句子成分(Members of a Sentence) 什么叫句子成分呢？句子的组成成分叫句子成分。在句子中，词与词之间有 一定的组合关系，按照不同的关系，可以把句子分为不同的组成成分。句子成分 由词或词组充当。现代汉语里一般的句子成分有六种，即主语、谓语、宾语、定 语、状语和补语。英语的基本成分有七种：主语（subject） 、谓语（predicate） 、表 语 （predi
cative）宾语 、 （object）定语 、 （attribute 状语(adverbial) 和补语 （complement） 。 英语句子的基本结构可以归纳成五种基本句型及其扩大、组合、省略或倒装。 掌握这五种基本句型，是掌握各种英语句子结构的基础。 英语五种基本句型列式如下： 一.ＳＶ（主＋谓）二：ＳＶＰ（主＋系＋表）三：ＳＶＯ（主＋谓＋宾） 四：ＳＶｏＯ（主＋谓＋间宾＋直宾）五：ＳＶＯＣ（主＋谓＋宾＋宾补） 基本句型 一：Ｓ Ｖ （主＋谓） 主语：可以作主语的成分有名词，主格代词（如 you） ，动词不定式，动名词等。 主语一般在句首。注意名词单数形式常和冠词不分家！ 谓语：谓语由动词构成，是英语时态、语态变化的主角，一般在主语之后。不及 物动词（vi.）没有宾语，形成主谓结构，如：We come. 此句型的句子有一个共同点，即句子的谓语动词都能表达完整的意思。这类动词 叫做不及物动词，后面可以跟副词、介词短语、状语从句等。Ｓ│Ｖ 不及物动词） 1. The sun │was shining. 2. The moon │rose. 3. The universe │remains. 4. We all │breathe, eat, and drink. 5. Who │cares? 6. What he said │does not matter. 7. They │talked for half an hour. 8. The pen │writes smoothly 基本句型 二： Ｓ Ｖ Ｐ （主＋系＋表） 此句型的句子有一个共同的特点： 句子谓语动词都不能表达一个完整的意思， 必须加上一个表明主语身份或状态的表语构成复合谓语，才能表达完整的意思。 这类动词叫做连系动词。 系动词分两类： look, keep, seem 等属一类， be, 表示情况； get, grow, become, turn 等属另一类，表示变化。be 本身没有什么意义,只起连系主 语和表语的作用。 其它系动词仍保持其部分词义。 感官动词多可用作联系动词： look well/面色好,sound nice/听起来不错,feel good/感觉好，smell bad/难闻 Ｓ │Ｖ（是系动词）│ Ｐ His face │turned │red. 1. This │is │an English-Chinese dictionary. 2. The dinner │smells │good. 3. He │fell │in love.4. Everything │looks │different.5.He│is growing │tall and strong. 6. The trouble│is │that they are short of money.7. Our well │has gone │dry.
