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高考英语专题总结:短文改错


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高考新题型
——短文改错解题方略

Contents

高考短文改错命题特征及命题趋势 短文改错典型错词类型分析归纳 高考短文改错应试策略及答题原则

2012年高考短文改错真题实战演练

注意答题说明及答题规范
Introduction
本题满分 10 分,给出一篇约 100 个单词的短文,文中有
10处错误,要求考生对每个句子进行判断,如有错误即 将其改正。错误类型包括词法、句法、行文逻辑等方面 的错误。

注意答题说明及答题规范
文中共有10处语言错误,每句中最多有两处,每处错误仅涉及一个单 词的增加、删除或修改。

? 增加 (1-2个) 在缺词处加一个漏字符号(∧),并在其下面写上该加的词。 ? 删除 (1-2个) 把多余的词用斜线(\)划掉。不计分。 ? 修改 (6-8个) 在错的词下面划一横线,并在该词下面写上修改后的词。 ? 注意:1、每处错误及其修改均仅限一词。 2、只允许修改10处,多者(丛第11处起)不计分。

Problems
纵观近年高考英语短文改错题,学生和老师都认为 难度不大,然而,每年高考中还是有不少考生对此题深

感头痛,主要原因是:
? 考生的英语基础知识不扎实. ? 考生缺乏对短文改错命题 特点的了解和做题规律方 法的总结.

Tips
? 重视掌握基本的词汇和语法知识; 规范使用常用的 词语和习语.
? 广泛阅读,增强语感,提高语言知识运用的准确性 .

? 做题时以句子为单位,从语篇角度把握内容,查找行 文逻辑错误。
? 错误的设置一般都是中学生写作时常出现的错误 。 改错训练和书面表达训练结合。

高考短文改错命题特征及命题趋势
试题的立意特征 ? 短文中所设的错误大部分都是所谓的“语法” 错误, 但是这种试题并不是单纯检测语法知识 的,而是检测考生的写作能力中的校验能力。

高考短文改错命题特征及命题趋势
试题的情景特征 ? 高考短文改错涉及词汇、语法、句型结构等方 面的知识和逻辑推断和综合辨析, 是一种在较 高层次上考查考生对英语知识的掌握和语言综 合运用能力的测试题型。

? 题材以记叙文为主,题材和语言符合中学生实 际;句子结构由简单句主逐渐过渡到以复合句 和并列句为主。学生在平时写作中常出现的错 误是短文改错的考查的重点。

高考短文改错命题特征及命题趋势
试题的命题趋势 ? 高考短文改错的难度、错误类型设置、文章 长度通常不会有太大变化。

? 考查会更加注重语用功能,取材范围将更广
泛,并注重语言的综合运用能力。

高考短文改错命题规律

Discussion
? What types of mistakes are usually involved in Passage Correcting? ? What is the method of correcting?

高考短文改错命题规律
题量 年份 考点 动词
1 4 4 2 3 14

名词 连词 形容 副词 词
1 1 0 2 2 6 2 1 1 1 1 6 0 0 1 1 1 3 1 0 0 0 1 2

代 词
2 1 1 0 1 5

冠 词
1 0 1 1 1 4

介 词
1 2 1 2 1 7

07全国I卷 08全国I卷 09宁夏海南 10课标全国 11课标全国 合计

A Limerick(五行打油诗)

代词格,细领悟 句子成分多分析 冠词连词常光顾 逻辑错误须关注

动词形,名词数 还要注意形和副 非谓语,细辨别 介词短语要牢记

短文改错典型错词类型分析归纳
动词形
错误主要集中在动词的时态、语态,主谓一致等方面。 【2006安徽卷】 ? Anyone can borrow books if he or she wish. wishes 【2006安徽卷】 ? You can sit at the desk and read the daily newspapers, magazines and the other books, but you are not permit to take them out. permitted

【2006 NMET】 ? We had guests last night who have not stayed in a had B&B hotel before. 【2006天津】 ? Today, I got a letter that said I had been admitting admitted to a college. 【2006四川】 ? We hung a sign on the front door that was read: “We’re having dinner ...”

