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人教版高中英语选修7Unit2知识点详解


Part 1. Warming up Do you think it is possible for a robot to have its own needs and desires? 你认为机器人有可能有 自己的需求和愿望吗? desire sth.渴望得到某物 desire to do sth.希望/渴望做某事 desire that sb.(should) do 要求……

have a desire for sth./to do sth.渴望得到某物/希望做某事 at one’s desire 照某人的希望 [典例] 1) We all desire happiness and health.我们都希望幸福健康。 2) Everyone has a desire for success, but no everyone desire to get rich.每个人都渴望成功, 但并 非人人都渴望金钱。 3) He desires you to go to see him at once.他要求你马上去见他。 =he desires that you should go to see him at once. [练习] 汉译英 1) 他想受到大学教育。 ____________________________________________________________________________ 2) 他们要我快点回来。 ___________________________________________________________________________ 3) 我请他立即回信。 _____________________________________________________________________________ 4) 她要你立即见她。 _______________________________________________________________________ 5) 她应邀演奏了一曲。 Keys: 1)He desired a college education. 2) They desire me to return soon. 3) I desire an immediate answer of his. 4) She desires that you (should) see her at once. 5)She played a piece at others’ desire/by desire. 【链接训练】 ①The old man ________ his sons and daughters ________ and see him from time to time. A.suggested;to come B.hoped;to come C.desired;coming D.desired;to come 【解析】 desire sb.to do sth.意为“希望某人做某事”。句意为:这个老人希望他的儿子和 女儿时不时地来看看他。suggest 和 hope 后不能跟 sb. to do sth.,故 A、B 项错误。 【答案】 D ②He insisted that he ________ nothing wrong and strongly desired he ________ free. A.did;set B.had done;should be set C.should do;be set D.had done;must be set 【解析】 当 insist 意为“坚持说”时,其后的宾语从句不用虚拟语气。第二空 desire 后跟 从句要用虚拟语气即谓语动词用(should) do 形式。 【答案】 B Part 2. Pre-reading, reading and comprehending 1. satisfaction n.满意 [重点用法] satisfactory n. 满意的,

satisfy v. 满足, 使满意, demand satisfaction 要求赔偿; feel satisfaction at ... 对感到满意 find satisfaction in 对...感到满意 to sb.'s satisfaction (to the satisfaction of sb.)达到使某人满意的程度 with satisfaction 满意地 [典例] 1) At last, the whole class found satisfaction in their work.最终,全班都对他们的工作感到满意。 2) What he promised could not satisfy his family.他的许诺并未能使他的家人满意。 [练习] 汉译英 1) 买到想要的东西,她满意地离开了超市。 __________________________________________________________________________ 2) 他的试验结果似乎令人满意。 ___________________________________________________________________________ 3) 这些条件中你至少要符合一项,否则就不能成为本俱乐部的会员。 ____________________________________________________________________________ Keys: 1) Having bought what she wanted, she left the supermarket with satisfaction. 2) The result of his test seemed to be satisfactory. 3)If you don’t satisfy at least one of the conditions, you can’t become a member of our club.

2.It was going to be tested out by Larry’s wife, Claire.
test out 考验;试验 [典例] 1) This model had been tested out before it was put into production.这个型号经过试验后才进行 大批量生产。 2) Before the lecture, the professor is used to testing out the whole experiment.上课前,这个教授 习惯先将整个实验试验一番。 [短语归纳] test on sb./sth.在……(身上)做实验/试验 have/take a test in 参加……考试 [练习] 汉译英 1) 成千上万的人们将参加这周日的公务员考试。 ____________________________________________________________________________ 2) 那个咨询顾问习惯先将新的政策在他自己的公司里进行实验。 ____________________________________________________________________________ Keys: 1) Tens of thousands of people will take an entrance test for government officers this Sunday. 2) The consultant would test the new policy on his own company first. 3. Claire didn’t want the robot in her house, especially as her husband would be absent for three weeks, but Larry persuaded her that the robot wouldn’t harm her or allow her to be harmed.克莱尔并不 想把机器人留在家里, 特别是在她丈夫离加三周的这个期间。 但是, 克莱尔被拉里说服了。 他说, 机器人不会伤害她,也不会让别人来伤害她。 persuade vt. 1). 说服,劝服(+ sb. into/out of doing sth.)/ (+sb. to do sth.) She persuaded me into buying it. 她说服我买下了它。 Thesalesmanpersuaded us to buy his product. 那个推销员说服了我们买他的产品。

