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人教版英语选修 6 课文原文及课文译文
Unit 1 Art Reading
A SHORT HISTORY OF WESTERN PAINTING Art is influenced by the customs and faith of a people. Styles in Western art have changed many times. As

there are so many different styles of Western art, it would be impossible to describe all of them in such a short text. Consequently, this text will describe only the most important ones. Starting from the sixth century AD. The Middle Ages(5th to the 15th century AD) During the Middle Ages, the main aim of painters was to represent religious themes. A conventional artistof this period was not interested in showing nature and people as they really were. A typical picture at this time was full of religious symbols, which created a feeling of respect and love for God. But it was evident that ideas were changing in the 13th century when painters like Giotto di Bondone began to paint religious scenes in a more realistic way. The Renaissance(15th to 16th century) During the Renaissance, new ideas and values gradually replaced those held in the Middle Ages. People began to concentrate less on religious themes and adopt a more humanistic attitude to life.At the same time painters returned to classical Roman and Greek ideas about art. They tried to paint people and nature as they really were. Rich people wanted to possess their own paintings, so they coule decorate their superb palaces and great houses. They paid famous artists to paint pictures of themselves, their houses and possessions as well as their activities and achievements. One of the most important discoveries during this period was how to draw things in perspective. This technique was first used by Masaccio in 1428. When people first saw his paintings, they were convinced that they were looking through a hole in a wall at a real scene. If the rules of perspective had not been discovered, no one would have been able to paint such realistic pictures. By coincidence,oil paints were also developed at this time, which made the colours used in paintings look richer and deeper. Without the new paints and the new technique, we would not be able to see the many great masterpieces for which this period is famous. Impressionism(late 19h to early 20th century) In the late 19th century, Europe changed a great deal,from a mostly agricultural society to a mostly industrial one. Many people moved from the countryside to the new cities. There were many new inventions and social changes also led to new painting styles. Among the painters who broke away from the traditional style of painting were the Impressionists, who lived and worke in Paris. The Impressionists were the first painters to work outdoors. They were eager to show how light and shadow fell on objects at different times of day. However, because natural light changes so quickly, the Impressionists had to paint quickly. Their paintings were not as detailed as those of earlier painters. At first, many people disliked this style of painting and became very angry about it. They said that the painters were careless and their paintings were ridiculous. Modern Art(29th century to today) At the time they were created, the Impressionist paintings were controversial, but today they are accepeted as the beginning of what we call "modern art". This is because the Impressionists encouraged artists to look at their environment in new ways. There are scores of modern art styles,but without the Impressionists, many of these painting styles might not exsist. On the one hand, some modern art is abstract; that is, the painter does not attempt to paint objects as we see them with our eyes, but instead concentrates n certain qualities of the object, using colour, line and shape to represent them. On the other hand, some paintings of modern art are so realistic that they look like photographs. These styles are so different. Who can predict what painting styles there will be in the future? 西方绘画艺术简史 西方艺术风格变化较大,而中国艺术风格变化较小。人们的生活方式和信仰影响了艺术。中国和欧洲不同,生 活方式在长时间里相似。西方艺术丰富多彩,仅凭一篇短短的课文难以描述全面。所以,本篇课文仅描述了从公元 5 世纪开始的几种主要风格。? 中世纪(公元 5 世纪到 15 世纪)?

第一单元 艺术

在中世纪,画家的主要任务是表现宗教主题。艺术家们并没有把兴趣放在呈现人和自然的真实面貌上,而是着 力于体现对上帝的爱戴和敬重。因此,这段时期的绘画充满着宗教的信条。到 13 世纪时,情况已经开始发生变化, 像乔托这样的画家以比较现实的风格来画宗教场景。? 文艺复兴时期(15 世纪到 16 世纪)? 在文艺复兴时期,新的思想和价值观取代了中世纪的那一套,人们开始更关心人而不是宗教。画家们回到了罗 马、希腊的艺术理论上。他们尽力地画出人和自然的真实面貌。富人们想为自己的宫殿和豪宅收藏艺术品,他们高 价聘请著名艺术家来为自己画画,画自己的房屋和其他财物,画他们的活动,画他们的成就。? 在这个阶段,最重要的发现之一是如何用透视法来画出事物的形象。在 1428 年,马萨乔成为第一个在绘画中 使用透视方法的人, 当人们第一次看到他的画时, 还以为是透过墙上的小孔, 来观看真实的情景, 并对此深信不疑。 如果没有透视法,人们就不可能画出如此逼真的画,在文艺复兴时期,油画也得到了发展,它使得色彩看上去更丰 富,更深沉。? 印象派时期(19 世纪后期到 20 世纪初期)? 19 世纪后期, 欧洲发生了巨大的变化, 从以农业为主的社会变成了以工业为主的社会。 许多人从农村迁入城市。 有着大量的新发明,还有许多社会变革。这些变革也自然而然地导致了绘画风格上的变化。那些打破传统画法的人 有在巴黎生活和工作的印象派画家。? 印象派画家是第一批室外写生的艺术家。他们想把一天中不同时间投射到物体上的光线和阴影画出来。由于自 然光的变化很快, 所以, 印象派画家必须很快地作画。 因此, 他们的画就不像以前那些画家的画那样细致了, 起初, 多数人都看不惯这种新式画法,甚至还非常生气。他们说这些画家作画时心不在焉,粗枝大叶,他们的作品更是荒 唐。? 现代艺术(20 世纪至今) 在印象派作品的创建初期,他们存在争议。但是,现在已经被人们接受,并且成为现在所说的“现代艺术”的始 祖。如今,现代艺术已有几十多种,如果没有印象派艺术,也就没有那么多不同的风格,印象派画家帮助艺术家们 用新的方法来观察环境和艺术。有些现代艺术是抽象的,也就是说,画家并不打算把我们的眼睛看到的东西如实地 画出来,而是集中体现某些物体的某些品质和特征,用色彩、线条和形状把它们呈现出来。另一方面,有些现代派 的艺术作品太逼真了,看上去就像一张照片。预言将来艺术的风格倒是很有意思的。?

