be as many as 29 million vehicles on British roads. Alternative forms of transport should be encouraged and international laws introduced to control car ownership and use. To what extent do you agree or disagree? Give reasons for your answer and include any relevant examples from your knowledge or experience. Write at least 250 words. TASK 2 B You should spend about 40 minutes on this task. Write about the following topic: The threat of nuclear weapons maintains world peace. Nuclear power provides cheap and clean energy. The benefits of nuclear technology far outweigh the disadvantages. To what extent do you agree or disagree? Give reasons for your answer and include any relevant examples from your knowledge or experience. Write at least 250 words.

IV. Analysis of the directions
1. Time limitation: time arrangement/writing steps 审题(Analyze and Outline)3mins 写作(Write Up)15mins 检查(Check Up)2mins 2. Task Achievement: Satisfy all the requirements of the task. 3. Word limitation: Answer sheet 30 lines 8-10words/line 10-15 lines

V. Writing Band Descriptors
Both the Academic and General Training Writing Modules consist of two tasks, Task 1 and Task 2. Each task is assessed independently. The assessment of Task 2 carries more weight in marking than Task 1. Detailed performance descriptors have been developed which describe written performance at the 9 IELTS bands. These descriptors apply to both the Academic and General Training Modules. 1. Task 1 scripts are assessed on the following criteria: · Task Achievement 任务完成情况-避免跑题,字数不足 This criterion assesses how appropriately, accurately and relevantly the response fulfils the requirements set out in the task, using the minimum of 150 words. Academic Writing Task 1 is a writing task which has a defined input and a largely predictable output. It is basically an informationtransfer task which relates narrowly to the factual content of an input diagram and not to speculated explanations that lie outside the given data. ·Coherence and Cohesion连贯和衔接 This criterion is concerned with the overall clarity and fluency of the message: how the response organises and links information, ideas and language. Coherence refers to the linking of ideas through logical sequencing. Cohesion refers to the varied and appropriate use of cohesive devices (for example, logical connectors, pronouns and conjunctions) to assist in making the conceptual and referential relationships between and within sentences clear. ·Lexical Resource词汇资源-多样、准确、灵活 This criterion refers to the range of vocabulary the candidate has used and the accuracy and appropriacy of that use in terms of the specific task. ·Grammatical Range and Accuracy 语法结构的范围和准确性-句式多样、使用自然、语法标点准确 This criterion refers to the range and accurate use of the candidate‘s grammatical resource as manifested in the candidate‘s writing at sentence level. Underlenth 剑 8 中有一学生的习作是 5.5 分, 考官的第一句就是: ―The topic introduction has been copied from the task and is deducted from the word count. This leaves the answer underlength at 236 words, so the candidate loses markers for this. 考生是不能够照抄作文题目的, 字数将不计入,另外 236 的精准性表明了考官是会逐个去数文 章字数是否达到要求的,所以考场上,字数限制 At least 的意思一定要理解透,不要轻易去挑 战考官的情商和智商,否则丢分丢人,我们各位雅思考生可是伤不起啊!

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2. Task 2 scripts are assessed on the following criteria: · Task Response ·Coherence and Cohesion ·Lexical Resource ·Grammatical Range and Accuracy Candidates should note that scripts will be penalised if they are a) under the minimum word length, b) partly or wholly plagiarised, c) not written as full, connected text (e.g. using bullet points 项目要点 in any part of the response, or note form, is not appropriate, etc.).

VI. Analysis of Sample Script
1. Sample Script A This is a bar chart of the number of men and women in further education in Britain in three periods. In 1970, Most of Men were studying part-time but from 1980, Studying part-time was decreased and studying full-time was increased and in 1990, it was twice as many students as in 1970. On the other hand, Women studying full-time were increased and not only Full-time, part-time also were increased, in 1990, studying full-time was three times as many students as in 1970. In compare men and women, as you see, in 1970, men were studying more than women full-time or part-time but it changed from 1980 and then, in 190 women were studying part-time more than men and studying full-time was same number. It shows you women has a high education now. (132 words) Examiner comment Band 5 The length of the answer is just acceptable. There is a good attempt to describe the overall trends but the content would have been greatly improved if the candidate had included some reference to the figures given on the graph. Without these, the reader is lacking some important information. The answer is quite difficult to follow and there are some punctuation errors that cause confusion. The structures are fairly simple and efforts to produce more complex sentences are not successful. 2. Sample Script B According to the graph, the number of men and women in further education in Britain shows the following pattern. In the case of male, the number of male has declined slightly from about 1000 thousands in 1970 to about 850 thousands in 1990. However, the figure rose back to about 850 thousands in 1990 from about 820 thousands in 1980. The proportion of full-time education has declined during the period. However, the proportion of part-time education has increased dramatically. On the other hand, in the case of female, the number of female full-time education and part-time education has increased during this period. From about 700 thousands in 1970, these figures rose to about 820 thousands in 1980, to about 1100 thousands in 1990. ….
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Examiner comment Band 6 The candidate has made a good attempt to describe the graphs looking at global trends and more detailed figures. There is, however, some information missing and the information is inaccurate in minor areas. The answer flows quite smoothly although connectives are overused or inappropriate, and some of the points do not link up well. The grammatical accuracy is quite good and the language used to describe the trends is wellhandled. However, there are problems with expression and the appropriate choice of words and there is good structural control, the complexity and variation in the sentences are limited. 3. Sample Script C The bold graph shows the television audiences throughout the day.[ 总] It shows that the percentage of audiences is zero percent in early morning but it gradually rises up to ten percent at 8: 00 am and maintains the same for the next two hours. There is a slight fall in percentage in next two hours however after that it rises sharp up to twenty percent within the next two hours. After this the graph rises fast and attains its peak at 10 pm which is about forty-five percent. Then the graph gradually falls down and at 2:00 am it is at five percent. [a good variety of cohesive devices] The thinner graph shows the percentage of radio audiences. Unlike the television one the peak percentage of the radio audiences is at 8:00 am which is about 30 percent. Then it gradually falls and it corresponds with the television one at two pm. After that it gradually falls but with a small increase in percentage at 4:30 to 6:00 pm. The percentage of audience then gradually goes down and at 2:00 am it is the lowest which is near 2 percentage. These graphs prove the progressive popularity of television. [总] (192 words) Examiner comment Band 7 The answer deals well with both the individual media trends and the overall comparison of these trends. The opening could be more fully developed with the inclusion of information relating to the groups studied and the period of time during which the study took place. There is a good variety of cohesive devices and the message can be followed quite easily although the expression is sometimes a little clumsy. Structures are complex and vocabulary is varied but there are errors in word forms, tense and voice though these do not impede communication.