2). 使某人相信 (+of) / (+that) How can I persuade you of my sincerity? 我怎样才能使你相信我的诚意呢? We worked hard to persuade them that we were genuinely interested in the project. 我们想尽 办法以使他们相信我们确实对这一计划感兴趣。 to be harmed:动词不定式的被动语态。 [典例] 1) All these gifts must be mailed immediately so as to be received in time for Christmas.所有的这些 礼物必须及时邮寄,以便在圣诞节及时收到。 2) It remains to be seen whether Jim’ll be fit enough to play in the finals.吉姆最后是否适合演出仍 将拭目以待。 [练习] 汉译英 1) 小汤姆假装被射中了哭喊着要糖吃。2) 此药得一日三次,饭后服用。 _______________________________________________________________________________ Keys: 1)Little Tom pretended to be shot and cried for a candy. 2) The medicine is required to be taken three times a day after meals.

4.However, when she first saw the robot, she felt alarmed.
alarm n.警报 vt.使```惊恐 [重点用法] raise/sound the alarm 发出警报;报警 take (the) alarm at 对...感到吃惊; 因...而惊恐 be alarmed at/by ... 被...吓一跳 be alarmed to do...做??感到恐慌 [典例] 1) We were much alarmed by the fire in the forest. 森林失火使我们大为惊慌。 2) As soon as he saw the smoke, he sounded the alarm. 看见火灾爆发,他鸣响了警报。 [练习] 汉译英 1) 看到孩子们在返校时遭遇车祸的消息, 家长们感到很害怕。 ____________________________________________________________________ 2)看到大火,社区的居民发出警报。 _______________________________________________________________________ Keys: 1) The parents took the alarm at the news that their children caught a traffic accidence when retuning the school. 2) The residents in the community raised the alarm when seeing the great fire.

5.It is disturbing and frightening that he looked so human.机器人如此通人性,这使 她觉得心烦和害怕。
It 是形式主语,that 引导的句子是这个句子的主语,that 从句叫主语从句。It 放在句首,真 正的主语放在后面,这是英语的一种常见结构。 It was clear that Claire had fallen in love with Tony. 很显然,克莱尔已爱上了托尼。 带有 that 从句的先行词的结构有一下几种不同的搭配关系: It + be + adj + that-clause. It is certain that William will do well in his exam.威廉肯定会考的很好。 It + be + n.(or noun phrase) + that-clause. It is a great satisfaction that she is well again and can go to her office. 她身体回复了,可以去上 班,这真让人高兴 It + be + -ed participle + that –clause.

It is said that Issac will accompany his parents to visit Europe. 根据艾萨克将陪父母去欧洲访问。 It + seems/happens ? + that –clause. It seems that they are in urgent need for help. 好像他们现在急需帮助。