Using Language Reading
The Best of Manhattan?s Galleries The Frick Collection(5 Avenue and E.70 Street) Many art lovers would rather visit this small art gallery than any other in New York. Henry Clay Frick, a rich New Yorker, died in 1919, leaving his house, furniture and art collection to the American people. Frick had a preference for pre-twentieth century Western paintings, and these are well-represented in this excellent collection. You can also explore Frick?s beautiful home and garden which are well worth a visit. Guggenheim Museum(5th Avenue and 88th Street) This museum owns 5,000 modern paintings, sculptures and drawings. These art works are not all displayed at the same time.The exhibition is always changing. It will apeal to those who love Impressionist and Post-Impressionist paintings.The Guggenheim Museum building is also world-famous. When you walk into the gallery, you fell as if you were inside a fragile ,white seashell. The best way to see the paintings is to start from the top floor and walk down to the bottom. There are no stairs, just a circular path. The museum also has an excellent reaturant. Metropolitan Museum of Art(5th Avenue and 82nd Street) The reputation of this museum lies in the variety if its art collection. This covers more than 5,000 years of civilization from many parts if the world, including America, Europe, China, Egypt, other African countries and South America.The museun diaplays more than just the visual delights of art.It introduces you to ancient ways of living. You can visit an Egyptian temple, a fragrant Ming garden, a typical room in an 18th century French house and other special exhibitions. Museum of Modern Art(53rd Street, btween 5th and 6th Avenues) It is amazing that so many great works of from the late 19th century to the 21st century are housed in the same museum. The collection of Western art includes paintings by such famous artists as Monet, Van Gogh, Picasso and Matisse. Afew
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words of warning:the admission price is not cheap an the meseum is often very crowded. Whitney Museum of American Art(945 Madison Avenue, near 75th Street) The Whitney holds an excellent colection of comtemporary painting and sclpture. There are no permanent displays in this museum and exhibitions change all the time. Every two years, the Whitney holds a special exhibition of new art by living artists. The museum also shows videos and films by comtemporary video artists. 曼哈顿艺术画廊荟萃? 弗里克收藏馆 位于第五大道和麦迪逊大道之间? 许多艺术爱好者都认为这个收藏馆是纽约最好的一家小型艺术陈列馆。 亨利克莱· 弗里克是纽约的一位富豪。 他 去世于 1919 年,他把他的家具、房子和艺术收藏品都捐献给了美国人民。在这个陈列馆里,你不仅看到 20 世纪以 前的西方绘画的珍藏品,而且,你还能浏览弗里克的美丽的故居。在这个漂亮的公寓里,花园也是很值得一看的。 古根海姆博物馆? 第 5 大道和第 88 街交汇处? 这家博物馆拥有 5,000 幅现代油画、雕塑和素描。这些艺术品并不是同时展出的,展品总是在不断地更换。 所收藏的艺术品中大部分是印象派和后印象派的作品。 古根海姆博物馆的大楼是世界闻名的。 当你走进画廊的时候, 你会觉得你进入了一个巨大的白色贝壳之中。看画展最好是从顶层看起,一直往下看到底层。展厅里没有楼梯,只 有一条环行的小道。博物馆里还有一家极好的餐馆。? (纽约)大都会艺术博物馆? 第 5 大道与第 82 街交汇处? 这家博物馆是美国收藏艺术品最多的一家,它的艺术品收藏涵盖了 5,000 多年来世界上众多国家的文明史, 其中包括美洲、欧洲、中国、埃及、非洲和南美洲。这家博物馆展出的不仅仅只是艺术,它还给你介绍了古代的生 活方式。你可以看到埃及的寺庙,明朝的御花园,18 世纪法国豪宅中的住房,以及许多其他特殊展品。? 现代艺术博物馆? 第 53 街(位于第 5 和第 6 大道之间)? 令人惊奇的是,在同一博物馆里竟能容纳下 19 世纪后期到 21 世纪的如此众多的名家巨作。西方艺术的收藏包 括有莫奈、凡· 高、毕加索和马蒂斯等著名艺术家的作品。有几句话需要提醒你注意:博物馆票价不菲,常常拥挤。 惠特尼美国艺术博物馆? 麦迪逊大道 945 号(靠近第 75 街)? 惠特尼博物馆藏有极好的当代美国画和雕塑品。馆内没有永久性的展出,展品都是随时更换的。惠特尼博物馆 每两年有一次特殊的展览, 展品是仍然在世的画家们的新作。 这家博物馆还展出当代影视艺术家的录像和电影作品。

Unit 2 Poems 第二单元 诗歌 Reading
A few simple forms of English poems There are various reasons why people write poetry. Some poems tell a story or describe something in a way that will give the reader a strong impression. Others try to convey certain emotions. Poets use many different forms of poetry to express themselves. In this text, however, we will look at a few of the simpler forms. Some of the first poetry a young child learns in English is nursery rhymes. These rhymes like the one on the right (A) are still a common type of children's poetry. The language is concrete but imaginative, and they delight small children because they rhyme, have strong rhythm and a lot of repetition. The poems may not make sense and even seem contradictory, but they are easy to learn and recite. By playing with the words in nursery rhymes, children learn about language. (A) Hush, little baby, don't say a word, Papa's going to buy you a mockingbird. If that mockingbird won't sing, Papa's going to buy you a diamond ring. If that diamond ring turns to brass,

