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高中16种英语时态总结归纳及练习


16 种时态归纳
时态(Tense)是表示行为、动作和状态在各种时间条件下的动词形式。因此,当我们 说时态结构的时候,指的是相应时态下的动词形式。英语时态分为 16 种:一般现在、一般 过去、一般将来、过去将来时,以及这四者的进行时、完成时和完成进行时。

1. 一般现在时
用法:A) 表示现在发生的动作、情况、状态和特征。 B) 习惯用语

。 C) 经常性、习惯性动作。 例:He always helps others. (他总是帮助别人。 ) D) 客观事实和普遍真理。尤其要注意,如果前后文不是一般现在时,则无法保持主句、从 句时态一致。 E) 表示一个按规定、计划或安排要发生的动作, (仅限于某些表示“来、去、动 、停、开 始、结束、继续”等的动词 )可以与表示未来时间的状语搭配使用。常见的用法是:飞机、 火车、轮船、汽车等定期定点运行的交通方式。 例:The next train leaves at 3 o'clock this afternoon. (下一趟火车今天下午 3 点开车。 ) How often does this shuttle bus run? (这班车多久一趟?) F) 在时间和条件状语从句里经常用一般现在(有时也用现在完成时)表示将来事情。 例:When you have finished the report, I will have waited for about 3 hours.(等 你完成这份报告的时候,我就已经等了将近 3 个小时了。 )

2. 现在进行时(be doing)
用法:现在正在进行的动作。 A).表示现在( 指说话人说话时) 正在发生的事情。 例:We are waiting for you. B).习惯进行:表示长期的或重复性的动作,说话时动作未必正在进行。 例:Mr. Green is writing another novel. (说话时并未在写,只处于写作的状态。) She is learning piano under Mr. Smith. C). 表示渐变的动词有:get, grow, become, turn, run, go, begin 等。 例:The leaves are turning red. It's getting warmer and warmer. D). 与 always, constantly, forever 等词连用,表示反复发生的动作或持续存在的 状态,往往带有说话人的主观色彩。 例:You are always changing your mind.

3. 现在完成时(have done)
基本用法:A) 表示动作到现在为止已经完成或刚刚完成。 例:I bought a new house, but I _________ my old one yet, so at the moment I have two houses. A. didn't sell B. sold C. haven't sold D. would sell 答案是 C) haven't sold。 B) 表示从过去某时刻开始,持续到现在的动作或情况,并且有可能会继续延续下去。此时 经常用延续性动词。时间状语常用 since 加一个过去的时间点,或 for 加一段时间,或 by

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加一个现在时间。 例:Great as Newton was, many of his ideas ___________ today and are being modified by the work of scientists of our time. A. are to challenge C. have been challenged B. may be challenged D. are challenging 全句的意思是:“虽然牛顿是个伟大的人物,但他的许多见解直到今天还在受到挑战,并且 被现代科学家的工作所修正。”challenge 是及物动词,在本句中应当是被动语态;其动作 延续到今天,所以要用现在完成时态。可见答案是 C。A 和 D 都是主动语态,不可能是答 案。B 虽然是被动语态,但意思与全句内容不合,所以不对。 C) 表示发生在过去, 但对现在仍有影响的动作或情况。 通常用点动词, arrive, begin, 如: find, give, lose 等。 例:John has broken his left leg.(约翰摔断了左腿。 ) 注意事项:A) 现在完成时是联系过去和现在的纽带。现在完成时和过去时的区别在于:现 在完成时强调动作的动态,或受动态的影响,是动态的结果,对现在有影响;过去时只表 示过去的某个具体时间里发生的动作,与现在没有联系。 例:He worked in that hospital for 8 years.(他曾经在那家医院工作了 8 年。这只是 讲述一个过去的事实,他现在已经不在那家医院了。 ) He has worked in that hospital for 8 years.(他已经在那家医院里工作了 8 年。表示 他从过去开始工作,一直工作到现在,现在仍在那家医院工作。 ) B) 因为含有 for 加一段时间或 since 加一个时间点这样的时间状语的完成时,有动态和 延续性的特点,所以不能使用终端动词或瞬间动词。 例:My sister has been married for 5 years.(过去分词做表语表示状态,可以延续) My sister has married. Don't disturb her.(终端动词) C) 在"this is the first/ second/ third…… time that……"句型里要求用完成时。 例:This is the second time that the products of our company have been shown in the International Exhibition.(这是我公司产品第二次参加国际展览会。 ) D) 句型"It is/ has been……since"所使用的两种时态都正确。 例:It is/ has been 10 years since I last saw him.(从我上次见到他以来已经 10 年 了。 ) E) 在"no sooner than"、 "hardly/ scarcely ……when"、 "before"、 "prior to" 等句型中,主句要求完成时。 例:I haven't met that professor prior to today.(以前我从未见过那位教授。 )