6.Claire thought it was ridiculous to be offered sympathy by a robot.克莱尔觉得,机 器人向她表示同情,这有点荒唐可笑。
sympathy n.同情 [重点用法] feel /have sympathy for 同情某人 in sympathy with 同情; 赞成; 和...一致 out of sympathy with 对...不同情; 不赞成; 对...没有同感, 和...不一致 win sympathy of 博得...的同情 [典例] 1) He gave the poor child some money out of sympathy. 出于同情,他给了这个穷孩子一点钱。 2) He is in sympathy with their beliefs. 他与他们的信仰一致. [练习] 汉译英 1) 听完这个故事,他对她目前的情况深感同情。 _________________________________________________________________________ 2) 通过描述他悲惨的童年,他赢得路人的同情。 ___________________________________________________________________________ Keys: 1)After hearing the story, he felt sympathy for her present situation. 2) He won the sympathy of passers-by by describing his miserable childhood. 7.As he was not allowed to accompany her to the shops, he wrote out a list of items for her. accompany vt.陪伴 [重点用法] accompany sb. to a place 陪伴某人去某地 accompany sth. with/by sth. 与…同时存在 in company with sb/sth 与??一起 [典例] 1) He accompanied his old father to the hospital to see what’s wrong with his stomach.他陪他的 老父亲去医院查看胃部出了什么问题。 2) Thunders accompanied by heavy rain in this season are very common.这个季节, 雷鸣常常伴 有大雨。[练习] 汉译英 1) 总统出现了被六个健壮的保镖护随着。 _______________________________________________________________________ 2) 回到家乡,他的老同学们陪着他参观了这个城市。 _________________________________________________________________________ Keys: 1)The president appeared and was accompanied by six strong bodyguards. 2) When retuning hometown, he was shown around the city accompanied by his old classmates. 8.When the clerk at the counter was rude to her, she rang Tony up and told the clerk to speak to him. ring up 打电话给…… [短语归纳] ring back 回电话 ring off 挂断电话;停止讲话

ring a bell 唤醒经常是模糊的记忆 ring up the curtain 开始:开始一场演出,一个事件或一次行动 [典例] 1) I have to ring off now because my friend is waiting for me.我朋友在等我,我得挂电话了。 2) On arriving at the airport, he rang up his mother to say everything was ok.一到达机场, 他就打 电话给他母亲报平安。 [练习] 汉译英 1) 今早他刚起床就有人给他打电话了。 ____________________________________________________________________________ 2) 见到老板进来,他赶紧挂断电话假装在工作。 ____________________________________________________________________________ Keys: 1) The moment he got up this morning , someone rang him up. 2) Seeing his boss coming, he hurried to ring off and pretended to be working. 9.As she turned around, there stood Gladys Claffern. turn around 转向 [典例] 1) He heard a voice but when he turned around, he saw nobody.他听到声音,但转身却没发现有 人。 2) As he walked towards the hotel, he suddenly turned around and found an old lady following him. 当他朝旅馆走去时,突然转身发现一个老妇人跟着他。 [短语归纳] turn away 把(脸)转过去 把??打发走 turn against 背叛,反抗 turn on/off 打开/关掉 turn up 出现/调大(音量) turn down 拒绝,调小(音量) turn out 结果是;证明是; turn sth.in 上交 turn into 变成 turn to 转到,翻到;求助于 turn over 翻转;思考 [练习] 汉译英 1) 那年轻的女士无法想象要是她的丈夫背叛她的话会是怎么样。 ____________________________________________________________________________ 2) 虽然贫穷,但是女孩毅然地拒绝了别人的帮助。 _____________________________________________________________________________ Keys: 1) The young lady cannot imagine what if her husband turns against her. 2) Though poor, the girl turned down others’ help firmly. 【链接训练】 ①Being extremely angry,the boy ________ and went out,saying nothing. A.turned up B.turned inC.turned off D.turned around 【解析】 句意为: 由于非常生气, 那个男孩什么也没说就转身出去了。 turn around “转向, 回转”,在这里是“转身”的意思。turn up“出现,露面”;turn in“交还”;turn off“关 掉”,都不符合题意。【答案】 D

