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语法专项—名词


语法专项—名词
? 知识归纳
一、名词(n.) 表示人、事物或抽象概念的名称的。名词在句子中可以做主语(补足语) 、宾语(补足语) 、 表语、定语等成分。 , (一)名词的分类 类别 意义 例词

专有名词

表示人、地方、事物、机构、组织 等名称的词 表示个体的人或者事物的词

Lucy, china, the Great Wall,the Spring Festival Pencil, chair, book, bike, dog

普 通 名 词

可 数 名 词 不 可 数 名 词

个体名词

集体名词

表示一群人或者一些事物的词

Family. Police, class, team

物质名词

表示构成各种物体的物质和材料 的词 表示状态、品质、行为、感情等抽 象概念的词

Rice, glass, water, steel ,wood

抽象名词

Knowledge, danger, health, life

(二)名词的数 1.可数名词有单数和复数两种形式,其复数形式的构成主要有以下几种: (1)一般情况下,在词尾加s. eg. book——books, dog——dogs, pen——pens, boy——boys, boat—boats 以清辅音结尾的名词后的s的读音为[s],以浊辅音和元音结尾名词后的s读音为〔z〕 。 (2)以s,x,ch,sh结尾的词名词变复数时,要在词尾加es. eg. bus——buses,box—boxes(es读音为〔iz〕,beach——beaches, brush——brushes ) 若词尾为e,只加s.horse——horses, page——pages, bridge——bridges (3)以“辅音字母+y”结尾的名词,先变y为i,再加es. eg. city——cities, family——families, country——countries, strawberry——strawberries(ies读音为[iz]) 以“元音字母+y”结尾的词,直接在词尾加-s. eg. boy ——boys, holiday——holidays, day——days (4)以字母f或者fe结尾的可数名词,应先变f或者fe为v,然后加es. Eg. wife——wives, life——lives, leaf——leaves, thief——thieves, knife——knives
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注:a.有些以f结尾的词, 在构成复数的时候只加s。eg. chief——chiefs, cliff——cliffs (悬崖), proof——proofs, safe——safes b.有些以f结尾的词,有两种复数形式。即可以变f为v,加es,也可以直接加s. eg. handkerchief——handkerchiefs, handkechieves (手帕) (5)以o结尾的名词,变复数时情况如下: ①以“辅音字母+o”结尾的名词,在词尾直接加es. tomato— tomatoes, potato—potatoes, hero—heroes,negro ——negroes(黑人) 。 ②结尾是两个元音字母的加s, eg. zoo—zoos, radio——radios ③某些外来词变复数时词尾加s, eg. piano—pianos, ④一些名词的缩写形式变复数时,词尾加s, eg. photo(photograph)——photos, kilo(kilogram)kilos ⑤zero变复数时,既可加s,也可加es. eg.zeros/zeroes ( 6) 某国 人变复 数:中日 不变 英法变 ,其余 s加后 面。Chinese,Japanese, Englishman——Englishmen, Frenchman——Frenchmen, American——Americans 2.不规则变化 (1)有些名词由单数变复数时,不是在词尾加s或es,而是变换其中的字 eg. man——men, woman——women, policeman——policemen, , foot——feet, tooth——teeth, , mouse—mice, (2)词尾加en. child——children, Ox—Oxen(公牛) (3)还有一些名词的单数和复数形式相同。eg. Chinese, Japanese, sheep, deer, fish,means, sheep (4)复合名词变复数 a.将后一个词变为复数。Eg. housewife——housewives, breakfast——breakerfasts , gentleman——gentlemen b.将主要部分变为复数形式。mother-in-law——mothers-in-law, looker-on——lookers-on c.由man和woman作为第一部分的复合名词, 将两部分都变为复数形式。 man cook——men cooks, woman doctor ——women doctors, woman writer——women writers (5)字母、数字、引语或者缩略词的复数形式是在其后加’s或者s. VIP——VIPs 3.另一些名词本身即是复数形式,不可用作单数。eg, people, police, trousers, pants, clothes, scissors 另外,①当一个名词作定语说明另一个名词时,这个名词一般用单数。 eg.an apple tree, five apple trees, a girl friend ,two girl friends, a twin sister 但是,当man和woman作定语修饰复数名词时,就要用其复数形式。 eg. two men teachers, three women doctors ②可用“量词+of+名词复数”这一结构表示可数名词的数量。 eg. a room Of students, two boxes Of pencils (三)不可数名词 不可数名词一般只有单数形式,没有复数形式。 1. 物质名词属于不可数名词,一般没有复数形式。