VII. 雅思写作(学术类)题型解析 写作考试形式 IELTS 考试写作(学术类)部分总共用时 60 分钟, 包含两篇作文的写作要求, 考生需完成这两篇 作文。 作答方式 考生需将答案填写在答卷中。 考试时间 我们建议考生用花 20 分钟写作文一、40 分钟写作文二。考生需在 1 小时内完成两篇作文。作 文二比作文一的分数所占的比例要高,因此考生应给留有充足的时间完成作文二。 评分 考生的作文将由具有评卷资格的考官进行评分,这些考官都经过了严格的培训和标准化考核。
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考生的作文将分派给随机安排的考官进行评卷。每篇作文都是由考官独自评分的,并获得一个 分数。分数经过计算,最后得出一个写作的总分。学术类写作成绩有整分和半分之分。 作文一 在作文一中,题目中会给出一些视觉性的信息,如一个或多个互相关联的图表、图解或表格, 考生需对这些信息或数据进行描述,文章字数不能少于 150 字,建议考生用 20 分钟完成。 作文一的评分标准如下: 1) 是否完成了写作要求 2) 连贯性和结构层次 3) 词汇来源 4) 语法的多样性和准确性 作文一题目类型: 对考生的要求 在作文一中,题目中会给出一个或多个互相关联的图表、图解或表格,考生需对其中的事实或 数据进行描述。 题目也可以是一个机械图、 装置图、 或流程图, 考生需对其运作方法进行解释。 考生应该包含图中最重要以及最为相关的信息,一些次要的信息则可忽略。 考试时间有多长? 考生在这一部分最好不要使用超过 20 分钟的时间。 这一部分考察的是什么技能? 这一部分考察的是考生在图表或表格中选择最重要和最相关的信息、 并对这些信息进行清晰描 述的能力, 考官将对考生组织这些信息的能力以及语言使用的准确性进行评分。作文一的内容 是学术性的,因此考生应该运用学术写作的文体。考生应保证字数至少达到 150 字,否则将会 被扣分。字数多于 150 字不会被扣分,但考生应注意如果在作文一花费太长时间,则作文二的 用时将会减少, 而如果作文二达不到最低的字数要求也是要被扣分的。考生应注意作文二比作 文一所占的分数比例要大,因此考生应保证有充足的时间完成作文二。 作文一是如何进行评分的? 考官将从以下方面对作文进行评分: ? 是否完成了写作要求:考生能否有效地找到信息中关键的内容并对之进行描述和写作; ? 连贯性和结构层次:考生能否将信息和要点进行组织,信息和要点之间的联系是否清晰; ? 词汇来源:考生使用的词汇是否广泛、准确、且适合这一部分写作的要求; ? 语法的多样性和准确性: 考生使用的语法结构是否多样、 准确、 且适合这一部分写作的要求。 有什么需注意的方面? ? 考生需将作文写在答卷上; ? 字数如果达不到最低要求将被扣分; ? 文章内容如果偏题或者跑题将被扣分; ? 任何抄袭(如抄袭其他来源的内容)的作文将被重扣; ? 文章如果不完整、内容相互没有关联将被扣分(如在任何部分使用点句或笔记形式)。 作文二 在作文二中,题目中会给出一个看法、问题或议题,考生需就此进行论述。根据不同的情况, 考生可能需要针对问题提出解决方法、论述和证明一个看法、对比和对照论据或看法、或者评 价和反驳一个论点或观点。文章字数不能少于 250 字,建议考生用 40 分钟完成。 作文二的评分标准如下: 1) 对写作任务的反应
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2) 连贯性和结构层次 3) 词汇来源 4) 语法的多样性和准确性 作文二题目类型: 对考生的要求 在作文二中,题目中会给出一个议题,考生需按照题目的要求对相关的议题进行讨论。这篇作 文的内容是学术性的, 因此考生应该运用正规的学术写作的文体。考生应注意完整地阅读并回 答题目中涉及的问题。 假如题目所涉及的是电脑,考生应注意准确地理解在文中需要讨论的是 电脑哪方面的内容,而不是泛泛地对电脑进行一般性的讨论。这篇作文的字数应不少于 250 字。 作文二是必须完成的吗? 是的。作文二比作文一所占的分数比例要大,如果考生没有完成这部分内容成绩将大打折扣。 考试时间有多长? 考生在这一部分最好不要使用超过 40 分钟的时间。 考生应采用什么样的写作文体? 半正式的文体。即使在读者对象不明确的情况下,这部分内容通常仍需要使用议论性的文体。 这一部分考察的是什么技能? 这一部分考察的是考生对一个论点进行论述、并提供清晰的论据或举例支持论点的能力。考官 将对考生组织这些信息的能力以及语言使用的准确性进行评分。 考生应在写作中注意对所有的 观点加以充分论述,并且所有的观点都与论点有关。考生应保证字数至少达到 250 字,否则将 会被扣分。字数多于 250 字不会被扣分,但字数过长,则考生将没有充足的时间进行检查和校 对、某些观点会跑题、或由于着急出现字迹过于潦草的情况。考生应严密地安排选择论点、选 择最为相关的论点,并在规定的时间内清晰、准确地写作成文。最后,考生还应注意不要直接 从答卷中抄下题目,这样的内容将不获评分。考生须使用自己的语言进行写作。 作文二是如何进行评分的? 考官将从以下方面对作文进行评分: ? 对写作任务的反应:考生能否完整地、以恰当的方式完成题目中提出的写作任务;考生的论 点是否切中题目的要求、论证过程是否完整、论点是否得到了论据的支持;考生的观点是否清 晰和有效; ? 连贯性和结构层次:考生能否将信息和要点进行组织(如运用分段的能力)、信息和要点之间 的联系是否清晰; ? 词汇来源:考生使用的词汇是否广泛、准确、且适合这一部分写作的要求; ? 语法的多样性和准确性: 考生使用的语法结构是否多样、 准确、 且适合这一部分写作的要求。 有什么需注意的方面? ? 考生需将作文写在答卷上; ? 字数如果达不到最低要求将被扣分; ? 文章内容如果偏题或者跑题将被扣分; ? 任何抄袭(如抄袭其他来源的内容)的作文将被重扣; ? 文章如果不完整、内容相互没有关联将被扣分(如在任何部分使用点句或笔记形式)。