There be 结构： There be 表示?存在有?。这里的 there 没有实际意义，不可与副词 ?there 那里?混淆。此结构后跟名词，表示?（存在）有某事物? 试比较：There is a boy there.（那儿有一个男孩。 ）/前一个 there 无实意，后一个 there 为副词?那里?。 基本句型 三： Ｓ Ｖ Ｏ （主＋谓＋宾） 此句型句子的共同特点是：谓语动词都具有实义，都是主语产生的动作，但 不能表达完整的意思，必须跟有一个宾语，即动作的承受者，才能使意思完整。 这类动词叫做及物动词。宾语位于及物动词之后，一般同主语构成一样，不同的 是构成宾语的代词必须是?代词宾格?，如：me，him，them 等 Ｓ│Ｖ及物动词│Ｏ 1. Who │knows │the answer? 2. She │smiled │her thanks. 3. He │has refused │to help them. 4. He │enjoys │reading. 5. They │ate │what was left over. 6. He │said │"Good morning." 7. I │want │to have a cup of tea. 8. He │admits │that he was mistaken. 基本句型 四： Ｓ Ｖ ｏ Ｏ （主＋谓＋间宾＋直宾） 有些及物动词可以有两个宾语，如：give 给，pass 递，bring 带，show 显示。这两 个宾语通常人为间接宾语；物为直接宾语。间接宾语一般位于直接宾语之前。一 般的顺序为：动词 + 间接宾语 + 直接宾语。如：Give me a cup of tea,please. 强调间接宾语顺序为：动词 + 直接宾语 +介词+ 间接宾语。如： Show this house to Mr.Smith. 若直接宾语为人称代词：动词+ 代词直接宾语 +介 词+ 间接宾语。如：Bring it to me,please. Ｓ│Ｖ及物│ｏ多指人）│Ｏ（多指物） 1. She │ordered │herself │a new dress. 2. He │brought │you │a dictionary. 3.She │cooked │her husband │a delicious meal. 4. He │denies │her │nothing. 5. I │showed │him │my pictures. 6. I │gave │my car │a wash. 7. I │told │him │that the bus was late. 8. He │showed │me │how to run the machine. 基本句型 五： Ｓ Ｖ Ｏ Ｃ （主＋谓＋宾＋宾补） 此句型的句子的共同特点是：动词虽然是及物动词，但是只跟一个宾语还不 能表达完整的意思，必须加上一个补充成分来补足宾语，才能使意思完整。 宾语补足语：位于宾语之后对宾语作出说明的成分。宾语与其补足语有逻辑 上的主谓关系，它们一起构成复合宾语。 名词/代词宾格 + 名词 The war made him a soldier. 名词/代词宾格 + 形容词 New methods make the job easy. 名词/代词宾格 + 介词短语 I often find him at work. 名词/代词宾格 + 动词不定式 The teacher ask the students to close the windows.
名词/代词宾格 + 分词 I saw a cat running across the road. Ｓ │Ｖ（及物）│ Ｏ（宾语） │ Ｃ（宾补） 1. They │appointed │him │manager. 2. They │painted │the door │green. 3. This │set │them │thinking. 4. They │found │the house │deserted. 5. What │makes │him │think so? 6. We │saw │him │out. 7. He │asked │me │to come back soon. 8. I │saw │them │getting on the bus. 但常用的英语句子并不都象基本句型这样简短，这些句子除了基本句型的成 分不变外，通常是在这些成分的前面或后面增加一些修饰语（modifier）而加以扩 大。这些修饰语可以是单词（主要是形容词、副词和数词） ，也可以是各种类型的 短语（主要是介词短语、不定式短语和分词短语） 。我们称之为：定语、状语 英语句子(sentence)=主语+谓语（核心：主动词） 英语句子成分歌 英语句子八呀八大块，主谓宾表真呀真实在；补语跟着宾语表语跑， 定语同位（语）专把名词踹。状语的位置它自由自在，忽右忽左随心所欲摆。浑 身的毛病真呀真不少，前后乱窜它还会加塞。 （RAP） 一、主语 句子一般要有主语。 在简单句中，主语一般由名词、代词、动名词或动词不定式(短语) 来充当。动名 词、动词不定式作主语时通常用 it 作形式主语。 ■名词作主语 English is very important. The students all love their English teacher. ■代词 They go to school by bus. Most of the students come from the countryside. ■动名词作主语 Watching TV too much is bad for your eyes. It?s no use regretting it. ■动词不定式(短语)作主语 To see is to believe. It is very hard to get to sleep. 二、谓语 谓语必须由动词充当，但动词不定式、动名词、分词为非谓语动词 不能作谓语。可作谓语的动词一般为行为动词(表动作)和连系动词(表状态)，行为 动词根据其后是否可直接接宾语，又可分为及物动词和不及物动词。 ■及物动词作谓语 We should help each other. They respect one another. All of the students like the novel. Did you see many people there? ■不及物动词作谓语 He left here yesterday. The teacher came in, book in hand. You?re driving too fast. He went abroad in the September of 1988. ■连系动词表状态 He is an excellent teacher. Her son is a friend of ours. 三、表语 表语与连系动词连用，构成系表结构，说明主语的身份或特征，一般由形容词、