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Eg. paper, soap(肥皂), water, milk, sugar, honey(蜂蜜), dust(灰尘) 但是这些在表示种类或一定数量时,可以用作复数形式。如:He bought five fruits.他买了五种水果。Fruit在此 做水果种类的意思,因此有复数形式。 物质名词可以借助单位名词表示一定的数量。Eg. a glass of water, a cake of soap, a piece of paper, a cup of tea, a loaf of bread(一块面包), a bottle of beer 2. 抽象名词属于不可数名词,没有复数形式。 Eg. honesty, music, courage(勇气),work, progress, worship(崇拜), fun 有些抽象名词也可以做可数名词,因而有复数形式。Eg. reason——reasons, skill——skills, idea——ideas, suggest——suggestions 抽象名词也可以借助单位名词表示一定的数量。Eg. a piece of information(一条消息),a piece of news(一则新 闻),a piece of advice(一则忠告),a ray of hope(一丝希望) 不可数抽象名词与不定冠词连用,将抽象名词具体化。Eg. a great progress, a huge of success, a failure 3. 有些单词有无S意义大不一样。 Eg. advice(忠告)——advices(消息), air(空气)——airs(风度), beef(牛肉)——beeves(食用), blue(蓝色)—— blues(忧郁), time(时间)——times(时代),water(水)——waters(海洋) 4.不可数名词一般没有复数形式,它的“量”的表示方式如下。 (1)表不定数量时,一般用much,(a)little, a lot of/lots of, some, any等词修饰。 Eg , much money, a little bread (2)表确定数量时,一般用“数词+量词+of+不可数名词。如:two/three/?+量词复数十of+不可数名词。 eg. a bag Of rice, two glasses Of milk, four bottles Of water 5.有些名词既可作可数名词也可作不可数名词,但词义有所不同。 eg: fruit水果——fruits表示不同种类的水果;food食物——foods各种食品;fish鱼——fishes鱼的种类;drink 饮料、酒——a drink一杯/一份饮料、一杯酒; cloth布——,a cloth桌布、抹布; sand沙——sands沙滩; tea 茶——a tea一杯茶;chicken鸡肉——a chicken小鸡;orange橘汁——an orange橘子; glass玻璃——a glass玻 璃杯,glasses眼镜; paper纸——a paper试卷、论文;wood木头——a wood小森林;room空间、余地——a room 房间 ? 区分可数名词与不可数名词歌诀:

可数不可数好分辨,名词所示物分两半;如每半不能叫原名,那该词可数最公平;每半还能把原名叫,不可 数名词就遇到;有的名词两面堵,意变不可数为可数。 Eg.bike,如果把自行车分为两半,每半只能叫做自行车的一部分,不能再叫自行车,所以bike可数。 Water,如果一杯水分为两杯水,每杯仍可叫水,故water就是不可数名词。 Orange,如果做橘汁讲的时候,则为不可数名词;若做为橘子讲,则为可数名词。 (三)名词的所有格(表示人或物的所属关系) 名词所有格有两种不同的形式:一是名词末尾加’s构成(有s或者es的复数形式的名词末尾只加“’” );二是由 介词of加名词构成,后者多用来表示无生命的东西。 (1)有生命的名词所有格以及表示时间、距离、城镇、国家等的名词所有格。
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①不是以s结尾的名词变成所有格时,在词尾加’s. eg. Mike’s watch;Women’s Day ②以s结尾的名词变成所有格时,只加’。 eg. teachers’ office, students’ rooms ③两个或两个以上名词并列,表示共同所有,只需在最后一个名词后加’s. eg.Tom and Mike’s room汤姆和迈克的房间(表示汤姆和迈克共有一间房) ④两个或两个以上名词并列,表示分别所有,需在几个名词后都加’s. eg.Mary’s and Jenny’s bikes玛丽和詹妮的自行车(表示玛丽和詹妮各自的自行车)
5 ○’s所属格修饰名词的省略

a.’s所属格修饰的名词,如果前面已经出现,即可以省略。The dictionary(字典) is not mine, but Lilei’s. b.’s所属格后的名词如指商店、家宅、诊所、餐馆地点时,该词可以省略。Eg. to my uncle’s. at the barber’s
6 ○ 在名词后面有同位语,只在同位语后加“’”eg. my younger brother,John’

