高考英语语法专题讲解定语从句 、同位语从句 、强调句
1. 定语从句 1.1 三步思考： （1）找出先行词； （2）看先行词在定语从句中的语法功能（做主语、宾语或状语） ； （3）选择合适的关联词。 1.2 何时用 that ？何时用 which？ 1.2.1 只能用 that 的 3 种情况： （1）先行词被序数词最高级，以及 the only 、the very t
he same、the last 修饰过. （2）先行词为 all 、everything、nothing 等不定代词. （3）先行词同时是人和物并列时. e.g. Later my father and Mr.Crosset talked of things and persons that they remembered in school. 1.2.2 只能用 which 的情况： （1）介宾短语 （2）指代前面的一件事 e.g. He talked of it in a rude way which made me annoyed. 1.3 关系代词 as（正如…） 1.3.1 as 在定语从句中作主语 e.g. As appear from her paper ,she has read widely in Romantic literature. We have found such material as is used in their factory. (非同一块材料) We have found such material that is used in their factory.(同一块材料) 1.3.2 as 在定语从句中作宾语 e.g. She is remarkable, as I have told you . She wears the clothes as she did last Sunday. (穿的是同一件) She wears the clothes as her sister does. (穿的不是同一件) 1.3.3 as 在定语从句中作表语 e.g. He was not the same person as he ( was).(省略从句谓语时只能用 as)
= He was not the same person that he was. 1.3.4 as 的固定用法: As we know, = As is known to all that/ As is known to all, … 1.4
all that 和 what All that I know is that he has made up his mind to heave the country for a new place.
that 引导定语从句 that 引导表语从句 = What I know is that ??
What 引导主语从句 1.5 关系副词: where, when, why 比较: This is the house where I lived 2 years ago. This is the house which I visited. I will never forget the day when I joined the army. I will never forget the day that we spent together. ．．． ．． The ．．． why I am calling you is to invite you to my party. reason ．．． The reason you gave me yesterday cannot be accepted. The reason is that I want you to come to my party. 表语从句
只要在定语从句中担任状语的，就用关系副词。 p.s. 在判断选用关系代词或关系副词时，尤其要注意：及物动词后直接加宾 语，则选关系代词；不及物动词后不可直接加宾语，则选关系副词！
2. 定语从句与同位语从句的区别 2.1 形式结构基本相同：都跟在名词或代词之后，且又常由 that 引导。 2.2 句法功能不相同: 同位语从句对前一名词做补充说明，在从句中无语法位置，而定语从 句所修饰词在从句中占一语法位置。 2.3 区别方法： 2.3.1 that 是否在从句中担任成分？ The news that the leader will come here is not true. 在从句中不担任成分 The news that you told me last week is not true.
2.3.2 在 that 前面加 is,如果句意成立就是同位语；否则就不是。 The news is that the leader will come here is not true. 成立 The news is that you told me last week is not true. 不成立 2.3.3 根据 that 前的名字判断 同位语 that 前的名词必须 是一个表示事实的抽象名词: fact, news, information, order, belief, reply, answer, saying, doubt, hope, idea, thought,suggestion, wish, conclusion, decision, knowledge, opinion, problem, promise, question, plan, report, truth, view etc. 定语从句前的先行词没有这个限制。 2.4 同位语的连接词包括: that, how, when, where, whether.
e.g Word came that they had won the game. 3. 定语从句与强调句型的区别 3.1 强调词 it 与先行词 it 的判别: 把 It is / was…that…去掉，如句子仍然成立则为强调句，否则不是。 It is on the morning of May 1st that I met Liang Wei at the airport．(强调句) It is the factory that Mr Wang works. (定语从句) It is clear that not all boys like football. (it 作为形式主语的主语从句) = That not all boys like football is clear. 3.2 固定句型: It is/ was not until + 被强调部分+ that…..
e.g It was not unitl she took off her dark glasses that I realized that she was a famous star.
= Not until she took off her dark glasses did I realize that she was a famous star. =Only when she took off her dark glasses did I realize that she was a famous star. 强调句的倒装
！ 强调人时，可用 who
代替 that, 但若强调时间、地点、原因、方式时，不能用 when,
where, why, how 代替 that.
！强调句型不用于强调谓语、表语、since, as 等引导的原因状语从句。
He is better today since he can walk around without my help. -> It is better today that he is today since he can walk around without my help. (X) It is since he can walk around without my help that he is better today. (X)
3.3 其他强调方式： 3.3.1
as, though 引导的让步状语从句:
(1) Try as he will, he can’t succeed. = Though he will try, he can’t succeed. (强调谓语)
(2) English though he learnt, he didn’t learn it well. (强调宾语) = Though he learnt English, he didn’t learn it well. (3) Ill as he is, he keeps on working. =Though he is ill, he keeps on working. 3.3.2 用 do, did 强调谓语 e.g Do sit down. He did write to you last week. 3.3.3 用短语 at all, on earth, in the world, under the sun 等表示强调，意思是：到底， 究竟，根本。 (强调表语)
【定语从句 同位语从句 强调句专项训练】
1．He talked happily about the men and books school． A．which B．who C．it
interested him greatly in the
2．His uncle works in a factory A．that 3．There is no dictionary A．that 4．Next month, A．which B．which B．which
bicycles are made． C．where D．there
you can find everything． C．where D．in that you’ll spend in your hometown is coming． B．that C．when D．where
5.It was on 12 May,2008______the earthquake of Wenchuan county,Sichuan provimce happened. A.since 6．Next month, A．which B.which C.that D.when.