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Chapter 2 Expressions in Academic Writing Task One
I. Identifying and writing key ideas for key periods:
When writing your essay for IELTS Writing task 1, you would probably want to discuss the trend during or in a specific period of time. This kind of exercise normally takes place in most IELTS Writing. For doing this, you can use but not limited to only these expressions:

描写时间段 from…to… between…and… during/In the period of … over a span of 10 years the 2:00-2:30 p.m. time slot
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II. Selecting suitable vocabulary for percentages
When writing your essays, you should try your best to avoid repetition. The more vocabulary and phrases you can use, the higher your score will be. One of the many mistakes in terms of repeating words or phrases is using percentage figures again and again. For example, a student wrote his essay ―24% of the spending is for food. For clothing, people spend 6%. 12% of their income is spent on housing. Next, around 18% is spent on transport‖. Such writing is normally only band 5 because it shows the student‘s weakness in expressing his ideas. Now let‘s take a look at what we can use instead. Example 1:

After 4 months of planting, the sugar content of the fruit nearly reached 90% of the total content. After 4 months of planting, the sugar content of the fruit peaked at 85%. =>Adding adverbs and verbs to emphasize the trends can improve your writing score. Example 2:

In 1986, the sale went down below 20% of the revenue.

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Example 3: In this section, you will see examples on how to describe reports in the form of surveys.

- Reading book is cited by around 22% of the population surveyed as one of the most favourite activities in spare time. - Some people, 22%, also cite reading book is one of their most favourite activities. - Just a few number of people, around 22%, say reading book is one their most favourite activities. - 22% of the people cite reading book is one their most favouriteactivities. - The last group, 53%, said surfing the Internet is ...

III. To describe a trend, you can use:
- from 1985 to 1990, there was a steady increase - the figure was slightly reduced - it declined - the figure was slightly decreased The above phrases are commonly used in academic writing task 1. To summarise what you can write, we created the following graph:

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表示达到 is, reach, stand at, arrive at, hit, come to 表示达到最高值 peak at, reach the highest point at 表示达到最低值 bottom out at, reach the lowest point at 表示上升 v. — rise, increase, grow, go up, climb, pick up, jump, boom n. — a rise, an increase, growth, an upward trend, a boom (a dramatic rise) 表示下降 v. — fall, decrease, decline, dip, drop, go down, reduce, sink, slide, plunge, slump n. — a fall, a decrease, a decline, a drop, a reduction, a dive, a slump (a dramatic fall) 表示平稳 level out, remain stable, remain steady, stay constant, maintain the same level, plateau (at) 表示波动 vary, fluctuate (around), 速度快 rapidly, sharply 速度慢 gradually, gently, steadily 幅度大 significantly, substantially 幅度小 slightly, moderately 描写趋势句式 表达相反趋势 In contrast, …saw an opposite trend.