②None of us expected the chairman to ________ at the party.We thought he was still in hospital. A.turn in B.turn up C.turn over D.turn down 【解析】 turn up 意为“出现,来到”;符合题意。turn in 意为“交出”;turn over 意为 “倒转”,turn down 意为“关小,拒绝”。句意为:我们之中没有人预料到主席会出席晚 会,我们原来都以为他还在住院。【答案】 B There stood...倒装句 (1)there,here,now,then 等副词放在句首时,句子要完全倒装,主语是名词,谓语动词常 用 come,go,be,lie,run 等。 There stands a bridge across the river.河上有座桥。 (2)表示方位的副词或介词短语置于句首时,句子也要完全倒装,句中的主语是名词,谓语动 词是 come,go 等表示动作的动词。 Away went the students.学生们走了。 (3)在上述全部倒装结构中主语如为人称代词,则应放在动词前面,主谓不倒装。 Away they went.他们走了。 [典例] 1) There comes the teacher and her students.老师和她的学生们来了。 2) Out rushed the boys.男孩们冲了出去。 [练习] 汉译英 1) 年轻的母亲抱着手里两个月大的婴儿跑开了。 ___________________________________________________________________________ 2) 走进来了生气的老板和他的秘书。 ____________________________________________________________________________ Keys: 1) Away ran the mother with a two-month-old baby in her arms. 2) In came the angry boss and his secretary. 【链接训练】 ①Now ________,good luck. A.comes your turn B.does your turn come C.your turn comes D.your turn does come 【解析】 此处表示时间的副词 now 位于句首,与位移性动词 come 等连用且主语不是人称 代词。引起完全倒装句式。 【答案】 A ②—Look!There ________. —Oh,there ________. A.comes the bus;comes itB.comes the bus;it comes C.the bus comes;it comesD.the bus comes;comes it 【解析】 表示方位的副词 there 位于句首时,与位移性动词 come 等连用,且主语不是人称 代词。句子要用完全倒装,There comes the bus 意为“车来了”。但是全部倒装中主语是人称代词 时,则应放在动词前,即 there it comes。【答案】 B 10.She cried out “Tony” and then heard him declare that he didn’t want to leave her the next day and that he felt more than just the desire to please her.她大叫一声“托尼”,然后听到托尼一本正 经地说,第二天他不想离开她, 而且他并不满足于仅仅使她开心。 declare vt.宣布 [重点用法] declare sth.宣布……

declare sb./sth. (to be) +n./adj.宣布……为…… declare that declare war on/upon 对…宣战 declare against/for…声明反对/赞成 [典例] 1) She declared that she didn't want to see him again. 她宣称她再也不愿见到他。 2) Soon they will declare him the owner of the house.很快他们就会宣布他为房子的主人。 3) The government passed a law that declared it illegal to catch and sell this kind of animals.政府 通过法律宣布捕捉贩卖这种动物是非法的。 [练习] 汉译英 1) 那个女明星最近宣称要嫁给一个富人然后退出舞台。 ______________________________________________________________ 2) 公司宣布老板的儿子依法成为公司继承人。 ________________________________________________________________________ Keys: 1) The popular actress declared recently that she would marry a rich gentleman and retire from the stage. 2) The company declared the son of the boss to be the successor by law. more than 用于名词前,“不只是;不仅仅”;more than 用在数词前,“比??多;超过”,相当于 over; more than 与形容词和分词连用,表示 “非常、 十分” ;more...than “与其说??倒不如说” 。 Kate was more than a teacher. She also did what she could to take care of her pupils. 凯特不仅仅 是位教师,她还尽其所能照顾她的学生。 I have known him for more than twenty years. 我认识他已超过二十年了。 They were more than happy to see us come back from the expedition.看到我们远征而归, 他们 异常高兴。 more than 和含有情态动词的句子连用,有否定意义,表示“是??难以??”或“超过了?? 所能”之义。 The beauty of the village is more than I can describe.我难以描述那个山村的美丽。 no more than 意思是“仅仅,不过,只是”。 All his education added up to no more than one year. 他接受的所有的学校教育只有一年。 The form cannot be signed by anyoneyourself. A.rather than B.other thanC.more than D.better than 【命题分析】考查介词短语辨析。 【答案与解析】B 句意:除了你本人,任何人不能填写这张表格。rather than“而不是”; other than “除??之外”; more than “不仅仅是;超过”; better than“好于;胜过”。 11.It was then that Claire realized that Tony had opened the curtains of the front window. 也就 在这时候,克莱尔才意识到托尼早就把前边窗户的窗帘拉开了。 【点津】 强调句的用法: (1)It was/is+被强调部分+that...构成强调句的陈述句形式。 (2)强调句的疑问句形式。强调句变为一般疑问句时,直接将 is/was 置于句首。简略的答语 为:“Yes,it is/was.”或“No,it isn’t/wasn’t.” (3)强调句的特殊疑问句式是:特殊疑问词+is/was+it+that...。 (4)强调“not...until”引导的时间状语时,要用“It is/was not until...that...”结构,that 后面的句 子要用肯定式,且须用陈述句语序。 ①It was because of bad weather that the football match must be put off.因为坏天气, 足球赛必须