you’ll be in your hometown is coming． B．that C．when D．where
7．He wanted to know the time A．that B．when
he needed to know ． C．where D．what in big cities． D．as had been rewritten in simple
8．There isn’t so much noise in the country A．that B．which C．where
9．They could only read such stories English ． A．that B．which C．as
10. Information has been put forward ____ more middle school graduates will be admitted into universities. A. while B. that C. when D. as made him very lonely ． D．this
11．Crusoe’s dog became ill and died , A．as B．which C．that
12. It was not until midnight __ they reached the camp site. （2008 重庆卷 22） A .that B. when C. while D. as
13. There’s a feeling in me ___ we’ll never know what a UFO is – not ever.
C. of which
14． A．Which C．That
has been said above ,grammar is a set of dead rules． B．What D．As
15. It is said that more middle school graduates will be admitted into universities， which is the information ____ has been put forward. A. what B. that C. when D. as ? B．to who I spoke D．that I spoke
16．Do you know the man A．whom I spoke C．I spoke to
17. It is not who is right but what is right ______ is of importance. [2007 重庆卷] A. which B. it C. that D. this
18. He’s got himself into a dangerous situation __ he was likely to lose control over the plane. where 19. when was it A. until B. that 20．The knife A．with which B. which C. what D. why A.
you called me yesterday? C. then D. so
we used to cut the bread is very sharp ． B．with it C．with that upset me ． C．which D．what D．which
21．He tore up my photo and A．that 22．During the days A．followed C．to follow B．it
, he worked as a servant at the Browns． B．following D．that followed
23. I can't stand the terrible noise ____ she is crying loudly. A. it B. which C. this D. that
24. Was it because he was ill ____ he asked for leave? A. and B. that C. that’s
25．You can take any seat A．which B．where
is free ． C．that D．in which
26. Along with the letter was his promise ____ he would visit me this coming Christmas. A. which 27. B. that C. what D. whether
These wild flowers are so special ___I would do ____ I can to save them. A. that…whatever C. which…whatever B. that…that D. as…whichever
28. Occasions are quite rare______I have the time to spend a day with my kids. （2008 山东） A. who B. which C. why D. when
29. I’ll give you my friend’s home address, ______ I can be reached most evenings. （2008 北京） A. which B. when C. whom D. where
30. The man pulled out a gold watch, ______were made of small diamonds. （2008 陕西） A. the hands of whom C. which the hands of 31. I have no idea ____ he will start. A. when B. that C. what D./ B. whom the hands of D. the hands of which
32. I've come from the government with a message ____ the meeting won't be held tomorrow. A. if B. that C. whether D. which
33. He often asked me the question ____ the work was worth doing. A. whether B. where C. that D. when
34. One of them held the view __ the book said was right. A. what that 35．Do you know the reason A．that B．which B. that what C. that D. whether
he was late? C．for what
36．We hope to get such a tool A．which B．as
he is using ． C．that D．where family is in the city ． C．which helps fire burn ? C．which D．it I lived on a farm． C．when D．who D．whose
37．Is there any one in you class A．who B．who’s
38．Is oxygen the only gas A．that B．/
39．I often thought of my childhood , A．which 40．Is there anything B．where
to you ． C．which belongs D ． that
A．that is belonged B．that belongs belong 41．The factory A．where
we’ll visit next week isn’t far from here ． B．in which C．which D．to which it used to be ． D．like
42．My hometown is no longer the same A．which B．as C．that
43．John got beaten in the game , A．as C．what 44．Is A．this school C．this school one
had been expected ． B．that D．who
some German friends visited last week ? B．this the school D．this school where
45. It was Alice and her husband who saved the old man,_______? A.wasn’t it B.was it C.didn’t they D.did they
46. When asked to explain______made his lessons so exciting,the teache kept silent. A.what it is that is it B.that what it is C.what is it that D.that what
raise、rise 和 arise 的区别 前两个都有升起，抬起，上升的意思。 rise 是不及物，太阳升起 the sun rises
arise 很少用到，人站立 people arise raise 是及物，举手 raise the hand 区别在于：raise 是及物动词，后面一定要加宾语。 而 rise 是不及物动词，后面不能加宾语。另外，rise 可以表示 太阳的升起，比如日出：sun rise；不仅如此，在美国英语中， 常用 rise 表示起立或着起床。 arise 表示“出现，产生”，一般指不好的事情。比如，危险出 现了，不好的后果产生了，可以用这个词。与上面两个次只是形 近。 1.raise 提起，使升高，引起，扬起，提高，增加，筹款，召集， 提出，养育。 如：raise one's hand 举手; raise crops 种庄稼; raise a building 造起一座房子; raise a cloud of dust 扬起一片尘 土; raise one's voice 提高嗓音; raise funds 筹集资金; raise a question 提出问题; They raise the flag every morning 他 们每天早上升旗. 2.rise 上升，升高，上涨，指有形的东西。如： The sun rises in the east. 3.arise 开始发生，出现。指有形的东西，常用抽象名词作主 语：都用在借喻中，不能用被动。 如 Serious complications may arise from this sudden change of plans.突变的计划可能会导致严重的纠纷
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