【2006陕西】 ? I’ll send my friend Charlie to meet you at the airport when you arrived. 【2006湖北】arrive ? ... sometimes all that is need is someone to rely on. needed 【2007天津卷】 ? In Grade Eight I took physics. In one test I get only 36 percent of the answers correct. got

【2010四川卷】 ? And after many attempts, she past her driving test and told her husband that…… passed 【2010四川卷】 ? An English lady was finally decided that she really should learn to drive . 【2010重庆卷】 ? After hearing your sad stories, he will say some words that is nice and warm. . are

【2010陕西】 ? It was turned out to be her own cup... 【2011陕西】 ? ... by the time I got back, they have finished the scene and ... had 【2011浙江】 ? She knows what had happened, but she thanked me ... knew

【2011全国卷1 】

? However, my father had to return to work on
Monday so we fly back last Saturday afternoon. 【2011辽宁】 were steady. was flew ? In early January this year, the rate of UFO reports

【2011全国卷I】 ? I hold my lunch-box in my hand when I was going held to school. The smell from it was very good 【2011重庆卷】

? Katia, like many other Russian girls, are nice and is lively.

解决方案
(1) 通读全文,搞清文中动词时态的主旋律 .
(2) 结合语境,灵活运用时态形式 .

(3) 认真推敲,准确把握主动与被动 .

短文改错典型错词类型分析归纳
名词数
名词爱考数与格,也要分清可不可 【2006浙江卷】 ? Your knowledges of English can help the whole class. knowledge 【2006陕西卷】 ? The library has all kinds of book. I’m sure you books will find one you like.

【2006福建卷】 ? If you have interests in it, reply to me soon. 【2006陕西卷】 interest

? They have all sorts of course. I’m sure you will find courses one you like it. 【2006重庆卷】 ? In summer, the sea under the blue skies is even more sky beautiful.

【2007陕西卷】 ? Personally, I found most lesson rather uninteresting. lessons 【2008浙江卷】 ? A nearby company was looking for students with good handwriting to write addresses on envelope .The pay was 10 cents per envelope. envelopes 【2010四川卷】

? In fact, I’ve nearly killed three peoples . people

【2010全国Ⅱ 卷】 ? Christie was one of my best friend at high school. 【2011全国Ⅱ卷】 friends ? My brother was so much fond of the museums there that he begged my parents to stay another a couple of day. days 【2011四川卷】 ? Tom was having much troubles getting up in the morning. trouble

【2011陕西卷】 ? ... I came across a crew making a new film with one of my favorite actor. 【2011浙江卷】actors ? I was playing at my cousin house. cousin’s 【2011辽宁卷】 ? ... the rate of UFO reports was steady, around three per weeks. week

短文改错典型错词类型分析归纳
还要注意形和副
1. 修饰名词,作宾补及连系动词后用形容词; 2. 修饰动词,形容词,副词及整个句子时用副词; 3. 比较级和最高级的使用。 【2006福建卷】 ? We can hear birds singing happy all around. happily 【2007浙江卷】 ? I won the race. I felt very proudly of myself. proud

【2006辽宁卷】

? She was usual patient with her students and never usually made them disappointed.
【2008全国卷Ⅱ卷】 ? I will learn more about the history of the Olympics as good as the 2008 Olympic games. well

【2009陕西卷】

? The doctor says he is recovering fast than expected. faster 【2010辽宁卷】 ? She was, in fact, rather attractively. attractive

【2010重庆卷】
? Still, your happiness makes him happily too.

【2011四川卷】

happy

? I’m pleasing to hear it ,”said his boss,” but where pleased were you yesterday?”

短文改错典型错词类型分析归纳
非谓语,细辨别
主要错误为三种:非谓语的混淆;不定式to的遗 漏或多用;非谓语与谓语动词的混淆。

【2007浙江卷】
? I could not to run very fast and fell behind. 【2007宁夏卷】

? Li Ming came see me every day. ∧ to

【2008重庆卷】

? And there were many meaningful things that were
worth think of. thinking 【2008辽宁卷】 ? We all enjoyed this precious day greatly , remember the remembering time we spent together and the people they were familiar with.