4. 现在完成进行时(have been doing)
用法:表示某一动作开始于过去某一时间,延续或重复地出现至今,或将继续延续至将来。 例:We have been working on this project for over a month now.(到目前为止, 我们一直在处理那个项目,已经花了一个多月时间了。 ) 注意事项:与现在完成时相比,现在完成进行时更强调:在从过去到现在的时间里,动作 或状态一直持续或一直反复出现。 例:It seems oil ___________ from this pipe for some time. We'll have to take the machine apart to put it right. A) had leaked B) is leaking C) leaked D) has been leaking 从本题上下文看,这两个句子的意思是:“看来,这个管道漏油已有一段时间了,我们将不

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得不拆卸机器排除故障。”第二句表示将要采取的措施。第一句动作发生在第二句之前,并 且延续到现在为止仍在继续。 因此, 空格中需用现在完成时或现在完成进行时。 has been D) leaking 是现在完成进行时,因此是本题的答案。

5. 一般过去时
用法:A) 表示过去某个时间发生的动作或情况。 B) 表示过去习惯性动作。特别是由 would/ used to do 表达的句型,本身表示的 就 是过去时。 例:The old man would sit on a bench in the quiet park and look at others for hours without doing anything or talking to anybody.(老人过去常常坐在宁静的公 园里的一条长椅上,看着其他的人,一坐就是数个小时,什么也不干,也不和任何人交谈。 ) He used to visit his mother once a week.(他以前总是每周看望一次他的母亲。 ) C) 有时可代替一般现在时,表达一种婉转、客气、礼貌、商量的语气。 例: wanted to ask you if I could borrow your car? I (我想向您借车用一用, 可以吗?) Would you mind my sitting here?(您介意我坐在这里吗?)

注意事项:

A) 注意时间状语的搭配。一般过去时的时间状语应该是表示过去某个时

间的词或词组,如:yesterday, last month, in 1999, two days ago 等,绝对不可与 recently, in the past 10 years, this month 等连用,因为这样的时间状语都与现在有 关系,应该用现在完成时或一般现在时。 B) used to do 的否定形式和疑问形式很特别: 你怎么写都正确。 以否定形式为例: used not to do, didn't used to do, didn't use to do 都对。 Used to do 经常与 be used to doing sth/ sth 结构进行对比。前者表示"过去常常或过 去曾经",要求加动词原形;后者表示"习惯于",要求加名词或动名词。

6. 过去完成时(had done)
用法:表示在过去的某个时间或动作以前已经发生的动作或已经存在的状态。就是我们常 说的:表示"过去的过去动作或状态"。 Until then, his family ________ from him for six months. A) didn't hear C) hasn't heard B) hasn't been hearing D) hadn't heard 全句的意思是:“到那时为止,他家里已经有六个月没得到他的消息了。”由此可以看出,谓 语动词的动作延续到过去的某一时刻才完成,因此谓语要用过去完成时。答案是 D。 注意事项:“过去的过去”这种逻辑关系常通过上下文体现出来,而不一定受某个时间状语 的限制。 例:There had been some one in our room just now, because I noticed a burning cigarette end on the floor when we opened the front door.(刚才有人在我们的房 间里,因为我们打开前门进来时,我注意到地板上有一支仍在燃烧的香烟。 ) 分析:虽然时间状语是 just now,似乎应该使用一般过去时,但是“在房间里”这个状态是 在"开门"和"注意"这两个过去的动作之前就存在的,所以应该用过去完成时。

7. 过去将来时(would/ should do)
用法:表示从过去的某个时间看将要发生的事。 例:I said on Thursday I should see my friend the next day. 注意事项: 由于过去将来时是由过去时和将来时组合而成的, 所以其注意事项可以参考过去

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时和将来时的相关注意事项。

8. 过去进行时(was/ were doing)
用法:A) 表示在过去一个比较具体的时间正在发生的动作。 例:Mary was listening to light music 10 minutes ago.(10 分钟前,玛丽正在听轻 音乐。 ) B) 如果 when, while 这样的时间状语引导词所引导的主从句之一是一般过去时,则另 一个句子常用过去进行时。 例:I was washing my hair when you knocked at the front door.(你敲前门时我正 在洗头发。 ) 注意事项:其它与将来时有关的事项请参见下面所讲的一般将来时。