被推迟。(强调的是原因状语) ②It_was in the beautiful park that was located by the sea that we first met our new Chinese teacher.是在位于海边的美丽公园我们第一次遇见我们汉语老师。 ③—Was_it_you_that I saw at the concert last night? ——我昨天晚上在音乐会上看到的是你吗? —No,it wasn’t.——不是。 ④Why was it that the football match must be put off?为什么足球赛必须被推迟? ⑤It was not until she took off her dark glasses that I realized she was a famous film star.直到她 摘下她的墨镜,我才认出她是一位著名的电影明星。 12.What a sweet victory to be envied by those women! envy vt.嫉妒 [重点用法] envy sb. sth.妒忌/羡慕某人某物 become the envy of sb.成为令人嫉妒/羡慕的事物 be in envy of one’s success 羡慕某人的成功 out of envy 出于嫉妒/羡慕 [典例] 1) All her workmates envied her (for) her promotion.所有的同事都羡慕她的晋升。 2) His talent for music becomes the envy of the other competitors.他在音乐方面的天分让其他 人对手感到羡慕。 [练习] 汉译英 1) 他们的新房子受到邻居的羡慕。 _________________________________________________________________________ 2) 出于妒忌,他作了伪证 _______________________________________________________________________________ Keys: 1)Their new house made them the envy of their neighbors. 2)He made the fault witness out of envy. 11.She shouted “Leave me alone” and ran to her bed. leave…alone 不打扰 [短语归纳] leave behind 留下,遗留 leave aside(把某事)搁置一边 leave for 出发前往 leave out 省去,遗漏,不考虑 [典例] 1) Leave him alone and he will produce. 别打扰他,他会写出来的。 2) He was asked to leave for another city in 24 hours.他被要求 24 小时内离开到另一个城市去。 3) The teacher required us to leave out some unnecessary words in our essays.老师让我们将论文 中不必要的词语省去。 4) You shouldn’t have left Andy alone in the mountains; it was very dangerous.你不该将 Andy 留 在山上,因为那非常危险。 [练习] 汉译英 1) 老板捐款潜逃了,只留下一间空厂房。 __________________________________________________________________________

2) 听到警报,警察丢下家人冲出去看发生了什么事。 _________________________________________________________________________ Keys: 1) The boss escaped with all his fortune and left an empty factory behind. 2) Hearing the alarm, the policeman left his family behind and rushed out to see what happened. 表示“把某物忘在某地”,用 leave sth.sp.而不用 forget。 I've left my key in the office.我把钥匙忘在办公室了。 Part 3. Learning about Language He felt happy when his boss stated that he could set aside some time for exercise. set aside 将……放在一边;节省或保留(时间,金钱) [短语归纳] set down 写下,记下 set off 开始动身(for a place) set up 创立,建立,搭起 set out 出发,着手做某事(to do sth.) set about doing 着手做,开始做…… set back 把(钟表指针)往回拨;使推迟;耽搁 [典例] 1) Would you please set aside some time to listen to my real idea?你可以腾出点时间听听我的 想法吗? 2) The department set aside the things they were doing and concentrated on a more urgent task. 这个部门的成员放下手头的事情,全力以赴一项更紧急的任务. [练习] 汉译英 1) 父亲放下报纸点了一支烟。 _________________________________________________________________________ 2) 他努力工作省下钱给他儿子上大学。 _________________________________________________________________________ Keys: 1) Father set aside the newspaper and lit a cigarette. 2) He is working hard to set aside some money for his son to go to college. 【链接训练】 The continuous rain set ________ the harvesting of wheat by two weeks. A.off B.back C.down D.about 【解析】 set back 意为“推迟,延缓”;set off 意为“动身,出发”;set down 意为 “写下,记下”;set about 意为“开始,着手”。【答案】 B Part 4. Using Language 1. Who said that making a robot so much like a man was bound to cause trouble? be bound to 一定做…… [典例] 1) We missed the bus. We're bound to be late.我们错过了那趟车,我们肯定要迟到了。 2) She's bound to be mayor.她注定会成为市长。 [练习] 汉译英 1)他那么用功,一定会成功的。 ___________________________________________________________________________ 2)这项新发现对于人类必定大有用处。