【2009浙江】 ? It was a lesson that it was possible give without to expecting anything in return. 【2010课标全国卷】 ? On the box was a card said:“25 cents.” saying ∨

【2010浙江卷】
? I noticed Mother looking at the nearby table occupy

by an elderly woman ...
【2010重庆卷】

occupied

? He had time for a proper breakfast and was still the first reach the factory. to



【2011陕西卷】

? I came across a crew make a new film with one of my
favorite actors. 【2011四川卷)】 ? The man did as told and slept really well, wake up waking before the alarm had even gone off. making

【2011辽宁卷】
? The commanding officer, Wayne Tyler, who was directly responsible for the study of all such reports, decided to making his findings known. make

解决方案
(1) 纵观全文或全句,明确句中动词所作的句子成分.
(2) 系统掌握非谓语动词的句法功能.

(3) 前后联系,整体把握 .

短文改错典型错词类型分析归纳
介词、短语要牢记
介词多半考搭配,多、漏、误用想周到

lose my heart

in hurry a in Sunday afternoon on


such many people so in a short

【2006天津卷】 ? Because the help you gave me that summer, my ∧ of life changed. 【2006福建卷】 ? I have been told one more worker will be needed this year and I think you are fit it. ∧ for 【2006福建卷】 ? It is so a beautiful place! such

【2011浙江卷】 ? I would never be able to enjoy to playing with the toy. 【2011陕西卷】 ? ...about to leave when he walked out a building of 【2011浙江卷】 ? There was one on particular I’d always wanted. in



解决方案
(1) 平时的学习中注意积累语言知识,特别是一些固 定搭配的记忆 . (2) 强化语法训练,分清连词,副词和介词之间的区

别和句法功能 .
(3) 语法知识的记忆和语感的培养结合起来 .

短文改错典型错词类型分析归纳
代词格,须领悟 代词方面的错误主要体现在:
? 人称代词的性别,单复数及代词格的误用; ? 物主代词,反身代词以及不定代词的误用;

? “it” 一词的不当使用(包括用于从句中或作形式主
语或宾语); ? Whose 和who’s,its和 it’s的混淆.

人称

单数

复数

主格

宾格

主格

宾格

第一人称

I
you he she it

me

we
you they

第二人称

you
him her it

us you

第三人称

them

单数
形容 词性 物主 代词 名词 性物 主代 词

复数

my

your

his her

its our

your

their

mine yours his hers its ours yours theirs

【2007全国I卷】 ? I was only about six when he held his hand out to me. I took it in me and we walked. mine 【2007陕西卷】

? Just at that time I woke up and found me still in bed! myself

【2008全国II卷】 ? I should be able to tell visitors about our history and culture and show them their great achievement. our 【2011重庆卷】 ? With the help of Katia, a roommate of me, I′ve soon got used to living without my parents .mine 【2011全国II卷】 ? Thank you very much for showing them around us your city and providing us with the wonderful meals.

解决方案
(1) 顺藤摸瓜,理清短文中代词的指代关系, 注意联系上下文。 (2) 系统掌握it的各种用法 .

(3) 准确把握不定代词在文中的正确使用。

短文改错典型错词类型分析归纳
句子成分多分析
句法涉及到一致, 从句多考引导词(误用,多用或遗漏 ) 【2007天津卷】 ? I was lucky enough to have a teacher which who / that didn’t take my bad grades as a judgment of my abilities.

【2008年安徽卷】
? She looked at me and started to laugh. “How Why are you laughing?”I asked. 【2009辽宁卷】 ? One day I saw a second-hand bicycle, that was which

only one hundred yuan.

【2010陕西卷】 ? It turned out to be her own cup, that she’d left

on the shelf by mistake.
【2010宁夏青海卷】

which

? ... let me know what things are going. how

【2011辽宁卷】 ? ...the rate of UFO reports were steady ... was 【2011重庆卷】 ? Katia will introduce me to some of her friends, one of who has been to China several times. whom

【2010重庆卷】 ? Here is my idea about how a friend is like. what 【2010全国Ⅰ卷】 ? So if they had said was true, I would have a ∧ what chance of winning the prize .