9. 一般将来时
用法:A) 基本结构是 will / shall do。 例:We shall send her a glass hand-made craft as her birthday gift.(我们将送给 她一个玻璃的手工制品,作为给她的生日礼物。 ) B) 有些动词,如:arrive, be close, come, do, done, go, have, leave, open, play, return, sleep, start, stay 等,用于一般进行时,并且通常与一个表示将来时间 的时间状语连用,可以表示将来时。 例:My mother is coming to visit me next week and is staying here until May. (我妈妈下周将来看我,并会呆到 5 月。 ) C) 表示“打算去……,要……”时,可用 be going to do。 例:This is just what I am going to say.(这正是我想说的。 ) D) 表示“即将、正要”时,可用 be about to do。强调近期内或马上要做的事。 例:Don't worry, I am about to make a close examination on you.(别担心,我马 上就给你做一次仔细的检查。 ) E) "be to do"的 5 种用法: a) 表示“按计划、安排即将发生某事或打算做某事”。 例:She is to be seen in the lab on Monday.(星期一你准会在实验室见到她。 ) b) 该做或不该做的事情(语气上接近于 should, must, ought to, have to) ,表示 一种命令、规劝性语气。 例:You are to go to bed and keep quiet, kids. Our guests are arriving in less than 5 minutes.(孩子们,你们必须 上床睡觉,不准吵闹。我们的客人 5 分钟之内就要到了。 ) c) 能或不能发生的事情(接近 can, may) 例:How am I to pay such a debt?(我怎么可能还得起这么大的一笔债呢?) d) 不可避免将要发生的事情,后来将要发生的事情。 例:I assure you that the matter _______ as quickly as possible. Have a little patience. A. will be attended B. will be attended to C. is attended D. is attended to will be attended to 关键的一点是:attend 表示“处理,解决”时是不及物动词,必须与 to 连用。从上下文看,事情显然尚未解决,所以应该用将来时的被动语态。答案是 B。 e) 用于条件从句“如果……想,设想”(接近 if ……want to,或 if ……should) 例:Greater efforts to increase agricultural production must be made if food shortage ____________ avoided.

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A. is to be B. can be C. will be D. has been 答案是 A) is to be。全句的意思是:“如果要避免食品短缺,就必须作出更大努力来增加农 业产量。” F) 同样可以表示“正要、将要”的意思的句型是 be on the point of doing。 例:The coach is on the point of giving up the game because our team has been scored 7 points.(教练想要放弃这场比赛了,因为对方已经射进了 7 个球。 ) 例:I was _______ the point of telephoning him when his letter arrived. A. in B. to C. at D. on 答案是 D)。on the point of doing 是固定词组,意思是“正要、打算”。全句的意思是:“当 他的信到的时候我正要打电话给他。” 注意事项:在以 if, when, as long as, as soon as, after, before, in case, until, unless 等连词以及具有连词作用的副词(immediately, the moment, directly) 等引导的状语从句,一般用现在时代替将来时。强调延续性或动态时,可用完成时。 例:I hope his health will have improved by the time you come back next year. (我希望到明年你回来的时候,他的身体已经好多了。 )

10. 将来进行时(will be doing)
用法:强调在将来的某个具体时间正在发生的动作或事情。 例:Don't worry, you won't miss her. She will be wearing a red T-shirt and a white skirt at that time.(别担心,你不会认不出她的。她到时会穿一件红色的 T 恤衫和一条白 色的短裙。 ) 注意事项:由于本时态是由将来时和进行时融合在一起的,所以关于本时态的注意事项,可 参考"一般将来时"和"现在进行时"的有关注意事项。

11. 将来完成时(will have done)
用法:表示从将来的某一时间开始、延续到另一个将来时间的动作或状态,或是发生在某 个将来时间,但对其后的另一个将来时间有影响的动作或状态。就好像把现在完成时平移 到时间轴的将来时时段一样。其用法从和过去及现在有关,变成了和将来及将来的将来有 关。 例:The conference __________ a full week by the time it ends. A) must have lasted B) will have lasted C) would last D) has lasted 本题考核谓语动词的时态。全句的意思是:“会议从开始到结束将持续整整一个星期。”句中 by the time it ends 表示动作要延续到将来某一时刻, 因此要用将来完成时。 答案是 B) will have lasted。 注意事项:由于本时态是由将来时和完成时融合在一起的,所以关于本时态的注意事项,可 以参考“一般将来时”和“现在完成时”的有关注意事项。

12.将来完成进行时:shall have been doing ,will have been doing
例:By the end of next month, the project will have been being worked for 3 years. (到下个月底为止,这项工程就已经不停地进行了 3 年了。(被动语态) )