名词、 动名词、 动词不定式、 分词等充当。 The ones who really want it are ourselves. 如 They are brother and sister. What I want to say is this. Her father is sixty-five. John is captain of the team. The poor boy was myself. All you need do is to take a taxi from the airport. My favourite sport is swimming. 常用作连系动词：① 变成,变得：become, come, fall, get, go, grow, run, turn 口诀：好是 come，坏是 go;天气、外貌慢慢 grow; 流水、金钱缓缓 run;颜色、天 气大不同 turn；Get\ become 口语化，如果要说就用它. Come 一般表示事物由坏变好，结果是好的。如：Dreams come true. Go 一般表示事物由好变坏。It's such a hot day today that this dish has gone smelly. Grow 表示逐渐变化， 强调的是缓慢变化的过程， 后面往往接表示天气或外貌变化 的静态形容词。如：I want to grow old with you. Run 与 grow 对应。 其主语多为能流动能消耗的东西 Still water runs deep.静水深流。 Turn 多接表示颜色和天气的形容词，侧重于表达与之前大不相同。 The weather suddenly turned hot. In spring the trees turn green, the flowers come out. Get\become 在口语表达时用得比较多，但这二者相比，become 相对正式些，其主 语既可以是人也可以是物。如：He got angry on hearing the news.听到这个消息，他 变得很生气。总之，不管英语多么“变”化多端，万“变”不离其宗。 系词 be 它有三，am is are ，我（I）用 am，you（你）用 are，is 用于他她它；单 数 is，复数 are，认真做题不出差。 （否句 be 后 not 加，疑问句，be 句首，句尾？ 不要丢。 ）② 保持某种状态：Continue, keep, lie, remain, stand, stay. ③ 看起来，好像：Appear, look, seem.④ 感官动词：Feel, smell, sound, taste. 四、宾语 宾语是行为动作的对象，一般可分为动词宾语和介词宾语，充当宾语的可以是名 词、代词、动名词、动词不定式或整个句子。如： I like Chinese food. I bought a ticket for Milan. I enjoyed talking to you. Have you finished dressing? He certainly did not want to join them. They decided to close the border. We hoped that all would come well. We expected that you would stay for a few days. “七给”一“带”to 不少,“买”画“制作”for 来了。 带双宾语的及物动词,如果把直接宾语置于间接宾语之前,必须在变换时“to”或 “for”。这 11 个及物动词可以概括为下边两句话,读起来妙趣横生,效果很好 1、“七给”(give, pass, lend, write, show, send, hand)和“带”(bring)8 个及物动词,在
直接宾语前置时,必须在后面加上“to”。即“vt. + sth. + to + sb.” 如:He lent some money to me.类似动词的还有 get,mail,offer,owe(借） pay,promise,read,sell,take,teach ， 2、“buy”(买);“draw”(画);“make”(制作)三个动词,在直接宾语前置时,则必须在后 边加“for”,构成“vt. + sth. + for + sb.”。Mother bought a new dress for me。类似的动 词还有：build，choose, cook, cut, do, find, fix,leave,order(订购）,reach 等。 3、当直接宾语是代词时，间接宾语 for 和 to 于直接宾语之后 Richard made it for him。 Give it to me。 4 有些动词后可单独用直接宾语、间接宾语或双宾语如 ask,teach,tell,owe, pay. I asked John. I asked a question. I asked John a question. 5、 suggest,explain,introduce,mention,deliver,announce 等动词后必须跟介词 to,不能 进行直接宾语与间接宾语的转换。Could you explain your point of view to us? =Could you explain to us your point of view? 6、 易错的动词：抢劫/偷某人某物：Rob/steal sb. sth (错误） 正确的说法：rob sb of sth steal sb from sth.类似的 cure sb of illness 治愈某人疾病 rid sb of sth 从----中除去（不好的东西 supply sb with sth 供给某人某物 provide sb with sth 给某人提供某物 accuse sb of sth 控告某人某事 cheat sb of sth 骗取某人某物 inform / advise sb of sth 通知某人某事 remind sb of sth 是某人想起某事 warn sb of sth 警告某人某情况 charge sb with sth 指责某人某事 五、定语 一、 定语：定语是对名词或代词起修饰、限定作用的词、短语或句子，汉语中常 用?