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IV. To describe constitution, you can use:
1. 描述整体构成的句式 -Y is made up of/composed of/constituted of/comprised of/divided into/subdivided into A, B and C. - Y is roughly classed under two heads 大致分成 2 类 - Y is streamed 按能力分班(或分组) into five groups 分成 5 组 - Y is graded according to size and quality 根据大小与质量分类 - Y mainly consists of/contains/includes A, B and C. -There are 4 parts composing/constituting/comprising/making up Y, namely, A, B and C. 2. 描述各部分占有率的句式 -X accounts for/takes up/makes up/occupies/constitutes (approximately/about/around) 65 percent of the total/whole. -X accounts for/takes up/makes up/occupies/constitutes/has (almost/nearly) the largest/highest/most/least proportion of the total/whole. -The majority of Y is made up of X. 3. 描述排序的句式 -A, followed by B and then C. Fish and chip remains the most popular fast food, followed by hamburgers and then pizza. -A. Next come B and then C. The main/primary/biggest/dominant proportion of electricity is produced by coal and the remainder comes from the nuclear. 4. 描述对比和类比的句式 By comparison with 1998, it decreased/increased by/to.... The figure has nearly doubled, compared with that of last year during the same period. It has increased/ decreased almost twice/six times, compared with/to .... The only exception was the year of X, when there was a slight decline/increase as compared with the previous year(s). Similarly,/Likewise,… Unlike…, …. In comparison, …. In/By contrast, …. 5. 描述预测(会有)多少: A is likely/predicted/estimated/expected/forecasted to reach…. 6. Exercise Number of people from different countries traveling abroad in 1985 and 1995

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Chapter 3 Academic Writing Task One — Single Diagrams
I. Opening paragraph
The opening paragraph should define the visual information by introducing the key information and overall trend, where specific details are not needed. Notice that the standard opening paragraph does not directly copy the words in the directions. Instead, writers should PARAPHRASE the words in the answer sheet.
PARAPHRASE: 删除-增加/具体化(时间、类别)-替换词语-改变句式

Sample: The table below shows the proportion of different categories of families living in poverty in Australia in 1999. Family types Single aged person Aged couple Single, no children Couple, no children Proportion of people from each household type living in poverty 6% 4% 19% 7%

The chart illustrates the percentage of various poor families in Australia in 1999. The form indicates the percentage of many/4 types of Australian poor households in 1999. The table gives a breakdown 开支细目;分类 of the different types of families who were living in poverty in Australia in 1999. Word bank: 统计表 table-form 曲线图 line graph-line chart-curve- diagram 条/柱形图 (bar)graph-( bar) chart-column chart-figure 饼形图 pie chart-pie graph 流程图 flow chart-flow scheme- sequence diagram 表明 show-describe-suggest-reveal-indicate-illustrate-demonstrate-depict record-give 百分比 percentage-proportion 数据 number-figure-statistics 种类 category-type-kind-breakdown Eg., a breakdown of the expenses 开支明细 a breakdown of those income tax 一份所得税收的细目表

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Exercises: Directions: 1. The pie chart below shows the average way in which foreign students learning English in London spend their money over the course of a week. 2. The graph below shows the different modes of transport used to travel to and from work in one European city, in 1950, 1970 and 1990. 3. The diagram below shows the method of obtaining water outdoors. 4. The graph below shows the consumption of fish and some different kinds of meat in a European country between 1979 and 2004. 5. The graph below shows the proportion of the population aged 65 and over between 1940 and 2040 in three different countries. 6. The graph below shows radio and television audiences throughout the day in 1992. Paraphrase: 1. The pie chart reveals typical spending patterns for foreign students taking English language courses in schools in London. 2. The line chart indicates many significant changes in means of transport used by city dwellers. 3. The diagram illustrates how water is collected in container. 4. The graph records changes in the amounts of beef, lamb, chicken and fish consumed in a particular European country between …. 5. The graph shows the increase in the aging population in Japan, Sweden and the USA. It indicates that the percentage of elderly people in all three countries is expected to increase to almost 25% of the respective populations by the year 2040. 6. The graph shows the percentage of radio and television audiences over 4 years old in the UK (the UK population over 4 years old who tuned into radio and television) throughout the day from October to December in 1992.

II. Body paragraphs
1. Line graph, table, bar chart 有序变量+二分类变量(以曲线图为主) 方法一:根据有序变量分段 段内对比分析二分类变量 方法二:根据二分类变量分段 段内按有序变量分阶段 对比突出趋势或特点