解决方案
(1)不同的句子成分要用不同的词类;

(2)不同的语境要选择不同的词语。
(3)只有对句子结构和成分作细致的分析,才能找

出用词不当的错误。

短文改错典型错词类型分析归纳
冠词、连词常光顾
冠词在前 “错” “多” “少”。 常考的错误形式有:冠词the, a, an 的误用,多用或少用。 【2oo7全国卷II】 ? I meant to write long letter and tell you all the ∧ a things I’m doing at the school…

【2007四川卷】 ? An Australian farmer found the kangaroo a caught in the fence around his farms. 【2010陕西卷】 ? Then she bent down and picked up to look at a

price on it.

the

【2011陕西卷】

? He was right there in the front of me.
【2010 课标全国卷】 ? My friend Nick told me story about his experience a back in the US...



【2011全国卷2】 ? If you'd like to make trip to our city some day, I a will be more than happy to be your guide. 【2011浙江卷】 ? It was very nice to get your invitation to spend the weekend with you.





短文改错典型错词类型分析归纳
连词常考 but,and,or, so 等的逻辑错误,以及 搭配错误。
【2006辽宁卷】 ? She always made sure that our homework was finished on time, but she marked strictly on our and actual performance.

【2007浙江卷】 ? Today I was having a PE lesson while I fell when down and hurt my foot. 【2007四川卷】 ? He thought the poor animal was injured, but so the kind farmer took off his jacket and put on the animal.

【2007四川卷】 ? He worked hard, but it wasn’t surprising that and/so he pass the exam.

【2010课程标准卷】
? …my neighbor picked up the box but and announced…

【2010辽宁卷】

? Her hair was black and purple, and she wore
black sports shoes and a black sweater, although in the summer. 【2010全国Ⅰ】 ? All I had to do was to write a story or present it. and even

【2011四川】

? His boss wanted to fire him if he didn’t start
coming on time, but he went to the doctor for a help. so a 【2011全国II卷】 ? It's been a week after we left your family and we are since now back home.

短文改错典型错词类型分析归纳
逻辑错误须关注
词法句法均未错, 逻辑推理来寻找。主要是句子之 间逻辑关系的矛盾,代词在人称上的不一致等。
【2006四川卷】 ? That night,we sat down to what they thought we would be a pleasant, uninterrupted meals.

【2010陕西卷】 ? The assistant was clearly as embarrassed as my sister, for I just thought it was funny. but / yet / while 【2011辽宁卷】

? Wayne Tyler … decided to make his findings
known. They wrote an article… He

【2011陕西卷】

? I didn’t have my camera with me at that time,
but I rushed back home to get … and /so 【2011陕西卷】 ? Unfortunately, by the time I got back, they had finished the scene and the actor couldn’t be

seen everywhere.
anywhere

【2011全国卷II】 ? If you’d like to make a trip to my city some day,

I will be better than happy to be your guide. more ? I have to take up a part-time job because my
family is rich enough.



not

高考短文改错应试策略及答题原则
三步 ? 通读全文,把握大意 ? 细读全文,仔细斟酌 ? 再读全文, 复核审查

高考短文改错应试策略及答题原则
六原则

? 以在有错行改动一词为原则.
? 以改变实词形式为原则. ? 以单词形式变化最小为原则. ? 以添加或删除虚词为原则. ? 以多“改正”少“添删”为原则. ? 以保持原意不变为原则.

高考短文改错应试策略及答题原则
四不改 ? 标点符号不改。

? 大小写不改。
? 词序错误不改。 ? 单词拼写不改。

2012年高考短文改错真题实战演练
【2012全国新课标、海南卷】
I learned early in life that I had to be more patient and little aggressive. From the time I was about four until I was about six, I destroyed each of my toy. I was happy when the toys worked, but when things did wrong, I got angry and broke it. For a while parents bought me new toys. But before long they began to see which was happening. When I tear apart my fifth birthday toy train, my father said, "That's it. No more toys to you." My punishment lasted a year. Meanwhile, I found out that with more patience I must make my toys to last. My attitude changed from then on.