……的?表示。定语通常位于被修饰的成分前。若修饰 some,any,every,no 构成的 复合不定代词时， （如：something、nothing） ；或不定式、分词短语作定语、从句 作定语时，则定语通常置后。副词用作定语时须放在名词之后。 His father is a doctor.Mr. Green has two sons. The girl under the tree is Kate. The man downstairs couldn?t sleep well. I bought a new dictionary. Can you find out the answer to the question？ Would you like something to drink? A barking dog seldom bites. 吠狗很少咬人。 man going to die is always kind-hearted. A 人之将死，其言也善。The suggestion sent to the committee was adopted. Do you know the man who is standing next to Mr. Green? 形容词作定语：Tom is a handsome boy. There is a good boy. The little boy needs a blue pen.(little 修饰名词 boy；blue 修饰名词 pen.）/
数词作定语相当于形容词：There are two boys in the room. Two boys need two pens.The two boys are students. 代词或名词所有格作定语：His boy needs Tom\'s pen His name is Tom. There are two boys of Toms there. 介词短语作定语：There are two boys of 9,and three of 10. The boy in the classroom needs a pen of yours.The boy in blue is Tom. 名词作定语：The boy needs a ball pen. It is a ball pen. There is only one ball pen 副词作定语：The boy there needs a pen.The best boy here is Tom. 不定式作定语：The boy to write this letter needs a pen.。 The boy to write this letter is Tom. There is nothing to do today. 分词（短语）作定语：The smiling boy needs a pen bought by his mother. The pen bought by her is made in China. There are five boys left.。 定语从句：The boy you will know is Tom. There are five boys who will play the game. The boy who is reading needs the pen which you bought yesterday. 六、状语： 状语在句子中的位置很灵活，常见情况为：通常在句子基本结构之后，强调时放 在句首；修饰形容词或副词时，通常位于被修饰的词之前；表示时间、地点、目 的的状语一般位于句子两头，强调时放在句首，地点状语一般须在时间状语之前； 一些表示不确定时间（如：often）或程度（如：almost）的副词状语通常位于 be 动词、助动词、情态动词之后，动词之前。有时状语在句中的某个位置会引起歧 义应注意，如 The boy calls the girl in the classroom.一般理解成?男孩喊教室里的女 孩? 此时 in the classroom 为 girl 的定语） 也可以理解为?男孩在教室里喊女孩? 此 （ ， （ 时 in the classroom 为地点状语） ，最好写作?In the classroom,the boy calls the girl.' 副词（短语）作状语：The boy needs a pen very much.（程度状语） The boy really needs a pen.（程度状语） The boy needs a pen now./Now,the boy needs a pen./The boy,now,needs a pen.（时状） 介词短语作状语：In the classroom,the boy needs a pen.（地点状语） Before his mother,Tom is always a boy.(条状) 分词（短语）作状语：He sits there,asking for a pen（表示伴随状态） Having to finish his homework,the boy needs a pen.（原因状语） Frightened,he sits there soundlessly./（ （原因状语） 不定式作状语：The boy needs a pen to do his homework.（目的状语）
To make his dream come true,Tom becomes very interested in business. 名词作状语：Come this way!/走这条路！ （方向状语） 英语中的状语用来修饰动词、形容词或副词，主要由副词、介词短语、动词不定 式、分词充当，或由连词引导状语从句，表示时间、地点、程度、目的、方式， 比较、让步、条件、原因、结果、伴随等。 (1) 时间状语 I often get up at 5:30 in the morning. Hearing the news, they felt very excited. Go along this street until you reach the end. (2) 地点状语 Pandas only live in China. You should put the book where it was. (3) 程度状语 I have quite a lot of work to do. (4) 目的状语 We?ll go to the beach for a picnic this Sunday. He took some change from his pocket to buy a newspaper. She got up early so that she could catch the first bus. (5) 方式状语 We usually go to school on foot. Please do it as I told you. (6) 让步状语 Though she has a lot of money, she is unhappy. No matter what happens, I will never lose heart. (7) 条件状语 If you don?t work hard, you?ll fall behind the others. Given more attention, the flowers would have grown better. (8) 比较状语 Your watch is not the same as mine. Mike is not as (so) tall as Jack. (9) 原因状语 We didn?t go to the park because of the bad weather. I?m glad to meet you. Being ill, he didn?t go to school. (10) 结果状语 He left early, so that he caught the train. The wind was so strong that we could hardly move forward. (11) 伴随状语 The doctor hurried off, with a medicine box under his arm. The teacher came into the classroom, followed by a group of his students. 七、宾语补足语 宾语补足语主要用来补充说明宾语，与宾语之间存在逻辑上的主谓关系或动宾关 系，可由名词、形容词、动词不定式、分词等充当。如： Tom found the climb quite easy. Don?t be so formal. Call me Jim. I?m finished. Let?s go now. You must keep it clean. I have the car waiting. We had the machine repaired. Why don?t you have your hair cut? He had his finger cut. I had my watch stolen yesterday. I have a lot of work to do.
She has plenty of clothes to wear. He made me repeat the story. Rain makes plants grow. 注意：后跟名词作宾语补足语的动词有 call, name, think, make, choose 等，后跟形 容词作宾语补足语的谓语动词有 keep, find, get, think, make 等。动词不定式作宾 语补足语时，当谓语动词为感官动词(如 feel, see, hear, notice, watch, observe, listen to, look at 等)，使役动词(如 let, have, make 等)，动词不定式不带 to。 八、同位语： 同位语是在名词或代词之后并列名词或代词对前者加以说明的成分， 近乎于后置定语。如：We students should study hard. / (students 是 we 的同位语，都 是指同一批?学生?）We all are students. / (all 是 we 的同位语，都指同样的?我们?） 九、独立成分：有时句子中会有一些与句子没有语法联系的成分，称为句子独立 成分(注意：区别于分词独立结构)。感叹词：oh,hello,aha,ah,等肯定词 yes 否定词 no 称呼语：称呼人的用语。插入语：一些句中插入的 I think , I believe,等。 如: The story,I think,has never come to the end.情态词,表示说话人的语气（多作为修 饰全句的状语）:perhaps 也许,maybe 大概,actually 实际上,certainly 当然，等。 十、分词独立结构：分词作状语时其逻辑主语与句子的主语一致! 否则应有自己 的逻辑主语，构成分词独立结构。 例：错句：Studying hard,your score will go up.正确：(1) Studying hard,you can make your score go up.或 (2)If you study hard,your score will go up. 解析：错句中分词 studying 没有自带逻辑主语，则其逻辑主语就是句子的主语， 既 your score . 显然做 study 的应是人，不应是 your score（分数）. 正确句(1)更正 了句子的主语,使其与分词逻辑主语一致( 同为 you );正确句(2)则使用条件分句带 出 study 的主语,(不过已经不是分词结构了). 分词独立结构常省略 being,having been.不过?There being...?的场合不能省略.如： Game (being) over,he went home. He stands there,book (being) in hand. 独立结构 还可用 with、without 引导，作状语或定语。这种结构不但可以用分词，还可以用 不定式、形容词、介词短语、副词或名词等。如： With nothing to do,he fell asleep soon. The teacher came in,with glasses on his nose. 句子成分练习题( 一 ) (一). 指出下列句中主语的中心词（4 分， 4 分钟） ① The teacher with two of his students is walking into the classroom. ② There is an old man coming here. ③ The useful dictionary was given by my mother last year. ④ To do today's homework without the teacher's help is very difficult.