(2)无生命的事物的名词所有格常用of结构 eg. a map Of China, the beginning Of this game ,the door Of the room a.在表示时间、距离、集体、城市、国家、团体、机构等名词以及某些习惯用语中的名词所有格可以用“’s” 表示。Eg. five minutes’ walk b.当表示有生命的东西的名词较长时,其所有格形式也可以用of来表示。Eg. the name of that boy over there c.修饰定语较多时。Eg. the very long tail of the old black cat 老黑猫的长尾巴 (3)特殊形式 ①可用’s和of短语表示的名词所有格 eg. the boy’s name=the name Of the boy(男孩的名字) the dog’s legs=the legs of the dog(狗的腿) China’s population=the population Of China(中国的人口) China’s capital=the capital of China(中国的首都) (3)双重所有格 由“of +名词’s”这种形式称为名词的双重所有格。双重所有格表示整体中的一部分。 eg. She is a fiend of my mother’s. 她是我妈妈的一个朋友 注意:a. of后的“名词’s”也可以用名词性的物主代词代替. eg. He is a friend of theirs. b.双重所有格of前面的名词常有一个限定词 (a/the/any/some/no/few/several/two) Several classmates of eg. Tom’s father’s are going fishing next week.汤姆的父亲的几个同学下周要去钓鱼。 (四)名词的转化 1.某些名词后面加-y构成形容词,表示“充满…..的”eg. cloud——cloudy. sun——suny, wind——windy 2.在名词后面加-ful 构成形容词,表示“具有……性质的”“充满….的” eg. use——useful, care——careful , 3.在表示人的名词后加-ly构成形容词,这种形容词具有赞美的意味。Eg. friend——friendly, love——lovely 4.在某些名词后加-less构成形容词,表示“没有….的” eg, care——careless, use——useless

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? 即学即练
1. ( ) 1 She was very happy. She in the maths test. A. makes a few mistake B. made a few mistakes C. made few mistakes D. makes few mistake ( ) 2 We need some more____. Can you go and get some, please? A. potato B. potatos C. potatoes D. potatoe ( ) 3 _____are____for cutting things. A. Knife/used B. Knives/used C. Knife/using D. Knives/using ( ) 4 What big____ the tiger has! A. tooth B. teeth C. tooths D. toothes ( ) 5 Please remember to give the horse some tree___. A. leafs B. leaves C. leaf D. leave ( ) 6 -Can we have some ___?-Yes, please. A. banana B. oranges C.apple D. pear ( ) 7 On the table there are five____. A. Tomatos B. piece of tomatoes C. tomatoes D. tomato 2 ( ) 1 They got much ___ from those new books. A. ideas B. photos C. information D. stories ( ) 2 He gave us____ on how to keep fit. A. some advices B. some advice C.an advice D. a advice ( ) 3 When we saw his face, we knew___ was bad. A. some news B. a news C. the news P. news ( ) 4 What___ lovely weather it is! A. / B. the C. an D. a 3 ( ) 1 -Would you like___tea? -No, thanks. I have drunk two____. A. any, bottles of orange B. some, bottles of orange C. many, bottles of oranges D. few, bottle of oranges ( ) 2 He is hungry. Give him ___ to eat. A. two breads B. two piece of bread C. two pieces of bread D. two pieces of breads ( ) 3 It really took him:___ to draw the nice horse. A. sometimes B. hour C. long time D. some time
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( ) 4 I would like to have___. A. two glasses of milk B. two glass of milk I C. two glasses of milks D. two glass of milks ( ) 5 Can you give me ____? A. a tea B. some cup of tea C. a cup tea D. a cup of tea ( ) 6 Please give me ___ paper. A. one B. a piece C. a D. a piece of ( ) 7 John bought___for himself yesterday. A. two pairs of shoes B. two pair of shoe C. two pair of shoes D. two pairs shoes 4 ( ) 1 -How many ____ have you got on your farm? -I've got five. A. sheeps B. sheep C. pig D. chicken ( ) 2 Some ___ came to our school for a visit that day. A. Germans B. Germen C. Germany D. Germanies ( ) 3 In the picture there are many____ and two . A. sheep; foxes C. sheeps; foxes B. sheeps; fox D. sheep;foxs ( ) 4 A group of______ will visit the museum tomorrow. A. Hungarian B. Australian C. JapaneseD. American 5 ( ) 1 This table is made of___. A. many glass B. glasses C. some glasses D. glass ( ) 2 -What would you like to have for lunch, sir? -I'd like____. ! A. chicken B. a chicken C. chickens D. the chicken ( )3 Children should make____for old people in a bus. A. room B. a room C. rooms D. the room 6 ( ) 1 Tables are made of___. A. wood B. some woods C. wooden D. woods ( ) 2 I wonder why ______ are so interested in action (武打片) films. A. people B. peoples C. the people D. the peoples ( ) 3I have read____ of the young writer. A. works B. work C. this works D. the works 7 ( ) 1 Let's meet at 7: 30 outside the gate of___? A. the People's Park B. the Peoples' Park C. the People Park D. People's Park