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Sample 1

Body 1 The data indicates that radio listeners increased (grow, rise, go up) substantially before 8:00 am, when the percentage reached (amounted to) to a peak of 27%. The percentage then declined steadily to 11% at 4:00 pm, which was followed by a slight increase to 15% at 5:00 pm. However, from then on, there was again a gradual decrease to 2% until 4:00 am, when the percentage bottomed out 降至 最低点/跌至谷底. The period from 4:00 am to 6:00 am saw another slight rise to 4% in radio listeners. As for (similarly) TV viewers, the percentage went up from 6:00 am to 8:30 am, when there was a leveling off at 8% until 10:00 am (for the next one hour and a half)After a slight decrease, the percentage rose sharply to 15% between 12 pm and 2 pm, before it dropped slightly. The peak (45%) was reached at 8:00 pm after a massive rise from 14% since 3:00 pm. However, the period between 8:00 pm and 3:00 am saw a slump 暴跌 in television viewers. The percentage reached the bottom of 3% at 3:00 am, when there was a slight rise afterwards. Conclusion The general trend was that the percentage of both radio and television audiences rose first and then decrease, while the total number of the latter was bigger than the former. In addition, the prime time for radio and television was 8 am and 8 pm, respectively. (236 words) Body 2 The bold graph shows the television audiences throughout the day. It shows that the percentage of audiences is zero percent in early morning but it gradually rises up to ten percent at 8: 00 am and maintains the same for the next two hours. There is a slight fall in percentage in next two hours however after that it rises sharp up to twenty percent within the next two hours. After this the graph rises fast and attains its peak at 10 pm which is about forty-five percent. Then the graph gradually falls down and at 2:00 am it is at five percent. [a good variety of cohesive devices] The thinner graph shows the percentage of radio audiences. Unlike the television one the peak percentage of the radio audiences is at 8:00 am which is about 30 percent. Then it gradually falls and
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it corresponds with the television one at two pm. After that it gradually falls but with a small increase in percentage at 4:30 to 6:00 pm. The percentage of audience then gradually goes down and at 2:00 am it is the lowest which is near 2 percentage. Conclusion These graphs prove the progressive popularity of television. (192 words) 2. Line graph, table, bar chart 有序变量+多分类变量(以曲线图为主) 方法一:根据有序变量分段 段内根据多分类变量分组,然后对比分析最值或趋势 (2-7 个多分类变量可以分为 2-3 组) Sample 1

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Body In 1940 the proportion of people aged 65 or more stood at only 5% in Japan, approximately 7% in Sweden and 9% in the US. However, while the figures for the western countries grew to about 15% in around 1990, the figure for Japan dipped to only 2.5% for much of this period, before rising to almost 5% again at the present time. In spite of some fluctuation in the percentages, the proportion of older people will probably continue to increase in the next two decades in three countries. A more dramatic rise is predicted between 2030 and 2040 in Japan, by which time it is thought that the proportion of elderly people will be similar in the three countries. Sample 2

Body In 1979 beef was by far the most popular of these foods, with about 225 grams consumed per person per week. Lamb and chicken were eaten in similar quantities, while much less fish was consumed. However, during the 25-year period the consumption of beef and lamb fell dramatically to approximately 100 rams and 55grams respectively. The consumption of fish also declined, but much less significantly to just below 50 grams, so although it remained the least popular food, consumption levels were the most stable. The consumption of chicken, on the other hand, showed an upward trend, overtaking that of lamb in 1980 and that of beef in 1989. By 2004 it had soared to almost 250 grams per person per week.

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Sample 3 The three pie charts below show the changes in annual spending by a particular UK school in 1981, 1991 and 2001. Summarize the information by selecting and reporting the main features, and make comparisons where relevant.

Categories of spending Teachers’ salaries Furniture and equipment Resources e.g. books Other workers’ salaries Insurance

1981 40 15 15 28 2

1991 50 5 20 22 3

2001 45 23 9 15 8

Writing sample: Opening paragraph The three pie graphs indicate the changes in expenditure of a UK school in three separate years-1981, 1991 and 2001.

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Body paragraphs 比例 最高 As we can see from the three charts that staff salaries constituted the largest percentage of total expending. While other workers‘ salaries saw a fall from 28% in 1981 to only 15% of spending in 2001, teachers‘ pay remained the biggest cost, reaching 50% of total spending in 1991 and ending at 45% in 2001. 趋势 升降 降升 Expenditure on resources 先升后降 such as books had increased to 20% by 1991 before decreasing to only 9% by the end of the period. In contrast, the cost of furniture and equipment saw an opposite trend 先降后升. This cost decreased to only 5% of total expenditure in 1991 but rose dramatically in 2001 when it represented 23% of the school budget. Similarly, the cost of insurance saw a rising trend, growing from only 2% to 8% by 2001. 趋势 浮动 [Meanwhile, the expenditure of resources such as books went up from 15% in 1981 to 20% in 1991, but significantly decreased to only 9% in 2001. The furniture and equipment spending also went through a modest fluctuation. It decreased to only 5% in 1991 but rose dramatically to 23% of the total school spending in 2001.] 比例 最低 趋势 上升 There was a steady increase in insurance expenditure which grew from 2% in 1981 to 8% in 2001. Concluding paragraph All in all, teachers‘ salaries dominate the largest spending to the school. The spending of furniture and equipment and insurance increased dramatically, while there is a rapid drop in other workers‘ salaries and resources such as books. 3. Bar chart, table, line graph 多分类变量+二分类变量

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Body According to the chart, during the period from 1990 to 1995 the average prices of houses…. As far as the next period (1996-2002) was concerned, on the other hand, it is clear that housing prices were …. Conclusion All in all, when we compare the housing prices among five cities over the two periods….
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4. Bar chart, table, line graph 多分类变量+多分类变量

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Body The chart shows that Britain, among the four European countries listed, has spent most heavily on consumer goods included…. In contrast, Germany is generally the lowest spender. …. Meanwhile, France and Italy generally maintain middle positions, ….