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13.过去完成进行时:had been doing
例:The old clock had been being taken apart of and fixed up again for several times by my 10-year old son before I came back home.(我回到家之前,我 10 岁 大的儿子已经把这个旧钟表拆卸并重新组装了好几回了。 ) (此处强调“拆卸”和“组装”这两个 过去的过去动作一直在反复进行。(被动语态) )

14. 过去将来进行时:should/ would be doing
例: The government promised that a new highway would be being built next July. (政府承诺说第二年 7 月将有一条新的高速公路正在修建。(此句的时间状语是具体的将 ) 来时间,所以最好用将来进行时。(此句为被动语态) )

15. 过去将来完成时:should/would have done
例: believed by the end of that year an advanced version of that software would I have been developed, but I was wrong.(我坚信到那年年底为止,那个软件的新版本 将被开发出来。但是我错了。(此句为被动语态) )

16. 过去将来完成进行时:should/ would have been doing
例:They said that by the end of the following month, the project would have been being worked for 3 years. (他们说到第二个月底为止,这项工程就已经不停地 进行了 3 年了。 )

英语完成时态语法讲解专题
1、现在完成时态: 定义:现在完成时(Present perfect)过去发生并且已经完成的动作对现在造成影响
或后果,过去某一时间开始并一直持续到现在并且有可能还会持续的动作或状态。 基本结构:主语+have/has+动词的过去分词(V-ed) e.g done ①肯定句:主语+have/has+动词的过去分词(V-ed)+宾语. ②否定句:主语+have/has+not+动词的过去分词(V-ed)+宾语. ③一般疑问句:Have/Has+主语+动词的过去分词(V-ed)+宾语. ④特殊疑问句:特殊疑问词或词组+一般疑问句(have/has+主语+过去分词(V-ed)+其 他) 用法: (1)现在完成时用来表示现在之前已发生过或完成的动作或状态,但其结果却和 现在有联系,也就是说,动作或状态发生在过去但它的影响现在还存在,也就是说,动作 发生在过去,而对现在造成的影响和结果. I have spent all of my money.(现在我没有钱花了.) Jane has laid the table.(简已经摆好了桌子) Michael has been ill.(现在仍然很虚弱) He has returned from abroad. (现在已在此地)

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(2) 现在完成时可以用来表示发生在过去某一时刻的,持续到现在的动作 (用行为动词 表示)或状态(be 动词表示)常与 for(+时间段),since(+时间点或过去时的句子) 连用. ①for+时段 为…时间 ②since+过去一个时间点(译为:自从……以来) ③since+时段+ago ④since+从句(过去时) ⑤It is+时段+since+从句(过去时) Mary has been ill for three days. I have lived here since 1998. 注:瞬间动词(buy, die, join, lose……)不能直接与 for since 连用。要改变动词 a) come/arrive/reach/ -----be in; go out----be out; finish----be over ; open----be open; die----be dead; Buy---have; Fall ill---be ill; Come back---be back; Put on ---be on/wear; Worry---be worried; Catch a cold---have a cold ★1.have 代替 buy My brother has had(不能用 has bought) this bike for almost four years. ★2、用 keep 或 have 代替 borrow I have kept(不能用 have borrowed) the book for quite a few days. ★3、用 be 替代 become How long has your sister been a teacher? ★4、用 have a cold 代替 catch a cold Tom has had a cold since the day before yesterday. ★5、用 wear 代替 put on b)用“be+形容词”代终止性动词 1、be+married 代 marry 2、be+ill 代 fall (get) ill 3、be+dead 代 die 4、be+asleep 代 fall (get) asleep 5、be+awake 代 wake/wake up 6、be+gone 代 lose,die,sell,leave 7、be+open 代 open 8、be closed 代 close/shut 9、be+missing (gone, lost)代 lose c)用“be+副词”代终止性动词 1“be+on”代 start, begin 2“be+up”代 get up 3“be+back(to)”代 return to, come back to,go back to 4“be here (there)”代 come(arrive, reach,get) here 或 go (arrive, reach, get) there 等等 d)用“be+介词短语”代终止性动词 1.“be in/at +地点”代替 go to /come to 2.用 be in the army 代替 join the army 3.“be in/at +地点”代替 move to 用法注意事项: 1.现在完成时不能单独与准确时间连用,(如表示过去的时间状语) 如 yesterday(morning, afternoon),last(morning、afternoon)等,除非与 for, since 连用. 2.现在完成时往往同表示不确定的过去时间状语连用 如 already(肯定), yet(否定,疑问), just, before, recently, still, lately, never 等:

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He has already obtained a scholarship. I haven't seen much of him recently (lately). We have seen that film before. Have they found the missing child yet ? 3.现在完成时常常与表示频度的时间状语连用 如 often, sometimes, ever, never, twice, on several, occasion 等: Have you ever been to Beijing I have never heard Bunny say anything against her. I have used this pen only three times. It is still good. George has met that gentleman on several occasions. 4.现在完成时还往往可以同包括现在时间在内的时间状语连用 如 now, up to these few days/weeks/months/years, this morning/week/month/year, just, today, up to present, so far 等: Peter has written six papers so far. Man has now learned to release energy from the nucleus of the atom. There has been too much rain in San Francisco this year. The friendly relations and cooperation between our two countries have been enhanced in the past few years. Up to the present everything has been successful. 5.现在完成时还可以用来表示过去的一个时间到现在这段时间内重复发生的动作. We have had four texts this semester. 6.现在完成时的"完成用法" 现在完成时的"完成用法"指的是动作发生在过去某一时刻并已结束, 但该动作对现在产 生了影响,与现在情况具有因果关系。 例如:He has turned off the light.他已把灯关了。(动作结束于过去,但说明的是现在的 情况---灯现在不亮了。) 现在完成时"完成用法"的特点是动作不延续,因此,该时态只能与表示不定的过去时间 状语(如:already,yet,before,recently 等)、频度时间状语(如:never,ever,once 等)、 包括现在时刻在内的时间状语(如:this morning / month /year...,today 等)连用。 例如: Have you found your pen yet?你已找到你的钢笔了吗? 7.现在完成时的"未完成用法" 现在完成时的"未完成用法"指的是动作开始于过去某一时刻,一直延续到现在,或可能 还要继续下去。 例如:He has lived here since 1978.自从 1978 年以来,他一直住在这儿。(动作起始于 1978 年,一直住到现在,可能还要继续住下去。) I have been in the army for more than 5 years.我在部队已经呆了五年多了。(动作 开始于 5 年前,一直延续至今,有可能还要继续下去。) 此种用法的句中常需一个表示一段时间的状语(由 since 或 for 引导),或表示与现在时 刻相连的时间状语(如:up to now,so far)等。 例如:I have heard nothing from him up to now.到目前为止我没有他的任何消息。 注意:现在完成时的未完成用法只适用于延续性动词,不可用于终止性动词,即瞬间 完成或延续时间很短的动词。如:come,go,arrive,leave,join,become,die 等。 8.一段时间+has passed+since 从句 Five years has passed since we left the village

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9. 现在完成时常和短语 "up to now /till now", "so far" (意思是从过去某一确定的时 间一直延续到现在.) Up to/till now he's read many story books. 至今他已读过好多故事书。 I've been to New York three times so far. 至今我已到纽约去过三次。 10 has gone (to),has been (to), has been (in) 的区别 gone:去了没回; been to :去过; been in:呆了很久 11.不能与 when 连用

2、过去完成时态:
定义:①表示发生在过去的动作对过去晚些时候造成的影响或结果 ②过去某一动作一 直持续到过去晚些时候将来可能还要延续。发生在前的那个动作【过去的过去】 基本结构: 主语+had+过去分词 ①肯定句:主语+had+过去分词. ②否定句:主语+had+not+过去分词. ③一般疑问句:Had+主语+过去分词? 肯定回答:Yes,主语+had;否定回答: No,主语+had not . ④特殊疑问句:特殊疑问词或词组+一般疑问句(Had+主语+过去分词)? ⑤被动语态:主语+had(hadn't)+been+过去分词 用法: (1)表示在过去某一时刻或动作以前完成了的动作,也可以说过去的时间关于 过去的动作。即“过去的过去”。可以用 by, before 等介词短语或一个时间状语从句来表 示,也可以用一个表示过去的动作来表示,还可能通过上下文来表示。 例如:By nine o’clock last night, we had gotten 200 pictures from the spaceship. (2)表示由过去的某一时刻开始,一直延续到过去另一时间的动作或状态,常和 for, since 构成的时间状语连用。 例如:I had been at the bus stop for 20 minutes when a bus finally came. He said he had worked in that factory since 1949. (3)叙述过去发生的事情,在已叙述了过去发生的事情后,反过来追述或补述以前发 生的动作时,常使用过去完成时。 例如: Mr. Smith died yesterday. He had been a good friend of mine. I didn’t know a thing about the verbs, for I had not studied my lesson. (4)在含有定语从句的主从复合句中,如果叙述的是过去的事,先发生的动作常用过 去完成时。 例如:I returned the book that I had borrowed. She found the key that she had lost. (5)过去完成时常常用在 told, said, knew, heard, thought 等动词后的宾语从句(或间 接引语)中,这时从句中的动作发生在主句表示的过去的动作之前。 例如:He said that he had known her well. I thought I had sent the letter a week before. (6)状语从句:在过去不同时间发生的两个动作中,发生在前,用过去完成时;发生 在后,用一般过去时。如:when, before, after, as soon as, till/until 引导的 例如:When I woke up, it had already stopped raining. She didn’t go to bed until she had finished her work. 注意: 如果两个动作紧接着发生, 则常常不用过去完成时, 特别是在包含 before 和 after