Papa's going to buy you a looking-glass. If that looking-glass gets broke, Papa's going to buy you a billy-goat. If that billy-goat runs away, Papa's going to buy you another today. One of the simplest kinds of poems are those like B and C that list things.List poems have a flexible line length and repeated phrases which give both a pattern and a rhythm to the poem.Some rhyme (like B) while others do not (like C). (B) I saw a fish- pond all on fire I saw a fish-pond all on fire, I saw a house bow to a squire, I saw a person twelve-feet high, I saw a cottage in the sky, I saw a balloon made of lead, I saw a coffin drop down dead, I saw two sparrows run a race, I saw two horses making lace, I saw a girl just like a cat, I saw a kitten wear a hat, I saw a man who saw these too, And said though strange they all were true. (C) Our first football match We would have won ... if Jack had scored that goal, if we'd had just a few more minutes, if we had trained harder, if Ben had passed the ball to Joe, if we'd had thousands of fans screaming, if I hadn't taken my eye off the ball, if we hadn't stayed up so late the night before, if we hadn't taken it easy, if we hadn't run out of energy. We would have won ... if we'd been better! Another simple form of poem that students can easily write is the cinquain, a poem made up of five lines.With these, students can convey a strong picture in just a few words. Look at the examples (D and E) on the top of the next page. (D) Brother Beautiful, athletic Teasing, shouting, laughing Friend and enemy too Mine (E) Summer Sleepy, salty Drying, drooping, dreading Week in, week out Endless

Haiku is a Japanese form of poetry that is made up of 17 syllables.It is not a traditional form of English poetry, but is very popular with English writers.It is easy to write and, like the cinquain , can give a clear picture and create a special feeling using the minimum of words.The two haiku poems (F and G) above are translations from the Japanese. (F) A fallen blossom Is coming back to the branch. Look, a butterfly! ( by Moritake) (G) Snow having melted, The whole village is brimful Of happy children. (by Issa) Did you know that English speakers also enjoy other forms of Asian poetry - Tang poems from China in particular?A lot of Tang poetry has been translated into English.This Tang poem (H) is a translation from the Chinese. (H) Where she awaits her husband (by Wang Jian) On and on the river flows. Never looking back,Transformed into stone. Day by day upon the mountain top,wind and rain revolve. Should the traveller return,this stone would utter speech. 英语诗歌的几种简单形式 人们写诗有着各种各样的理由。有些诗是为了叙事,或者说是描述某件事,并给读者以强烈的印象。而有些诗 则是为了传达某种感情。诗人用许多不同格式的诗来表达自己的情感。本文只谈了几种格式比较简单的诗。 最早用英文写的诗是童谣。孩子们很小就学习童谣。像下边的这首童谣(A)至今仍然是常见的。这些童谣能 使俏皮孩子们快乐,因为它们节奏感强并且押韵,而且重复多遍。这样就容易学,也容易背。通过童谣中的文字游 戏,教孩子们学习语言。 (A) 小宝宝,别吵吵, 爸爸给你买个小哩鸟。 小哩鸟,不会唱, 爸爸给你买个钻石戒。 钻石戒,变成铜 爸爸给你买个小镜子。 小镜子,打破了, 爸爸给你买个小山羊。 小山羊,跑掉了。 爸爸今天再去买一只。 像(B)和(C)这样列举事物的清单诗是诗歌中最简单的一种,学生可以自己动手写。清单诗可以重复一些短 语和韵脚(如 B) ,但有一些也不是这样(如 C) 。 (B) 我看到鱼塘在燃烧 我看到鱼塘在燃烧, 我看到房子向地主哈腰, 我看到人高一丈八, 我看到茅屋在天郊, 我看到气球用铝做。 我看到棺材把死人抛。

我看到两只麻雀在赛跑, 我看到两匹马儿绣花包。 我看到姑娘像只猫, 我看到小猫戴花帽。 我看到有人在一旁瞄, 虽奇怪,但也把实情报。 (C) 我们的第一场球赛 我们本来会得冠军…… 如果杰克踢进了那个球, 如果我们还有几分钟, 如果我们训练得更严格, 如果本把球传给了乔, 如果有大批球迷助威, 如果我死死盯住球, 如果我们头晚不熬夜, 如果我们没有太大意, 如果我们没有精疲力竭, 我们本来会得冠军…… 如果我们再干得好一些! 另外,一种学生容易写的简体诗是由五行组成的,叫做五行诗。用五行诗,学生可以用少量的词语传递一幅动 人的画面。请看下面的(D)和(E)两个例子。 (D) 兄弟 爱美,又爱运动 爱闹,爱叫,又爱笑 是我的朋友 也是我的敌人 (E) 夏天 困乏,刺激 干涸,枯萎,恐怖 周而复始 永无止境 俳句诗(Haiku)是一种日本诗,由 17 个音节组成。它不属英诗的传统形式,但是在说英语的人们中间,这种 诗也是很流行的。它容易写,而且像五行诗一样,它可用很少的词语呈现出一幅清晰的画面,表达出一种特殊的感 情。下面两首俳句诗下面的(F)和(G)就是由日文翻译而来的。 (F) 落下的花朵 回顾到树枝上。 瞧啊,是个蝴蝶! (作者:moritake) (G) 雪儿溶化了, 整个村庄充满着 欢乐的儿童。 (作者:Issa) 你知道吗?说英语的人也借另外一种亚洲诗,那就是中国的唐诗,许多唐诗已经翻译成英文了。这些诗都译成 了自由体,说英语的人都喜欢模仿它。下面这首唐诗就是从中文译成英文的。

(H) 望夫石 王 健 望夫处,江悠悠。 化为石,不回头。 山头日日风复雨, 行人归来石应语。

Using Language Listening,reading and discussing
I'VE SAVED THE SUMMER (by Rod McKuen) I've saved the summer And I give it all to you To hold on winter mornings When the snow is new. I've saved some sunlight If you should ever need A place away from darkness Where your mind can feed. And for myself I've kept your smile When you were but nineteen, Till you're older you'll not know What brave young smiles can mean. I know no answers To help you on your way The answers lie somewhere At the bottom of the day. But if you've a need for love I'll give you all l own It might help you down the road Till you've found your own. 我保留了夏天 Rod Mckuen 我把夏天留下, 全都交给了你。 当雪花儿初降时, 让冬天的早晨停住。 我把阳光留下, 万一你需要它。 在那远离黑暗的地方, 你的心灵会得到补养。 那年你芳龄十九,