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Chapter 4 Academic Writing Task One — Mixed diagrams
I. Opening paragraph
Paraphrase: say what each diagram shows 方法 1:The first table/chart/graph indicates …, while/and the second table/chart/graph presents (the general pattern/trend in/of)…. 方法 2:The table/chart/graph and the table/chart/graph respectively show/reveal/indicate…. 方法 3: The table/chart/graph demonstrates how/why 从句… while/and the information given by the table/chart/graph is about …. 方法 4:The table/chart/graph illustrates …., while/and … is shown/reflected 被动语态 in the table/chart/graph. 方法 5: There is a research/survey is about …and …, which is reflected in the two diagrams. 定语从 句 Sample 1 The charts below show the number of Japanese tourists traveling abroad between 1985 and 1995 and Australia’s share of the Japanese tourist market.

方法 1: The first chart indicates the number of Japanese tourists traveling abroad and the second graphs reveals the number/percentage of Japanese tourists to Australia from 1985 to 1995. 方法 2:The chart and the graph respectively show the number of Japanese tourists traveling abroad and the number/percentage of Japanese tourists to Australia from 1985 to 1995.这两个图分 别显示了从 1985 到 1995 年十年间日本出国旅游的游客数量以及到澳大利亚的游客数量。 方法 3: The bar chart demonstrates how many Japanese made the overseas journey from 1985 to 1995, while the information given by the second line graph is about the percentage of Japanese traveling to Australia during the same period. 方法 4: The bar chart demonstrates how many Japanese made the overseas journey from 1985 to 1995, while the percentage of Japanese traveling to Australia during the same period is shown in the second line graph.

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Sample 2 The chart below shows the amount of money per week spent on fast foods in Britain. The graph shows the trends in consumption of fast foods. Write a report for a university lecturer describing the information shown below.

方法 1:The bar chart shows the amount of money expended on fast food according to three different income groups and the line graph indicates the general pattern of fast food consumption between 1970 and 1990. 方法 5: There is a research about the consumption of fast foods and the expenditure per week in Britain which is reflected in the two diagrams above. Sample 3 The charts below show the results of a survey of adult education. The first chart shows the reasons why adults decide to study. The pie chart shows how people think the costs of adult education should be shared. 方法 1:The bar chart describes the reasons why adults decide to study while the pie chart outlines people‘s opinion about the cost shares of adult education.

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II. Body paragraphs
一个图表一段: Describe the two diagrams separately in detail Sample 1 The charts below show the number of Japanese tourists traveling abroad between 1985 and 1995 and Australia’s share of the Japanese tourist market.

As is indicated in the chart and graph, there was a steady increase both in the number of Japanese tourists traveling abroad and in Australia‘s share of Japan's tourist market. 如图所示, 日本 出国旅游和前往澳大利亚的游客数量都成稳步上升的趋势。 To begin with, from 1985 to 1995, the number of Japanese tourists traveling abroad was tripled, growing from just about 5 million to more than 15 million. The only exception was the year of 1991, when there was a slight decline as compared with the previous year. By contrast, all the other years witnessed a gradual increase. 首先,从 1985 到 1995 年十年里,日本出国旅游的人数增长了 3 倍,从最初的五百万增长到最高的一千五百万。唯一例外的是 1991 这一年,与前一年相比略 微有所降低。但是,其它年份都呈现出逐步增长态势。 Second, the graph displays that during the first three years, the percentage of Japanese tourists to Australia rocketed from 2% to 4.8%. This is an increase b y 2.8%. Nonetheless, in the following year, we see a slight drop. Surprisingly, between 1989 and 1993, there appeared a significant rise from 4.2% to 6.2%, which was the peak in the designated decade, and it ended up at 6% in 1994. 另 外,按第二个图所示,在前三年,到澳大利亚旅游的日本游客比例从 2%快速上升至 4.8%,增 长了 2.8%。然而,在接下去的一年,我们看到了略微的下降。然而从 1989 年到 1993 年,我 们又看到了令人瞩目的快速增长,从 4.2%大幅增长到 6.2%,这也是这十年间出现的最高点, 最终在 1994 年以 6%收尾。 To sum up, the number of Japanese tourists traveling abroad and those Japanese people who chose to go to Australia as destination both showed an overall trend of rise over a span of 10 years. 综上所述, 日本出国旅游的人数以及选择澳大利亚作为目的地的人数在十年间显示出全面上升 的趋势。[8 分范文]

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Sample 2 Bar + Line The chart below shows the amount of money per week spent on fast foods in Britain. The graph shows the trends in consumption of fast foods. Write a report for a university lecturer describing the information shown below. Sample writing:

The chart shows the expenditure based on different income groups. For the high income group, people spend mostly on hamburger with around 43 pence per week per person. They spend much less in Fish and chips, or pizza with approximately 15 pence per week. Next, for the average income group, hamburger is also the most favorite food for which people spend more than 30 pence per week, followed by fish and chips at 24 pence, then pizza at 11 pence. According to the study, low income earners spend less than people from the other two groups do. Surprisingly, fish and chips are favored most with the expenditure of slightly more than 15 pence per week compared to fast foods. They spend a bit less for hamburger than for fish and chips at around 14 pence per week. Finally, they spend roughly 7 pence per week for pizza. The trends in consumption of fast foods are reflected in the second graph. As can be seen, there is a fast growing trend in the consumption of hamburger, and fish and chips. Pizza was consumed most in 1970 but the consumption declined from 1970 to 1985, followed by a small increase in 1990. Fish and chips were always consumed more than hamburger was. During the period from 1970 to 1990, the discrepancy in the consumption between fish and chips, and hamburger kept growing faster.

