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wh词+ever


疑问词+ever 与 no matter+疑问词
不论是“疑问代词 + ever ”还是“疑问副词 + ever ”,其意义都是“不管 / 无论 + 该疑问词的本义”。 1. “疑问代词 + ever”可引导两种类型的从句,即让步状语从句和名词性从句(主 语从句、宾语从句)。 (1)引导让步状语从句。此时 whatever / whoever / whichever 分别等于“ no matter + what / who / which”。例如: Whatever happened, he wouldn't say a word. = No matter what happened, he wouldn't say a word. Whoever says so, it is wrong. = No matter who says so, it is wrong. Whichever dictionary you (may) take, you will have to pay at least 20 dollars. = No matter which dictionary you (may) take , you will have to pay at least 20 dollars. 注意:这类从句中应用一般现在时表将来,从句中也常用情态动词 may / might . (2)引导名词性从句。例如: Whoever smokes here will be punished. (主语从句) Beggars will eat whatever they are given. (宾语从句) Whichever he likes will be given to him. (主语从句) You may invite whoever / whomever you like. (常用 whoever 代替 whomever) 此时它们都不能换成 “ no matter + 疑问词 ”的形式,但 whoever 等于 anyone who, whatever 等于 anything that ? .“ 疑问副词 +ever ” : wherever / whenever / however 一般只能引导一种类型 的从句,即让步状语从句,此时它们分别等于“ no matter + where / when / how ”。例如:

Wherever he goes (may go). I'll follow him. = No matter where he goes (may go),I'll follow him. Whenever I wisited him, he was always busy working. = No matter when I visited him, he was always busy working. However late he is, his mother will wait for him to have dinner together. = No matter how late he is, his mother will wait for him to have dinner together. 注意:当 however 用作连接副词时也可引导名词性从句,而 whenever/ wherever 则不能引导名词性从句。例如: I'll give you however much money you need. (宾语从句,此时 however 不能改成 no matter how )。

3. 另外, whatever / whichever / whoever 与 whenever / wherever / however 分别 可相当于 what / which / who 与 when / where / how 的强调式,引起的特殊 疑问句往往是简单句,与原疑问词的意思、用法完全相同,只是表达的语气 更为强烈,翻译时可加上“到底;究竟”等。例如: What(ever) are you doing ? 你(到底)在干什么? Which(ever) do you want to buy ? 你(究竟)要买哪一个? Who(ever) told you such a foolish story? (究竟)是谁讲给你这么蠢的事? When(ever) can I enjoy a long vacation? (究竟)什么时候才能给我放个长假 呢? Where(ever) did you leave your dictionary? 你(究竟)把词典放哪儿了? How(ever) did you collect so much money? 你(到底)是怎样筹到这么多钱 的


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