我就珍藏了你的微笑。 等你长大成人以后, 才知道年轻勇敢的微笑的奥秘。 我不知道有什么办法, 帮你踏上你人生的旅程。 办法也许就在某处: 在白天结束的那个时辰。 如果你需要爱, 我会献上我所有的爱。 它也许能帮你踏上旅程, 直到你也找到属于你的爱。

Unit 3 A healthy life 第三单元 健康生活 Reading
ADVICE FROM GRANDAD Dear James, It is a beautiful day here and I am sitting under the big tree at the end of the garden. I have just returned from a long bike ride to an old castle. It seems amazing that at my age I am still fit enough to cycle 20 kilometres in an afternoon. It's my birthday in two weeks time and I'll be 82 years old! I think my long and active life must be due to the healthy life I live. This brings me to the real reason for my letter, my dear grandson. Your mother tells me that you started smoking some time ago and now you are finding it difficult to give it up. Believe me, I know how easy it is to begin smoking and how tough it is to stop. You see, during adolescence I also smoked and became addicted to cigarettes. By the way, did you know that this is because you become addicted in three different ways? First, you can become physically addicted to nicotine, which is one of the hundreds of chemicals in cigarettes. This means that after a while your body becomes accustomed to having nicotine in it. So when the drug leaves your body, you get withdrawal symptoms. I remember feeling bad-tempered and sometimes even in pain. Secondly, you become addicted through habit. As you know, if you do the same thing over and over again, you begin to do it automatically. Lastly, you can become mentally addicted. I believed I was happier and more relaxed after having a cigarette, so I began to think that I could only feel good when I smoked. I was addicted in all three ways, so it was very difficult to quit. But I did finally manage. When I was young, I didn't know much about the harmful effects of smoking. I didn't know, for example, that it could do terrible damage to your heart and lungs or that it was more difficult for smoking couples to become pregnant. I certainly didn't know their babies may have a smaller birth weight or even be abnormal in some way. Neither did I know that my cigarette smoke could affect the health of non-smokers. However, what I did know was that my girlfriend thought I smelt terrible. She said my breath and clothes smelt, and that the ends of my fingers were turning yellow. She told me that she wouldn't go out with me again unless I stopped! I also noticed that I became breathless quickly, and that I wasn't enjoying sport as much. When I was taken off the school football team because I was unfit, I knew it was time to quit smoking. I am sending you some advice I found on the Internet. It might help you to stop and strengthen your resolve. I do hope so because I want you to live as long and healthy a life as I have. Love from Grandad How can you stop smoking? It is not easy to stop smoking, but millions have managed to quit and so can you. Here are a few suggestions. Prapare youself. Decide on a day to quit. Don?t choose a day that you know is going to be stressful, such as the day of an exam. Make a list of all the benefits you will get from stopping smoking. Then throw away your last packet of cigarettes. Be determined. Every time you fell like smoking a cigarette, remind yourself that you are a non-smoker. Reread the list

of benefits you wrote earlier. Break the habit. Instead of smoking a cigarette, do something else. Go for a walk, clean your teeth, frink some water, clean the house; in fact, do anything to keep ypur mind and especially your hands busy. Relax. If you start to feel nervous or stressed, do not raech for a cigarette. Try some deep breathing instead. Do some relaxationg exercises every time you feel stressed. Get help if you need it. Arrange to stop smoking with a friend so you can talk about your problems,or join a stop-smoking group. If you feel desperate , you might like to talk to a doctor or chemist about something to help you, like nicotine chewing gum. Keep trying. Don?t be disappointed if you have to try several times before you finally stop smoking. If you weaken and have a cigarette,do not feel ashamed. Just try again. You will succeed finally. 爷爷的忠告 亲爱的詹姆士: 今天,这儿天气晴朗。现在,我正坐在花园尽头的那棵大树底下。我骑自行车跑了很长一段路,一直到了古城 堡,刚刚回来。感到不可思议吧,像我这样的年纪,身体健康而且能在一个下午骑车跑 20 公里。再过两个礼拜就 是我 82 岁的生日了!我想我之所以长寿而且精力充沛,要归功于我的健康生活。 这就是我写信给你的真正原因,我亲爱的孙子。你妈妈告诉我,你已经开始吸烟了,而且还很难把它戒掉。相 信我吧,我知道,吸烟容易戒烟难。你知道,当我还是一个十几岁的孩子的时候,我也吸过烟,而且还上了瘾。这 儿我想顺便问你一个问题,你知道上瘾有三个方面的原因吗? 身体对尼古丁有瘾,尼古丁是香烟里几百种化学物质之一。这就是说,过了一段时间以后,你的身体习惯了香 烟里的尼古丁,一旦你的体内没有这种麻醉剂了,你就会感到不舒服、烦躁,甚至痛苦。你也可能因为习惯的原因 而上瘾,你知道,如果你反反复复地做同一件事情,你就会自觉地做它。最后,上瘾还有心理上的原因。有的人认 为,抽了一支烟后,他就会感到轻松愉快,于是就以为抽烟才能使感觉良好。我想我之所以上瘾是有着这三个方面 的原因的,因此,要戒烟就很难。但是我最后还是戒掉了。 在我年轻的时候,关于吸烟的危害性我知道得并不多。当时,我不知道抽烟能严重侵害人的心脏和肺部,也不 知道吸烟的夫妇生育能力会下降。 我更不知道, 我自己吸烟还会损害那些不吸烟人的健康。 然而, 我的的确确知道, 我的女朋友觉得我的烟味很难闻。她说我的呼吸、我的衣服都有烟的味道,我的手指头都变黄了。她说在我把烟戒 掉之前她是不会同我一起外出的。我也发现我跑得不如以前那么快,也不像以前那样爱好运动了。而当因为动作慢 而被校足球队除名之后,我才知道该是我戒烟的时候了。 我把我从网上找到的一些忠告寄给你,也许对你戒烟有所帮助。我的确希望你把它戒掉,因为我希望你能像我 这样活得健康长寿。 爱你的爷爷 我怎样才能戒烟呢? 戒烟不容易,但许许多多的人都成功地戒掉了烟,所以你也能。这儿有几点建议: 做好准备。 确定一个开始戒烟的日子。不要选择你明知有压力的日子,例如考试的那一天。把戒烟的好处开 列一个清单。在你计划戒烟的前一天,把你最后一包香烟扔掉。 下定决心。 每次当你想要抽烟的时候 ,你就提醒你自己,你已经是不抽烟的人了。把你早先写的那个戒烟的 好处的清单反复地看一看。 破除旧习。 不要抽烟,而去干点别的事情。去散散步、刷刷牙、喝点水、打扫房间。其实,只要是能使你的 脑,特别是手不要空闲的事情,你都可以去做。 放松休息。 如果你开始感到紧张有压力了,不要伸手去拿烟。尝试着去做深呼吸。学习一些放松运动,每当 你感到有压力时,就做一些放松运动。 寻求帮助。和你的一位朋友一起来做好戒烟的安排,以便你能向他谈谈你的问题,或者参加戒烟俱乐部。如果 你感到非常难受,你也可以找医生或药剂师来谈谈,帮你想点办法,像尼古丁口香糖。 坚持尝试。据发现,有些人尝试了好几次,才最终把烟戒掉,如果你因意志薄弱而又抽烟了,也不要觉得难为 情。再戒一次就是了。最终你会成功的。