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的复合句中,因为这时从句的动作和主句的动作发生的先后顺序已经非常明确,这时 可以用一般过去时代替过去完成时。 例如:After he arrived in England, Marx worked hard to improve his English. (7)动词 think, want, hope, mean, plan, intend 等用过去完成时来表示过去未曾实现 的想法,希望,打算或意图等。 例如:They had wanted to help but could not get there in time. We had hoped to be able to come and see you. (8) 过去完成时还可用在 hardly…when…, no sooner…than…, It was the first (second, etc),time (that)…等固定句型中。 例如:Hardly had he begun to speak when the audience interrupted him. No sooner had he arrived than he went away again. It was the third time that he had been out of work that year. 时间状语:before, when, after, by, until, once, no sooner……than,yet,already 等。 注意:过去完成时与现在完成时的区别: 现在完成时表示的动作发生在过去,以现在的时间为基点,但侧重对现在产生的 结果 或造成的影响,与现在有关,其结构为“助动词 have (has) + 过去分词”;过去完成时 则是一个相对的时态, 以过去时间为基点, 它所表示的动作不仅发生在过去, 更强调“过 去的过去”,只有和过去某时或者某动作相比较时,才用到它。 Eg: have learned 1000 English words so far.到目前为止我已经学会了 1000 个英语单词。 I I had learned 1000 English words till then.到那时为止我已经学会了 1000 个英语单词。 — I'm sorry to keep you waiting. —Oh, not at all. I have been here only a few minutes.没什么,我只等了几分钟。 (“等” 的动作从过去某一时间点持续到现在)

3、将来完成时:
定义:将来完成时用来表示在将来某一时间以前已经完成或一直持续的动作。经常与 before+将来时间或 by+将来时间连用,也可与 before 或 by the time 引导的现在时的从 句连用。 基本结构: will/shall+have+过去分词用于第一人称,will+have+过去分词用于其他人称。 用法:①表示在将来某一时间之前已完成的动作,并往往对将来某一时间产生影响。 We shall have learned 12 units by the end of this term. (到这个学期末,我们将学完 12 个单元。 ) By the time you get home I will have cleaned the house from top to bottom. (你到家 之前我将把房子彻底打扫一遍。 ) ②表示推测,相当于"must have done"结构。 You will have heard of this, I guess. 我想你已经听说过这件事了。 I am sure he will have got the information. 我相信他一定得到了这个信息 ③.表示某种状态一直持续到说话人所提及的时间 We will have been married a year on June 25th 到 6 月 25 日我们俩结婚就满 1 年了

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4、现在完成进行时:
定义:1.表示从过去某时开始一直持续到现在的动作,并且还将持续下去。2.表示在说 话时刻之前到现在正在进行的动作。 基本结构:I / we / they have been + 动词的现在分词 He / she / it has been + 动词的现在分词 用法: (一)表示从过去某时开始一直持续到现在的动作,并且还将持续下去。 The Chinese have been making paper for two thousand years. 中国有 2000 年的造纸历史。 (动作还将继续下去) I have been learning English since three years ago. 自从三年前以来我一直在学英语。 (动作还将继续下去) (二)表示在说话时刻之前到现在正在进行的动作。 We have been waiting for you for half an hour. 我们已经等你半个钟头了(人还没到,如同在电话里说的,还会继续等) (三)有些现在完成进行时的句子等同于现在完成时的句子。 They have been living in this city for ten years. They have lived in this city for ten years. (他们在这个城市已经住了 10 年了。 ) I have been working here for five years. I have worked here for five years. (我在这里已经工作五年了。 ) (四)大多数现在完成进行时的句子不等同于现在完成时的句子。 I have been writing a book.(动作还将继续下去)我一直在写一本书。 I have written a book.(动作已经完成)我已经写了一本书。 They have been building a bridge. 他们一直在造一座桥。 They have built a bridge. 他们造了一座桥。 (五)表示状态的动词不能用于现在完成进行时。 I have known him for years. (我认识他已经好几年了。 ) 这类不能用于现在完成进行时的动词还有:love 爱,like 喜欢,hate 讨厌,等。