(二) 选出句中谓语的中心词（10 分， 10 分钟） ① I don't like the picture on the wall. A. don't B. like C. Picture D. wall ② The days get longer and longer when summer comes. A. get B. longer C. days D. summer ③ Do you usually go to school by bus? A. Do B. usually C.go D. bus ④ There will be a meeting at the library this afternoon. A. will be B. meeting C. the library D. afternoon ⑤ Did the twins have porridge for their breakfast?A.Did B. twins C. have D. breakfast ⑥ Tom didn't do his homework yesterday.A. Tom B. didn't C. do D. his homework ⑦ What I want to tell you is this. A. want B. to tell C. you D. is ⑧ We had better send for a doctor. A. We B. had C. send D. doctor ⑨ He is interested in music. A. is B. interested C. in D. music ⑩ Whom did you give my book to? A. give B.did C. whom D. book (三) 挑出下列句中的宾语（10 分，10 分钟） ① My brother hasn't done his homework.② People all over the world speak English. ③ You must pay good attention to your pronunciation. ④ How many new words did you learn last class? ⑤ Some of the students in the school want to go swimming, how about you? ⑥ The old man sitting at the gate said he was ill. ⑦ They made him monitor of the class. ⑧ Go across the bridge and you will find the museum on the left. ⑨ You will find it useful after you leave school. ⑩ They didn't know who "Father Christmas" really is. (四) 挑出下列句中的表语（5 分， 5 分钟） ① The old man was feeling very tired. ② Why is he worried about Jim? ③ The leaves have turned yellow. ④ Soon They all became interested in the subject. ⑤ She was the first to learn about it. (五) 挑出下列句中的定语（6 分，6 分钟） ① They use Mr, Mrs with the family name.② What is your given name? ③ On the third lap are Class 1 and Class 3. ④ I am afraid some people forgot to sweep the floor. ⑤ The man downstairs was trying to sleep.
⑥ I am waiting for the sound of the other shoe! (六) 挑出下列句中的宾语补足语（6 分， 6 分钟） ① She likes the children to read newspapers and books in the reading-room. ② He asked her to take the boy out of school.④ They call me Lily sometimes. ③ She found it difficult to do the work. ⑤ I saw Mr Wang get on the bus. ⑥ Did you see Li Ming playing football on the playground just now? (七) 挑出下列句中的状语（8 分， 8 分钟） ① There was a big smile on her face.② Every night he heard the noise upstairs. ③ He began to learn English when he was eleven. ④ The man on the motorbike was travelling too fast. ⑤ With the medicine box under her arm, Miss Li hurried off. ⑥ She loves the library because she loves books. ⑦ I am afraid that if you've lost it, you must pay for it. ⑧ The students followed Uncle Wang to see the other machine. (八) 划出句中的直接宾语和间接宾语（5 分， 5 分钟） ① Please tell us a story.② My father bought a new bike for me last week. ③ Mr Li is going to teach us history next term. ④ Here is a pen.Give it to Tom.⑤ Did he leave any message for me? 答案 (一)① teacher ② man ③ dictionary ④ To do (二)① B② A ③ C ④ A ⑤ C ⑥ C ⑦ D ⑧ C⑨ A⑩ A (三)①homework. ②English. ③attention ④words ⑤to go swimming ⑥ he was ill.⑦ him monitor⑧bridge museum⑨ it school. ⑩ who"Father Christmas"really is.(四)①tired.②worried ③yellow.④interested ⑤the first (五)① family②given③third ④ some ⑤downstairs⑥ of the other shoe! (六)①to read newspapers and books ②to take the boy ③ difficult④ Lily ⑤ get on the bus ⑥ playing football (七)① on her face. ②Every night ③ when he was eleven. ④ too fast. ⑤ With the medicine box under her arm ⑥ because she loves books. ⑦ if you?ve lost it ⑧ to see the other machine. (八)① us, 间接宾语 a story, 直接宾语② me, 间接宾语 a new bike, 直接宾语 ③ us, 间接宾语 history, 直接宾语 ④ Tom, 间接宾语 it, 直接宾语 ⑤ me, 间接宾语 message, 直接宾语
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