Using Language Reading

HIV/AIDS:ARE YOU AT RISK? HIV is a virus. A virus is a very small living thing that causes disease. There are many different viruses, for example, the flu virus or the SARS virus. HIV weakens a person's immune system; that is, the part of the body that fights disease. You can have HIV in your blood for a long time, but eventually HIV will damage your immune system so much that you body can no longer fight disease. This stage of the illness is called AIDS. If you develop AIDS, your chances of survival are very small. HIV is spread through blood or the fluid that the body makes during sex. For a person to become infected, blood or sexual fluid that carries the virus, has to get inside the body through broken skin or by injection. One day scientists will find a cure for HIV/AIDS. Until that happens, you need to protect yourself. Here are some things you can do to make sure you stay safe. If you inject drugs: do not share your needle with anyone else. Blood from another person can stay on or in the needle. If a person has HIV and you use the same needle, you could inject the virus into your own blood. do not share anything else that a person has used while injecting drugs.Blood could have spilt on it. If you have sex with a male or a female: use a condom. This will prevent sexual fluid passing from one person to another. The following statements are NOT true. A person cannot get HIV the first time they have sex.WRONG. If one sexual partner has HIV, the other partner could become infected. You can tell by looking at someone whether or not they have HIV.WRONG. Many people carrying HIV look perfectly healthy. It is only when the disease has progressed to AIDS that a person begins to look sick. Only homosexuals get AIDS.WRONG. Anyone who has sex with a person infected with H1V/AIDS risks getting the virus. Women are slightly more likely to become infected than men. If you hug, touch or kiss someone with AIDS or visit them in their home, you will get HIV/AIDS.WRONG.You can only get the disease from blood or sexual fluid.Unfortunately, people with HIV sometimes lose their friends because of prejudice.Many people are afraid that they will get HIV/AIDS from those infected with HIV!AIDS. For the same reason, some AIDS patients cannot find anyone to look after them when they are sick. You can get HIV/AIDS from mosquitoes.WRONG. There is no evidence of this. HIV 病毒/艾滋病:你是否面临危险? HIV 是一种病毒(人体免疫缺损病毒) 。病毒是引发疾病的微生物。它有许多种类。如流感病毒和 SARS 病毒。 HIV 病毒破坏人体的免疫系统, 也就是说使人体抗衡疾病的免疫功能减弱。 在你的血液中, HIV 病毒可以长期存在, 但是它最终会使你的免疫系统严重受损,以致使你的身体不再能抗衡疾病。这种疾病到了这个阶段就叫艾滋病。到 目前为止,几乎所有得上了艾滋病的人都已经去世。HIV 是通过血液或性交时产生的体液而传播的。携带病毒的血 液或体液必须通过皮肤上的创口或通过注射才能进入体内,使人受感染。 将来总有一天会找到医治 HIV 病毒和艾滋病的疗法的。在找到之前,你必须保护你自己。你可以按这里列举的 一些注意事项去做,以确保自己的安全: 假如你要注射药物: 不要同别人共用注射针,别人的血液可能会留在针头内外。如果某人有 HIV 病毒,而你又用了同一个注射针, 你就有可能把别人的病毒注入到你的血液中来。 在注射药物时,不得共用携带病毒的患者所用的其他东西,因为血液可能会溅到这些物品上。 假如你同(男或女)人性交: 要使用避孕套。它可以防止性交时产生的体液的传入。 下列这些说法都是错误的: 初次性交的人不可能染上 HIV 病毒。错。如果性交的某一方有了 HIV 病毒,另一方就有可能传染上。 通过观察,你可以看出某人是否带有 HIV 病毒。错。许多携带 HIV 病毒的患者看上去十分健康。只有当这种 病毒发展成艾滋病时,人才会显出病态。 只有同性恋者才得艾滋病。错。任何人如果同感染了 HIV 病毒的人性交,他们就有染上这种病毒的危险。女性 感染病毒的可能性比男性稍微大一些。 如果你同艾滋病患者拥抱、接触或亲吻,或者去他们家做客,你就会从他们那里感染上 HIV 病毒或得艾滋病。

错。 你只可能通过血液或性交时的体液才能传染上这种病。 不幸的是, 携带 HIV 病毒的患者有时会失去他们的朋友。 因为人们担心他们会从患者那儿染上 HIV 病毒,感染上艾滋病。由于相同的理由,有些艾滋病患者在生病时找不到 任何人来照顾他们。 蚊子可以传染 HIV 病毒和艾滋病。错。目前还没有证据说明这一点。