5、过去完成进行时:
定义:过去完成进行时,就是相对过去的某个时刻来说已经对现在有直接影响并且还 在进行的动作。 基本结构:过去完成进行时是由"had been + 现在分词"构成。 She had been suffering from a bad cold when she took the exam. Had they been expecting the news for some time? Rafael was scolded even though he hadn't been doing anything wrong. (尽管拉斐尔 没做什么错事,但他还是挨骂了。 ) 用法: ①表示过去某一时间之前一直进行的动作。过去完成进行时表示动作在过去某一 时间之前开始,一直延续到这一过去时间。和过去完成时一样,过去完成进行时也必 须以一过去时间为前提。 I had been looking for it for days before I found it. They had only been waiting for the bus a few moments when it came. ②表示反复的动作。
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He had been mentioning your name to me. You had been giving me everything. ③过去完成进行时还常用于间接引语中 The doctor asked what he had been eating. I asked where they had been staying all those days. ④过去完成进行时之后也可接具有“突然”之意的 when 分句。 I had only been reading a few minutes when he came in.我刚看了几分钟他就进来了。 She'd only been reviewing her lessons for a short while when her little sister interrupted her. 她温习功课才一会儿,她妹妹就打断她了。 I had been sleeping when my friend telephone me. (1)现在完成进行时和现在完成时皆可表示动作对现在产生的结果,但前者所表示的 结果是直接的,而后者所表示的则是最后的结果。如: We have been cleaning the classroom. (a) We have cleaned the classroom. (b) (a)句可译为“我们打扫教室来着。”其直接结果可能是:我们身上都是灰。 (b)句可 以译为“我们把教室打扫过了。”其结果是:现在教室很清洁,可以用了。又, (a)句表 示教室刚刚打扫过, (b)句则可能表示教室是昨天打扫的。 Be careful! John has been painting the door. (a) John has painted the door. (b) (a)句表示约翰刚刚把门油漆过,现在油漆还未干,所以你要小心。 (b)句则无此含 义,油漆可能已干了。 (2)现在完成进行时有时有延续性,现在完成时往往没有。如: They have been widening the road. (a) They have widened the road. (b) (a)句的意思是他们在加宽马路,但尚未完工。 (b)句的意思则是已完工了。有时现 在完成时有延续性(如一些属于持续体的动词) ,但无临时性质。如: (3)但现在完成进行时并不总是具有临时的性质,如: My mother has been teaching English for twenty years. (a) My mother has taught English for twenty years.(b) (a)句在此并无临时性质,但较口语化。 (b)句则较为正式。又, (a)句表示动作现 在仍在继续.并将延续下去, (b)句的动作是否延续下去,须由上下文决定,但在一 般情况下都是延续下去的。 (4)现在完成进行时往往表示动作在重复,现在完成时则常常不带重复性。如: Have you been meeting her lately?(a) Have you met her lately?(b) (a)句有“经常相会”之意, (b)句则没有。 (b)句如与 often,every day 等时间状 语连用,当然也表示动作在重复。 (5)现在完成进行时比较生动,有时含有明显的感情色彩,而现在完成时往往只说明 一个事实,一种影响或结果,平铺直叙,没有什么感情色彩可言。如: What have you been doing?(a) What have you done?(b) (a)句表示惊异。 (b)句只是一个问题。 Recently Mary has been doing her work regularly. (a) Recently Mary has done her work regularly. (b) (a)句显然是在表扬玛丽。 (b)只说明一个事实。 下面还有一例,颇为有趣: Who's been eating my apples?(a) Who's eaten my apples?(b) (a)句有强烈的感情色彩,表示愤怒不满, (b)句只是希望回答的一个问题。又(a)

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句兼有进行时态,所以有“苹果未被全部吃光”的意思, (b)句是完成时态,说明“苹果 一个不剩了”。

6、将来完成进行时:
定义:将来完成进行时表示动作从某一时间开始一直延续到将来某一时间。 构成:主语+ shall/will have been doing 用法:如:I shall have been working here in this factory for twenty years by the end of the year. 到今年年底,我将在这个工厂工作 20 年了 If we don't hurry up the store will have been closing before we get there. 咱们如不快 一点儿,等我们到了那儿,店门就会关了。 注意:在下列句子中,will 是情态助动词,有“大概”或“我想”的含义。 ①You’ll have been wondering all this time how my invention works. 我想你这些时候一直想知道我的发明是怎样工作的吧。 ②They will have been having a holiday yesterday. 他们昨天大概是在度假来着。 注意:将来完成进行时和将来完成时的区别:将来完成进行时强调动作过程在另一动 词之前的长度。而将来完成是更强调在另一件事前一个动作的完成。 如:By the time John retires, Janes will have been practicing for 10 years.