【2012全国新课标解析】
名词数 形容词 I learned early in life that I had to be more patient and little aggressive. From the time I was about four until I was less about six, I destroyed each of my toy. I was happy when the toys toys worked, but when things did wrong, I got angry and went go broke it. For a while parents bought me new toys. 动词搭配 them my 代词误用 逻辑错误





【2012全国新课标解析】
句子成分 But before long they began to see which was happening. what When I tear apart my fifth birthday toy train, my father said, tore "That's it. No more toys to you." My punishment lasted a for year. Meanwhile, I found out that with more patience I must could make my toys to last. My attitude changed from then on. 非谓语动词 介词误用 情态动词 动词时态

2012年高考短文改错真题实战演练
【2012陕西卷真题】
My father and I stayed at the South Lake Hotel for a week when we visit Beijing last month. It is in the downtown area, but it is easy to go to anywhere from the hotel by public transport. We lived in a comfortably double-room with a big bath. What I liked best were the free high-speed Internet connection in the room. I checked my email messages every day. I also shared for my friends many photos taking in Beijing. The food was wonderful with reasonable prices, and we enjoyed several local dish. It is such great hotel that I would recommend it to any friend of me who is going to Beijing.

介词多用 My father and I stayed at the South Lake Hotel for a week when we visit Beijing last month. It is in the downtown area, visited but it is easy to go to anywhere from the hotel by public so/and transport. We lived in a comfortably double-room with a big comfortable bath. What I liked best were the free high-speed Internet was connection in the room. 形容词/副词 连词/逻辑错误 句法一致

【2012陕西卷解析 】

动词时态

【2012陕西卷解析】
非谓语动词 动词与介词搭配 I checked my email messages every day. I also shared for my with friends many photos taking in Beijing. The food was wonderful

taken with reasonable prices, and we enjoyed several local dish. It is dishes such great hotel that I would recommend it to any friend of me a mine who is going to Beijing.



冠词漏用

名词数

代词格

【2012辽宁卷高考真题】
Dear Diana, Thank you for the lovely day we have with you. It was so kind tor you to let us bring Anne's friend. Gina. Unfortunate, the only problem was the journey home. There had been a terrible accident on the highway and, for a result, there was a long line of traffic for at least six mile. In the end, we drove to a service station and waited there unless the road was clear. In the car park Gina nearly got knocked over as a car drove out far too quickly from behind a lorry. They finally dropped Gina off at her parents' and made our own way to home.

【2012辽宁卷解析】
Dear Diana,

动词时态 Thank you for the lovely day we have with you. It was so had kind for you to let us bring Anne's friend. Gina. Unfortunate, of Unfortunately the only problem was the journey home. There had been a
terrible accident on the highway and, for a result, there was a as long line of traffic for at least six mile. 固定搭配 miles 介词误用 名词数

形容词/副词

【2012辽宁卷解析】
副词逻辑错误 连词逻辑错误 In the end, we drove to a service station and waited there unless the road was clear. In the car park here Gina nearly got there until/till knocked over as car drove out far too quickly from behind a a lorry. They finally dropped Gina off at her parents' and made we 冠词漏用 our own way to home. 代词误用 介词多用/搭配



2012年高考短文改错真题实战演练
【2012浙江卷高考真题】
Two years before, I traveled to Brazil and I rented for a car. Unfortunate, I had an accident and hit another car, and I needed to stay in a hospital for at least two week. 1 called my parents, so I did not tell them what had happened. I knew that they will be worried about myself because I was so farther away, and that my mother would not sleep if she knew. Therefore, I told them interested stories and how I was enjoying Brazil As a result, nobody knew truth. I still think that it was the right thing to do.

【2012浙江卷解析】
形容词/副词 副词区别 介词多用

Two years before, I traveled to Brazil and I rented for a ago car. Unfortunate, I had an accident and hit another car, and I Unfortunately needed to stay in a hospital for at least two week. 1 called my weeks parents, so I did not tell them what had happened. but 连词逻辑错误 名词数

【2012浙江卷解析】
动词时态 代词格 I knew that they will be worried about myself because I was would me so farther away, and that my mother would not sleep if she far knew. Therefore, I told them interested stories and how I was interesting enjoying Brazil As a result, nobody knew truth. I still think that it was the right thing to do. 形容词比较级 the 冠词漏用

非谓语



A Proverb

Don't make the same mistake twice.
不要重复犯同样的错误。

From: Mr. He


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