Unit 4 Global warming 第四单元 全球在变暖 Reading
THE EARTH IS BECOMIG WARMER-BUT DOES IT MATTER? During the 20th century the temperature of the earth rose about one degree Fahrenheit. That probably does not seem much to you or me, but it is a rapid increase when compared to other natural changes. So how has this come about and does it matter? Earth care's Sophie Armstrong explores these questions. There is no doubt that the earth is becoming warmer(see Graph 1) and that it is human activity that has caused this global warmig rather than a random but natural phenomenon. All scientists subscribe to the view that the increase in the earth's temperature is due to the burning of fossil fuels like coal, natural gas and oil to produce energy. Some byproducts of this process are called "greenhouse" gases, the most important one of which is carbon dioxide. Dr Janice Foster explains: "There is a natural phenomenon that scientists call the "greenhouse effect".This is when small amounts of gases in the atmosphere, like carbon dioxide, methane and water vapour, trap heat from the sun and therefore warm the earth. Without the'greenhouse effect the earth would be about thirty-three degrees Celsciu cooler than it is. So, we need those gases. The problem begins when we add huge quantities of extra carbon dioxide into the atmosphere. It means that more heat energy tends to be trapped in the atmosphere causing the global temperature to go up. We know that the levels of carbon dioxide have increased greatly over the last 100 to 150 years. It was a scientist called Charles Keeling, who made accurate measurements of the amount of carbon dioxide in the atmosphere from 1957 to 1997. He found that between these years the carbon dioxide in the atmosphere went up from around 315 parts to around 370 parts per million(see Graph 2) All scientists accept this data. They also agree that it is the burning of more and more fossil fuels that has resulted in this increase in carbon dioxide. So how high will the temperature increase go? Dr Janice Foster says that over the next 100 years the amount of warming could be as low as 1 to 1.5 degrees Celsius, but it could be as high as 5 degrees.However, the attitude of scientists towards this rise in completely different. On the one hand, Dr Foster thinks that the trend which increases the temperature by 5 degrees would be a catastrophe. She says, " We can't predict the climate well enough to know what to expect, but it could be very serious." Others who agree with her think there may be a rise of several metres in the sea level, or predict severe storms, floods, droughts, famines, the spread of diseases and the disappearance of species. On the other hand, there are those, like George Hambley, who are opposed to this view, believe that we should not worry about high levels of carbon dioxide in the air. They predict that any warming will be mild with few bad environmental consequences. In fact, Hambley states, "More carbon dioxide is actually a positive thing. It will make plants grow quicker; crops will produce more; it will encourage a greater range of animals-all of which will make life for human beings better." Greenhouse gases continue to build up in the atmosphere. Even if we start reducing the amount of carbon dioxide and other greenhouse gases, the climate is going to keep on warming for decades or centuries. No one knows the effects of global warming. Does that mean we should do nothing? Or, are the risks too great? 全球在变暖——这会带来什么影响吗? 在 20 世纪期间,地球温度大约升了华氏 1 度。这个数值对你我来说很可能是无所谓的,但是,跟多数自然变 化相比较而言, 这却是种快速的增长。这种温度的增长是怎么产生的呢?“关爱地球”组织的索菲· 阿姆斯特朗就在探 究这些问题。 毫无疑问,地球是在变暖。但是全球变暖的原因是人为的呢,或者仅仅是一种自然现象呢?对于这个问题存在 着激烈的争辩。 许多科学家认为,人们为了生产能量而燃烧化石燃料(如煤、天然气和石油等) ,从而引起了地球温度的升高。

这个升温过程的副产品就叫做“温室”气体,其中最重要的就是二氧化碳。贾尼丝· 福斯特博士解释说: “你知道, 有一种科学称之为?温室效应?的自然现象。 这种现象发生在大气层中少量的气体 (如二氧化碳、 甲烷、 水蒸气等)吸收太阳的热量,因而,使地球变暖。如果没有这种?温室效应?,地球的温度将比现在的温度还要低 33 摄氏度左右。因此,我们需要这些气体。而当我们因为燃烧化石燃料而使大气层中增加了大量额外的二氧化碳时, 问题就来了。二氧化碳含量的增加意味着更多的热量被困在大气层中,从而引起了全球温度上升。 我们知道,在过去 100~150 年期间,二氧化碳的含量急剧增加了。有一位名叫查尔斯 · 奎林的科学家曾经把 1957~1997 年期间大气层中二氧化碳的含量做了精确的统计。他发现,在这些年里,大气层中的二氧化碳含量从百 万分之三百一十五上升到百万分之三百七十。 所有科学家都接受这个数据。 他们还认为, 正是由于燃烧的化石燃料越来越多而导致了二氧化碳的增加。 然而, 科学家们在对待这个问题的态度上却是大不相同的。 贾尼丝· 福斯特博士说, 在今后的 100 年里, 全球变暖的量可能低到 1~1.5 摄氏度, 但是也有可能高达 5 摄氏度。 她说:“对于未来的气候,我们不可能做出精确的预测,但是那时的天气可能是很糟糕的。” 有多么糟糕呢?有人认为,全球变暖会导致海平面上升好几米;也有人预言会出现严重的风暴、干旱、饥荒、疫病 和物种的绝灭。 在另一方面,还有一些人,像科学家乔治· 汉布利,他认为我们不必担心空气中会有高含量的二氧化碳。他还认 为,科学家对全球变暖的关注只不过是一种推测罢了。他预言说,变暖的情况不会很严重,对环境的影响也不会太 坏。他实际上是这样说的: “二氧化碳的增加实际上是件好事,它使植物成长更快,庄稼产量更高,还会促进动物的生长——所有这些都 能改善人类的生活。” 温室气体继续在大气层中聚集。 即使我们开始减少二氧化碳及其他温室气体的含量, 在未来几十年几个世纪内, 气候仍会持续升温。没有人知道全球变暖会带来什么样的影响。这是不是意味着我们就不必采取什么措施呢?还是 说,这样不采取任何措施危险性会很大呢?