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Sample 3 Bar + Pie The charts below show the results of a survey of adult education. The first chart shows the reasons why adults decide to study. The pie chart shows how people think the costs of adult education should be shared. Write a report for a university lecturer, describing the information shown below.

Writing sample The bar chart shows the various reasons for adults to study. The two largest reasons for adult education are having interest in the subject and gaining qualifications. Each of the two reasons is cited by around 40% of the population surveyed. Next, some people, 22%, also cite that their study is helpful for their jobs. Almost the same percentage of the population believe in the possibility of promotion and enjoy learning processes. Just a few number of people, around 12%, study because they want to change their jobs or to meet people. The second chart shows the opinions as to how the cost of each course should be divided. 40% of the people cite it should be paid by individuals. A slightly smaller percentage, 35%, of the population says the cost should be supported by employers. The last group, 25%, believes it should be shared among taxpayers.

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Sample 4

Pie + Table

III. Concluding paragraph
Write a concluding sentence by comparing the two diagrams and pointing out the relation between the two diagrams. 常用词汇/句式 to sum up, in conclusion, in summary From the two charts, it is clear that …. When we have a closer look at the two graphs. We can draw the conclusion that …. Sample 1 To sum up, the number of Japanese tourists traveling abroad and those Japanese people who chose to go to Australia as destination both showed an overall trend of rise over a span of 10 years. 综上所述, 日本出国旅游的人数以及选择澳大利亚作为目的地的人数在十年间显示出全面上升 的趋势。[8 分范文]

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Chapter 5 Academic Writing Task One — Process Diagrams
Chronological order Spatial order Sample 1 Water cycle The diagram below shows the water cycle, which is the continuous movement of water on, above and below the surface of the Earth.

The picture illustrates the way in which water passes from ocean to air to land during the natural process known as the water cycle. Three main stages are shown on the diagram. Ocean water evaporates, falls as rain, and eventually runs back into the oceans again. Beginning at the evaporation stage, we can see that 80% of water vapor in the air comes from the oceans. Heat from the sun causes water to evaporate, and water vapor condenses to form clouds. At the second stage, labeled ?precipitation‘ on the diagram, water falls as rain or snow. At the third stage in the cycle, rainwater may take various paths. Some of it may fall into lakes or return to the oceans via ?surface runoff‘ 地表径流. Otherwise, rainwater may filter through the ground, reaching the impervious layer 不透水层 of the earth. Salt water intrusion 海水浸入 is shown to take place just before groundwater passes into the oceans to complete the cycle.

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Sample 2 You should spend about 20 minutes on this task. The diagram below shows how a central heating system in a house works. Summarize the information by selecting and reporting the main features, and make comparisons where relevant. You should write at least 150 words.

This diagram provides an overview of a domestic central heating system. It shows how the tank, boiler and pipes ensure a constant flow of hot water to both the radiators and the taps. The cold water enters the house and is stored in a water storage tank in the roof. From there it flows down to the boiler, located on the ground floor of the house. The boiler, which is fuelled by gas or oil, heats up the water as it passes through it. The hot water is then pumped round the house through a system of pipes and flows into the radiators, located in different rooms. The water circulates through the radiators, which have small tubes inside them to help distribute the heat, and this warms each of the rooms. Some of the water is directed to the taps to provide hot water for the house. Once the water has been through the pipes and radiators, it is returned to the boiler to be re-heated and circulated round the house again.

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Chapter 6 Academic Writing Task One — Maps
I. Task Analysis
地图类型 地理变迁 图 解题思路 时态 过 去 一 段 时 间 的 一般过去时 变化 Examples The year 1860 saw a doubling of the number of homes, but the size of farmland and woods was halved. The number of homes in Town A is likely to 将 来 一 段 时 间 的 一般将来时、 变化 表 示 预 测 的 表 达 double. 方式 The car park has been removed and replaced 从 过 去 到 现 在 的 现在完成时 by …. 变化 A new hospital was established in Town A in 常用被动语态 2000. Chronological order + Spatial order, 先 拆后建 一般现在时为主 常用被动语态 位置 1+优缺点 位置 2+优缺点

语态 顺序 选址图 时态 语态 顺序

II. Sample Analysis
Sample 1 选址图 静态图 The map below shows three proposed sites for a new hypermarket (A, B and C) in the city of Pellington. Summarize the information by selecting and reporting the main features and making comparisons where relevant. Write at least 150 words.

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There are three proposed sites in Pellington shown in the map where a new hypermarket is going to be built. As can be seen, the population in Pellington is 120,000 which is quite a large city. Hence, there is a need to carefully select which area is the most suitable. Firstly, site A seems to have the largest residential area in the region with a traffic-free zone and a medium sized park situated in the middle. Moreover, the industrial area in site A is also the largest compared to the same areas in site B and C. Next, considering site B which is on the east side of site A, around 80% of site B is countryside and the rest is for industries. There is a long and straight motorway dividing site A and B from the north to the south. Finally, let us consider site C. Site C has the second largest residential area in Pellington and there is an airport on the west side. Site A and C are separated by a long railway which is close to the traffic-free zone of site A. Sample 2 地理迁移 动态图 Chorleywood is a village near London whose population has increased steadily since the middle of the 19th century. The map below shows the development of the village. Write a report for a university lecturer describing the development of the village.