___________________________________________________________________________ Keys: 1) With much hard work, he is bound to succeed. 2) The new discovery is bound to be of great service to mankind. 2. Asimov began having stories published in science fiction magazines in 1939.1939 年,阿西莫夫 开始在科幻杂志上发表文章。 【点津】 have sth.done 中过去分词作宾语补足语, 表示被动的含义, 有时也可以用 get sth.done 来替换,该结构的意思是“使某事被做”。有时可翻译为“请人做某事”。 (1)have sb.do sth.让某人干某事 (2)have sb./sth.doing 让某人一直做某事(某事处于某种状态)。 用于否定句时, have 表示 “容忍、 容许”之意。 (3)have sth.to do/to be done 有事要做,have 表示“拥有”。 [典例] ①I usually have my clothes washed on Sundays.I don’t wash my clothes myself. 我通常在星期天洗衣服,但不是自己洗。 ② He had his experiment report all written out neatly.他把实验报告写得清清楚楚。 ③We won’t have you cheating in the exam.我们不允许你们在考试时作弊。 ④The boss had the workers working day and night.老板让工人们日日夜夜不停地工作。 ⑤We have a lot of things to_do every day.我们每天都有很多事情要做。 [练习] 汉译英 1) 与对手角逐时,他大腿受伤了不得不放弃比赛。 _______________________________________________________________________________ 2) 残忍的老板让他的工人们整天工作。 _____________________________________________________________________________ 3) 班主任让班长他不在时管理班级。 ______________________________________________________________________________ Keys: 1) When struggling with the competitor, he had his leg broken and had to give up the match. 2) The cruel boss had his employees working all the morning. 3) The head teacher had the monitor manage the whole class when he was absence.

被动语态
被动语态是动词的一种特殊形式,表示句子中的主语是动作的承受者,也就是动作的对象。 一般说来,只有需要动作对象的及物动词才有被动语态。 被动语态的构成是:助动词 be+动词过去分词。 一、被动语态在不同时态中的变化形式:(以 ask 为例说明) 现在 am? 一般 is ?asked ? are? am? 进行 过去 将来 shall? will ?

?

was ? ?asked were?

?be asked

is ?being asked ? are?

?

was ? ?being asked were?

完成

has ?

?been have?

asked

had been asked

will ? shall?