Using Language Reading
WHAT CAN WE DO ABOUT GLOBAL WARMING? Dear Earth Care, I am doing a project on behalf of my school about global warming. Sometimes I feel that individuals can have little effect on such huge environmental problems. However, 1 still think people should advocate improvements in the way we use energy today. As I'm not sure where to start with my project, I would appreciate any suggestions you may have. Thank you! Ouyang Guang Dear Ouyang Guang, There are many people who have a commitment like yours, but they do not believe they have the power to do anything to improve our environment. That is not true. Together, individuals can make a difference. We do not have to put up with pollution. The growth of the greenhouse gas, carbon dioxide in the air actually comes as a result of many things we do every day. Here are a few suggestions on how to reduce it. They should get you started with your project. We use a lot of energy in our houses. It is OK to leave an electrical appliance on so long as you are using it - if not, turn it off! Do not be casual about this. So if you are not using the lights, the TV, the computer, and so on, turn them off. If you are cold, put on more clothes instead of turning up the heat. Motor vehicles use a lot of energy- so walk or ride a bike if you can. Recycle cans, bottles, plastic bags and newspapers if circumstances allow you to. It takes a lot of energy to make things from new materials, so, if you can, buy things made from recycled materials. Get your parents to buy things that are economical with energy - this includes cars as well as smaller things like fridges and microwaves. Plant trees in your garden or your school yard, as they absorb carbon dioxide from the air and refresh your spirit when you look at them.

Finally and most importantly, be an educator. Talk with your family and friends about global warming and tell them what you have learned. Remember - your contribution counts! Earth Care 关于全球变暖,我们能干些什么呢? 亲爱的“关爱地球”组织: 我正在学校里做一项课题研究——关于全球变暖的问题,我们能做些什么。有时候我觉得,像如此巨大的一个环境 问题,个人是起不了什么作用的。我还不清楚我应该从哪里着手我的研究。我希望能得到你们的建议。 谢谢。 欧阳光 亲爱的欧阳光: 有许多人跟你有同感,他们不相信自己有能力来影响环境。但是,这种想法是不正确的。众人拾柴火焰高。我们不 必去忍受污染。 温室气体,如二氧化碳,的确是来自我们许多的日常活动。这儿有几条关于减少空气中二氧化碳含量的建议。 这些建议应当能够促进你的研究。 在室内我们会用大量的能源。在用电器设备时你可以让它开着,如果不用就把它关掉!因此,你如果不用电灯、电 视、电脑等时,要把他们关掉。如果你觉得冷了,就多穿点衣服,而不要把电暖器开大。 机动车要用大量的能源。因此,只要有可能,你就步行或骑自行车吧。 把罐头、瓶子、塑料和报纸回收利用起来。用新材料来做这些东西要花费大量的能源,因此,只要有可能,就买那 些用回收材料制成的物品吧。 劝你的父母去买那些节约能源的产品,包括汽车和像冰箱、微波炉之类的小件东西。 在你的花园或校园里栽种树木,它们能吸收空气中的二氧化碳。 重要的是,同你的家人和朋友谈一谈全球变暖的问题,并把你学到的东西告诉他们。 记住,你的贡献很有价值。 “关爱地球”组织

Unit 5 The power of nature Workbook Reading

第五单元 大自然的力量

AN EXCITING JOB I have the greatest job in the world. I travel to unusual places and work alongside people from all over the world. Sometimes working outdoors, sometimes in an office, sometimes using scientific equipment and sometimes meeting local people and tourists, I am never bored. Although my job is occasionally dangerous, I don't mind because danger excites me and makes me feel alive. However, the most important thing about my job is that I help protect ordinary people from one of the most powerful forces n earth-the volcano. I was appointed as volcanologist information for a database about Mount Kilauea, which is one of the most active volcanoes in Hawaii. Having collected and evaluated the information, I help other scientists to predict where lava from the volcano will flow next and how fast. Our work has saved man lives because people in the path of the lava can be warned to leave their houses. Unfortunately, we cannot move their homes out of the way, and many houses have been covered with lava or burned to the ground. When boiling rock erupts from a volcano and crashes back to earth, it causes less damage than you might imagine. This is because no one lives near the top of Mount Kilauea, where the rocks fall. The lava that flows slowly like a wave down the mountain causes far more damage because it buries everything in its path under the molten rock. However, the eruption itself is really exciting to watch and I shall never forget my first sight of one. It was in the second week after I arrived in Hawaii. Having worked hard all day, I went to bed early. I was fast asleep when suddenly my bed began shaking and I heard a strange sound, like a railway train passing my window. Having experienced quite a few earthquakes in Hawaii already, I didn't take much notice. I was about to go back to sleep when suddenly my bedroom became as bright as day. I ran out of the house into the back garden where I could see Mount Kilauea in the distance. There had been an eruption from the side of the mountain and red hot lava was fountaining hundreds of metres into the air. It was an absolutely fantastic sight.