( ) 2 ___ Chinese people are ___ hard working people. A. /; a B. We; the C. The; the D. The; a ( ) 3 How many were there in the street when the accident happened? A. policeman B. polices C. police D. peoples 8 ( ) 1 If these trousers are too big, buy a smaller____. A. set B. one C. piece D. pair ( ) 2 Last week I bought a TV____. A. pair . B. set C. piece D. block ( ) 3 There is a of wood left on the ground. A. cup B. piece , C. box D. pair 9 ( ) 1 There are sixty-seven___ in our school. A. women's teacher B. women teachers B. C. woman teachers D. women teacher ( ) 2 There are five___in our factory. A. woman driver B, women driver C. woman drivers D. women drivers ( ) 3 These ____ were sent to the villages to help the farmers. A. women doctor B. women doctors C. woman doctors D. woman doctor 10 ( ) 1 They write most of their___ in English. A. business letter B. business letters C. businesses D. businesses letters ( ) 2 We came to a ___ at last .and went in. A. watch shop B. watches shop C. watching shop D. watchs shop ( ) 3 This shop sells apples, bananas and things like these. It's a___. A. food shop B. book shop C. fruit shop D. vegetable shop ( ) 4 She broke a___while she was washing up. A. glass of wine B. glass for wine C. glass wine D. wine glass ( ) 5 I've forgotten both of the____. A. room numbers . B. rooms number C. rooms numbers D. room number 11 1. September 10th is____in China. A. Teacher's Day B. Teachers'Day C. Teacher Day D.
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Teachers Day ( ) 2 -Is the broom under ____ desk? -No, it's under____. A. the teacher's; my B. teacher's; mine C. teacher's; me D. the teacher's; mine ( ) 3 Excuse me, where is the___? A. men's room B. mens' room C. men's rooms D. men rooms 12 ( ) 1 The football under the bed is____. A. Lily and Lucy B. Lily's and Lucy's C. Lily's and Lucy D. Lily and Lucy's ( ) 2 This is my____dictionary. A. sister Mary B. sister's C. sister, Mary's D. sister's Mary's ( ) 3 He went to ___ shop to buy a shirt. A. a tailor B. the tailor C. a tailors D. the tailors' ( ) 4 Joan is____. A. Mary's and Jack sister B. Mary and Jack's sister C. Mary and Jack sister D. Mary's and Jack's sister 13 ( ) 1 In a few____ time, those mountains will be covered with trees. A. year B. years' C. year's D. years ( ) 2 It's about ___ walk from my house. A. ten minute B. ten minutes' C. ten minute's D. ten minutes ( ) 3 The post office is a bit far from here. It's about_____. A. thirty minutes's walk B. thirty minute's walk C. thirty minutes' walk D. thirty minutes walk ( ) 4 Half___ telephone calls are made in English. A. the world B. world C. the world's D. world's 14 ( ) 1 ____ face to the south. A. Windows of the room B. The windows of the room C. The room's windows D. The windows in room ( ) 2 Please take two___. A. picture of the park B. pictures of the park C. the pictures of a park D. picture of a park ( ) 3 The workers are repairing____. A. the roof of the house B. a roof of the house C. roof of the house D. this roof of house

15 ( ) 1 Miss Smith is a friend of____. A. Mary's mother's B. Mary's mother C. mother's of Mary D. Mary mothers ( ) 2 This is a book of ___. A. Tom B. Tom's C. her D. him ( ) 3 The post card is sent by ____. A. a friend of my father B. a friend of my father's C. my father friend D. my father friend's 16 ( ) 1 Sydney is a city of___. A. America B. Germany C. Australia D. Japan ( ) 2 My father likes buying us ___. A. cars B. flowers C. peasants D. presents ( ) 3 In England, the last name is the ___. A. full name B. family name C. middle name D. given name ( ) 4 Mr Gao is a teacher. He works in a new____. A. shop B. school C. factory D. hospital 17

( ) 1 My father is a____. He works in a hospital. A. teacher B. doctor C. farmer D. soldier ( ) 2 -Which animal lives only in China? -The____. A. tiger B. monkey C. panda D. elephant ( ) 3 April come before___and after___. A. March; May B. May; March C. June; May D. March; February ( ) 4 Which of the following is right? A. China has a large population. B. China has much population. C. China has many populations. D. China has a great deal of population. ( ) 5 Please do like this. Fold the paper____ and cut along the fold. A. into pieces B. in half C. on halves D. to half ( ) 6 You played the violin wonderfully. Will you please play another____? A. one B. game C. programme D. piece

参考答案: 1. 1-7 C C B B B B C 2. 1-4 C B C A 3. 1-7 B C D A D D A 4. 1-4 B A A C 5. 1-3 D A A 6. 1-3 A A D 7. 1-3 A D C 8. 1-3 D B B 9. 1-3 B D B 10. 1-5 B A C D A 11. 1-3 B D A 12. 1-4 D C C B 13. 1-4 B B C C 14. 1-3 B B A 15. 1-3 A B B 16. 1-4 C D B B 17. 1-6 B C B A B D

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