Model 1 The figure shows how the village Chorleywood was developed between 1868 and 1994. As illustrated, there are four main periods. The first period lasted for 15 years and began in 1868. During that time, there was just a very small group of people living along the main road near Chorleywood Park. In the second period starting from 1883 to 1922, more people started spreading around Chorleywood station with twice the size of the population in the first period. The population was even bigger in the third period which happened after that and continued until 1970. Instead of living around the station, they went to live along the railway opposite to the side of Chorleywood Park. Finally, between 1970 and 1994, the population had reached 10 times larger than it was in the first period. During this 24-year period, there were a huge number of buildings located along the two
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sides of motorway. Critique +TASK ACHIEVEMENT You were able to achieve the task by showing what the development of the village was in each period. You gave a good introduction which didn‘t repeat the topic/requirement of the essay. +LEXICAL RESOURCE Vocabulary is varied: "between ... and ... ", "from ... to ...", "during this 24-year period" +COHERENCE AND COHESION The organization is clear and logical. You used a variety of transition words such as "as illustrated", "first period", "second period", "finally" +GRAMMATICAL RANGE AND ACCURACY There were no grammar errors noted. Model 2 This map illustrates in four stages the development of Chorleywood, a small London village, from 1868 to 1994. According to the map, the first period was from 1868 to 1883. At this time, Chorleywood only had one small area and two crossing main roads. The next period was from 1883 to 1922. During this time, there emerged another habitation to the south of the original small area, which was almost twice bigger than the former one. In 1909, a railway, parallel with the eastbound main road, came into being. It went through the new habitation and formed an intersection with another main road as well. Next, from 1922 to 1970, along the western part of the newly- built railway, two large areas took shape. Finally, 1970 saw another great change in Chorleywood. A southbound motorway was built linking the railway and the eastbound main road. Since then, another five living areas were founded, scattering along the motorway. Therefore, the map shows that thanks to the construction of the railway and the motorway, the land of Chorleywood expanded significantly from 1868 to 1994. Model 3: Band 8 The map shows the growth of a village called Chorleywood between 1868 and 1994. It is clear that the village grew as the transport infrastructure was improved. Four periods of development are shown on the map, and each of the populated areas is near to the main roads, the railway or the motorway. From 1868 to 1883, Chorleywood covered a small area next to one of the main roads. Chorleywood Park and Golf Course is now located next to this original village area. The village grew along the main road to the south between 1883 and 1922, and in 1909 a railway line was built crossing this area from west to east. Chorleywood station is in this part of the village. The expansion of Chorleywood continued to the east and west alongside the railway line until 1970. At that time, a motorway was built to the east of the village, and from 1970 to 1994, further development of the village took place around motorway intersections with the railway and one of the main roads.

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III. 词汇拓展
1. 地理变迁图常用词汇 东南西北类 A 在 B 的东方/西方/南方/北方 A is/ lies/ is located/ is situated in/on/to the east/west/south/north of B. A 在 B 内部的某个部位 A is in the eastern/southern/ western/ northern part of B. A 在 B 西北部的 120 千米处 A lies 120 km to the northwest of B. A 在 B 的东南角 A is at/in the southeastern corner of B ( at 表示 A 在 B 外部, in 表 A 在 B 内部) A 在 B 东部的边界上(A 在 B 外部) A is on the eastern border of B A 在 B 东部边缘上 (A 在 B 内部) A is on/along the eastern edge of B 河流道路类 在河流或道路的南边/北边等 On the south/southern side of the river On both sides of the road On the other side 临近马路的地区 The area adjacent to/near/next to/just off the road 在道路或河流的最南端 At the southern end of the river 在河流的上/下游 at the lower/ upper reaches of the river; 在河岸 alongside the riverbank 道路连接点 link A to B 或者 connect A with B 其它方位 A 在 B 的中间 A is in the center of B A 在 B 的对面 A is on the opposite side of B A is opposite B 变化-图形原有事物的改变 原有事物可说成 The original/previous/former garden 原有事物尺寸上变大/变小 The size of the library has been enlarged/extended/halved/reduced by half 原有事物在数量上增多或减少 The number of homes has increased/risen/grown/reduced /decreased/dropped/fallen/ doubled/tripled/quadrupled to 500. 原有事物没了 The farms completely disappeared/were removed. 原有事物被改为 A becomes B A is transformed/reconstructed/redeveloped/converted/changed/turned over to/ into B A is replaced /substituted by B = A gives way to B
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变化-图形新添事物 A newly-built road A new car park was built/established/set up/constructed/completed and opened in the middle of B A new IT centre has been added to the library The year 2000 saw two additions to the land: a pond in the northern part and a vegetable garden on the opposite side. 拆建 拆、消失-- demolish, pull down, knock down, remove, disappear, be replaced by newly-built, newly-established 建、出现-- build, construct(一般建筑物), erect(高大的建筑物) establish/set up(无建筑的物体或抽象的机构) pave(道路的修建) Eg., In the same year, a bridge was constructed over the river and a road was paved linking the river to the residences. 2. 选址图常用词汇 方位词 同上 优缺点 advantages and disadvantages merits and demerits/faults/drawbacks pros and cons virtues and defects strong and weak points Eg., advantages outweigh the disadvantages 比较级 其它 土地单位的表达 a piece of land a plot of land(一小块) a stretch of(一长片) a large expanse of(一大片)

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