?have

been asked

二、被动语态的用法 1.不知道动作的执行者是谁或者说话的人对宾语的兴趣大于对主语的兴趣。 Printing was introduced into Europe from China.印刷是从中国传入欧洲的。 2.出于修辞的原因或者为了更好地安排句子。 The professor came to our school and was warmly welcomed by the teachers and students. 那位教授来到我校并受到师生们的热烈欢迎。 3.不愿意说出动作的执行者,目的是为了使语言得体,在这种情况下,有时使用一些特别 句式。 It is said that...据说?? It is hoped that...大家希望?? It is declared that...据宣布?? It is well known that...众所周知?? 三、被动语态的几种类型 1.含有单个宾语的被动结构 It is often used (by my teacher) in teaching English. 这经常(被老师)用于英语教学中。 2.含有双宾语的被动结构 teach,tell,give 等动词后面往往有两个宾语,叫作双宾语。 带双宾语的主动句用被动句表示时, 可以把其中一个宾语用作主语, 另一个宾语作保留宾语。 但以指人的间接宾语作主语为好,句子显得更自然。 We gave them some books.我们给了他们一些书。 →They were given some books. →Some books were given to them. 但也有的只能以直接宾语作为被动句的主语。 I will buy you a present.我将给你买份礼物。 →A present will be bought for you. 3.含有复合宾语的被动结构 call,make 之类的动词后常常带有宾语补足语。 这种结构只能将主动语态的宾语改作被动语态的主语。 主动句中的宾语补足语如果为 doing, 变成被动句后,doing 作主语补足语。 带有不定式作宾语补足语的感官动词(如 hear, see, feel, watch 等)和使役动词(如 make, have, let)主动句的宾语补足语为省略 to 的不定式,变成被动句后,作为主语补足语的不定式必 须带 to。 The landlord made him work.地主让他干活。 →He was made to work (by the landlord). 4.情态动词的被动语态 其形式为“情态动词+ be+过去分词”。 The books may be kept for two weeks.这些书你可以借两周。 5.短语动词的被动语态 短语动词在变为被动语态时,不要漏掉构成短语动词的介词或副词。 That old man was often laughed at.那位老人经常受人嘲笑。 四、主动形式表示被动意义

1.主语(物)+wash,clean,cook,cut,read,wear,keep,open,draw,write,sell 等不及 物动词+adv.。这些动词的主语一般是表物的词,且这些物往往具有某种内在的特点,这些 句子的时态多用一般现在时或一般将来时。 The book sells well.这本书很畅销。 Your pen writes quite smoothly.你的钢笔写起来很流畅。 2.blame,let,remain,keep,rent 等。 It was I,not you,am to blame.是我而不是你应当受到责备。 3.在 need,require,want,deserve,be worth 后的动名词主动结构表被动意义。 My watch needs cleaning.(=My watch needs to be cleaned.) 我的手表需要清洗。 4.在 make sb.heard/understood (使别人能听见/理解自己)特殊结构中。 You should speak louder and make yourself heard.说话声音大些,好使别人能听到你说的话。 5.用在 There be 句型中。 There is a lot of work to do.(=There is a lot of work to be done.) 有好多工作要做。 6.动词不定式的主动形式表被动 (1)当不定式在名词后面作定语,且和名词之间有动宾关系时,不定式的主动形式表示被动 含义。 Would you bring me a bench to sit on?你给我拿把凳子来坐好吗? (2)不定式用在形容词后作状语,和句中的主语构成逻辑上的动宾关系时,常用主动形式。 常用的这类形容词有: difficult, easy, hard, interesting, comfortable, heavy, light, impossible, nice,pleasant 等。 The box seems heavy to carry.那个箱子似乎搬起来很重。 五、被动形式表示主动意义 英语中有的句子结构看上去是被动, 但是表示的是主动意义, 如 be determined, be pleased, be prepared (for),be occupied (in),get married 等。 He is determined to pass the exam.他下决心要通过这次考试。 六、不用被动语态的情况 1.不及物动词或不及物动词短语如 appear,happen,remain,take place,come about,break out,come true 等没有被动语态。 2.表示状态的及物动词 have(有),possess(拥有),hold(容纳),suit(适合),fit(合适),equal(等 于),contain(包含), cost(花费),last(持续),mean(意味着),belong to(属于),consist of(由?? 组成),date from(起源于)等,通常不用于被动语态。 3.系动词 become,turn,get,look,sound,smell,taste,feel 等,没有被动语态。 七、被动语态与系表结构“连系动词 be+表语(过去分词)”的区别: 被动语态表示的是动作, 句子的主语是动作的对象; 而系表结构表示的是主语的状态或特点, 其中过去分词相当于形容词。 The bridge was completed in l968. 这座桥是 1968 年建成的。(被动语态) The bridge is completed.桥已修好。(系表结构) 【链接训练】 ①Thank you for your first visit to CCTV.com.This site ______ and will be back online in the not?too?distant future. A.had updated B.will be updatedC.updated D.is being updated 【解析】 由于 site 与 update 之间为动宾关系,故应用被动语态,排除 A、C 两项;由句意 可知应用现在进行时的被动语态。故答案为 D 项。【答案】 D