The day after this eruption I was lucky enough to have a much closer look at it. Two other scientists and I were driven up the mountain and dropped as close as possible to the crater that had been formed duing the eruption. Having earlier collected special clothes from the observatory, we put them on before we went any closer. All three of us looked like spacemen. We had white protective suits that covered our whole body, helmets,big boots and special gloves. It was not easy to walk in these suits, but we slowly made our way to the edge of the crater and looked down into the red, boiling centre. The other two climbed down into the crater to collect some lava for later study, but this being my first experience, I stayed at the top and watched them. Today, I am just as enthusiastic about my job as the day I first started. Having studied volcanoes now for many years, I am still amazed their beauty as well as their potential to cause great damage. 一份具有刺激性的工作 我的工作是世界上最伟大的工作。我跑的地方是稀罕奇特的地方,我见到的是世界各地有趣味的人们,有时在室外 工作,有时在办公室里,有时工作中要用科学仪器,有时要会见当地百姓和旅游人士。但是我从不感到厌烦。虽然 我的工作偶尔也有危险,但是我并不在乎,因为危险能激励我,使我感到有活力。然而,最重要的是,通过我的工 作能保护人们免遭世界最大的自然威力之一,也就是火山的威胁。 我是一名火山学家,在夏威夷火山观测站(HVO)工作。我的主要任务是收集有关基拉韦厄火山的信息,这是夏威 夷最活跃的火山之一。收集和评估了这些信息之后,我就帮助其他科学家一起预测下次火山熔岩将往何处流,流速 是多少。我们的工作拯救了许多人的生命,因为熔岩要流经之地,老百姓都可以得到离开家园的通知。遗憾的是, 我们不可能把他们的家搬离岩浆流过的地方,因此,许多房屋被熔岩淹没,或者焚烧殆尽。 当滚烫沸腾的岩石从火山喷发出来并撞回地面时,它所造成的损失比想象的要小些,这是因为在岩石下落的基拉韦 厄火山顶附近无人居住。而顺着山坡下流的火山熔岩造成的损失却大得多,这是因为火山岩浆所流经的地方,一切 东西都被掩埋在熔岩下面了。 然而火山喷发本身的确是很壮观的, 我永远也忘不了我第一次看见火山喷发时的情景。 那是在我到达夏威夷后的第二个星期。那天辛辛苦苦地干了一整天,我很早就上床睡觉。我在熟睡中突然感到床铺 在摇晃, 接着我听到一阵奇怪的声音, 就好像一列火车从我的窗外行驶一样。 因为我在夏威夷曾经经历过多次地震, 所以对这种声音我并不在意。我刚要再睡,突然我的卧室亮如白昼。我赶紧跑出房间,来到后花园,在那儿我能远 远地看见基拉韦厄火山。在山坡上,火山爆发了,红色发烫的岩浆像喷泉一样,朝天上喷射达几百米高。真是绝妙 的奇景! 就在这次火山喷发的第二天,我有幸做了一次近距离的观察。我和另外两位科学被送到山顶,在离火山爆发期间形 成的火山口最靠近的地方才下车。早先从观测站出发时,就带了一些特制的安全服,于是我们穿上安全服再走近火 山口。我们三个人看上去就像宇航员一样,我们都穿着白色的防护服遮住全身,戴上了头盔和特别的手套,还穿了 一双大靴子。穿着这些衣服走起路来实在不容易,但我们还是缓缓往火山口的边缘走去,并且向下看到了红红的沸 腾的中心。另外,两人攀下火山口,去收集供日后研究用的岩浆,我是第一次经历这样的事,所以留在山顶上观察 他们。 今天,我还是像开始工作时那样,对工作充满热情。虽然我从事火山研究 20 多年了,但是我对火山的壮丽景色以 及它那潜在的巨大破坏力至今仍然感到惊愕不已。

Using Language Reading
THE LRKE OF HERVEN Changbaishan is in Jilin Province, Northeast China.Much of this beautiful, mountainous area is thick forest . Changbaishan is China's largest nature reserve and it is kept in its natural state for the people of China and visitors from all over the world to enjoy. The height of the land varies from 700 metres above sea level to over 2,000 metres and is home to a great diversity of rare plants and animals. Among the rare animals are cranes, black bears, leopards and tigers. Many people come to Changbaishan to study its unique plants and animals. Others come to walk in the mountains, to see the spectacular waterfalls or to bathe in the hot water pools. However, the attraction that arouses the greatest appreciation in the reserve is Tianchi or the Lake of Heaven. Tianchi is a deep lake that has formed in the crater of a dead volcano on top of the mountain. The lake is 2,194 metres above sea level, and more than 200 metres deep. In winter the surface freezes over. It takes about an hour to climb from the end of the road to the top of the mountain. When you arrive you are rewarded not only with the sight of its clear waters, but also by

the view of the other sixteen mountain peaks that surround Tianchi. There are many stories told about Tianchi. The most well-known concerns three young women from heaven. They were bathing in Tainchi when a bird flew above them and dropped a small fruit onto the dress of the youngest girl. When she picked up the fruit to smell it, it flew into her mouth.Having swallowed the fruit, the girl became pregnant and later gave birth to a handsome boy. It is said that this boy, who had a great gift for languages and persuasion, is the father of the Manchu people. If you are lucky enough to visit the Lake of Heaven with your loved one, don't forget to drop a coin into the clear blue water to guarantee your love will be as deep and lasting as the lake itself. 天上的湖(天池) 长白山在东北的吉林省,这个美丽的山区大部分是茂密的林区。长白山是中国最大的自然保护区,保持着它的原始 状态,以供中国人民和世界各地的游客们观赏。这里地面的高度从海拔 700 米到 2,000 米不等,是多种多样动植 物的生长地。珍稀动物有白鹤、黑熊、豹子和西伯利亚虎。许多人到长白山来研究特有的动植物。另外一些人则是 到山里来走一走,看看那些蔚伟壮观的瀑布,或者在温水池里泡个澡。然而保护区里最有吸引力的地方则是天池, 或者说是天上的湖。 天池是一个深水湖,是由山顶一个死火山的火山口形成的。湖的海拔高度为 2,194 米,水深超过 200 米,到冬天, 湖面就全部结冰了。从路的末端到山顶约需一个小时。你一到达山顶就会得到回报——你不仅可以看到天池清澈如 镜的湖水,而且还可以看到天池四周的 16 座山峰。 天池有着许多传说故事,其中最著名是从天上下凡的三位少女的故事。她们正在天池里洗澡,突然,有一只鸟飞过 她们的头顶,并且,把一枚小小的果实掉在最年轻的那位少女的衣服上。当那个少女捡起那枚果实,想要去闻一闻 的时候,那枚果实飞进了她的嘴里。姑娘吞食了这个果子,后来就怀了孕。过了一段时间,她生下了一个漂亮的小 男孩。据说这个男孩就是满族人的祖先,具有语言天赋和很强的说服力。 如果你有幸和你所爱的人去游天池,别忘了投一枚硬币到清澈碧蓝的水中,以确保你们的爱情像湖水一样深厚、持 久。



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