②—________ the sports meet might be put off. —Yes,it all depends on the weather. A.I've been told B.I've toldC.I'm told D.I told 【解析】 tell 应该接双宾语,而空后只有一个宾语从句,所以该句不能用主动语态;C 项 的一般现在时表示一般情况显然不妥, 所以应用现在完成时的被动语态强调现在的情况, 即 “我知道了”。【答案】 A ③—How did you like this speech? —Oh,it was very good.What he said ________ like poetry. A.sounded B.soundC.was sounded D.is sounded 【解析】 系动词 sound 没有被动语态,故排除 C、D 两项;根据语境,可知时态为一般过 去式。故正确答案为 A 项。【答案】 A ④As far as I know,such things are not allowed ______ with you when you take a plane. A.to carry B.to be carried C.to have been carried D.to be carrying 【解析】 因 carry 与 such things 之间是逻辑上的动宾关系,故要用不定式的被动式;根据 句意可知 carry 这个动作发生在 allow 动作之后,故用不定式的一般式。 【答案】 B ⑤The jewelry shop is reported in the local newspaper ______ last night. A.to have robbed B.to have been robbed C.having been robbed D.to be robbed 【解析】 考查“sb./sth.+be+过去分词+to do 结构”。不定式的动作发生在谓语动词之 前,用不定式的完成式,句子主语与 rob 之间是被动关系,故选 B。 【答案】 B 【练习】.品句填词 1.A smile of________(满意) appeared on her face when she was told that her child

behaved

well at school. 2.Once a fire breaks out,sound the fire________(警报) and then leave the hotel quickly. 3.I have read some chapters and________(浏览) the rest of the book. 4.I must ask you to________(陪伴)me to the police station. 5.You'd better not ask a foreigner how much he earns.That's a personal________(事务). 6.She was d________innocent because there wasn't enough evidence. 7.I'm not making excuses;I'm simply s________a fact. 8.She can sing,dance,paint and cook.She is really a woman of many t________. 9.After they got d________,she never remarried. 10.If you continue to d________the rules,you will be punished. 答案 1.satisfaction 2.alarm 3.scanned 4.accompany 5.affair 6.declared 7.stating 8.talents 9.divorced 10.disobey

根据句子结构,用括号内所提供词的适当形式填空 1) We had a ______ meal together last Sunday. All the guests are very ______.(satisfaction) 2) I was sleeping soundly in the early morning when a telephone _______ me awake. I was even ______to hear the ______ news that another bombing had hit London.(alarm) 3) What ______ the women most was that when they were talking about the _______ new about

the girl, she became so _______ that she ran away as soon as she heard this.(embarrass) 4) The newly-elected president _______ his support for the terrorists. He must be responsible for his______. (declare) 5) He ______ to his friends why he was late but none of them thought his _______ believable.(explain) keys:1. satisfying; satisfied 2. alarmed; alarmed; alarming 3. embarrassed; embarrassing; embarrassed 4. declared; declaration 5. explained; explanation 根据课文内容完成下面语法填空,注意单词拼写和词语用法: A robot used for housework was tested 1 in a family. He looked like a tall and handsome man with smooth black hair, 2 (speak) in a deep voice. Larry was going to be away from home so he hired such a robot to 3 (陪伴)his wife Claire. Claire didn’t like the idea at the beginning, but she 4 to it at last. At the first sight of Tony, Claire felt embarrassed. 5 (渐渐地) , Tony began to win Claire’s trust. He helped Claire realize her dreams 6 making her home elegant, giving her a new haircut, changing the makeup she wore and giving her advice on her dresses. Therefore at the party all she guests 7 were invited were filled with admiration 8 they saw her house was completely changed. 9 the test, the company was satisfied with Tony’s report because he had successfully made a woman regain her confidence 10 fall in love with him. 答案:1. out 8. when 2. speaking 3. accompany 4. agreed 5. Gradually 6. by 7. who

9. After

10. and


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