随堂练习:
一、单项选择
1、Both his parents look sad . Maybe they _________what's happened to him . A. knew B. have known C. must know D.will know 2、He has _______ been to Shanghai , has he ? A. already B.never C.ever D. still 3、Have you met Mr. Li ______? A. just B. ago C.before D. a moment ago 4、The famous writer _____ one new book in the past two years . A. is writing B.was writing C.wrote D.has written 5、—Our country ______ a lot so far . —Yes . I hope it will be even ______ . A. has changed ; well B. changed ; good C. has changed ; better D. changed ; better 6、Zhao Lan ______already ______in this school for two years . A. was ; studying B. will ; study C. has ; studied D. are; studying 7、We ______ Xiao Li since she was a little girl . A. know B. had known C. have known D. knew 8、Harry Potter is a very nice film .I_______ it twice . A. will see B. have seen C. saw D.see 9、—These farmers have been to the United States . —Really? When _____ there ? A. will they go B. did they go
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C. do they go D. have they gone 10、—______ you ___ your homework yet ? —Yes. I _____ it a moment ago . A. Did ; do ; finished B. Have ; done ; finished C. Have ; done ; have finished D. will ; do ; finish 11、 His father ______ the Party since 1978 . A. joined B. has joined C. was in D. has been in 12、—Do you know him well ? — Sure .We _________ friends since ten years ago . A. were B. have been C. have become D. have made 13、—How long have you ____ here ? —About two months . A. been B. gone C. come D. Arrived 14、Hurry up! The play __________ for ten minutes . A. has begun B. had begun C. has been on D. began 15、It _____ ten years since he left the army . A. is B. has C. will D. was 16、 Miss Green isn't in the office . she_______ to the library . A.has gone B. went C.will go D. has been 17、My parents ______ Shandong for ten years . A. have been in B. have been to C. have gone to D. have been 18、The students have cleaned the classroom, ? A. so they B. don’t they C. have they D. haven’t they 19、 has Mr. White been a member of Greener China since he to China? A. How soon, comes B. How often, got C. How long, came D. How far, arrived 20、 His uncle ____ for more than 9 years. A. has come here B. has started to work C. has lived there D. has left the university 二、 句型转换。 1、He has never surfed, ?(改成反意疑问句) 2、They have been here since 2000. (对划线部分提问) 3、The old man _________ last year. He____ for a year. (die) (动词填空) 4、This factory opened twenty years ago.(同义句转换) This factory ________ for twenty years. 5、Miss. Gao left an hour ago. (同义句转换) Miss Gao ________ _______ ________ ________ an hour ago. 6、Her mother has been a Party member for three years .(同义句) Her mother _______ the Party three years ________ . 7、The Green Family moved to France two years ago. (同义句转换) _______ two years ________ the Green family moved to France.

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8、The bus has arrived here. It arrived ten minutes ago. (把两个句子合并成一 个句子) 三、 汉译英。 1、 吉姆已做完作业,他现在有空了。 2、 他昨天收到一封信。 3、 我父亲以前到过长城。 4、 她还没有看过那部新电影。 5、 她去过上海。 6、 他这些天上哪儿去了?

参考答案
一、单项选择。 1、 B.现在完成时主要强调过去发生的动作对现在造成的影响, 或过去发生的动作还未结束, 一直持续到现在或将来,重点在于对现在的影响。这种考查难度较大,往往无时间状语,需 要从上下文分析、推理才行。故上两侧根据上下文分析、推理,正确答案是B。 2、B.现在完成时常与 already(已经),just(刚刚,正好),ever(曾经),never(从 来,也不;从不),before(以前),yet(仍然)等连用。故 2 应选 B。 3、C 4、现在完成时常与 recently(近来),so far(到目前为止),in the past/“last + 一 段时间”等时间状语连用。 因为上述短语表示的是从现在起往前推算的一段时间, 句中的动 作是从过去某一时间或时刻开始持续到现在的。故 4 应选 D。 5、C 6、现在完成时时常与“for +时间段或 since +过去时间点”连用(含从句,从句过去时)。 故 6 应选 C。 7、C 8、现在完成时还与 once(一次),twice(两次),three times(三次),several times (几次)等表示重复次数的词语连用。故 8 应选 B。 9、现在完成时与一般过去时容易混淆,就是因为它们所表示的动作都发生在过去,但二者 又有区别:一般过去时表示过去某个时间发生的事、存在的状态或经常发生的动作,说话的 侧重点在于陈述一件过去的事情, 与现在没有关系; 现在完成时表示与现在有关系的发生在 过去的动作,它不与表示过去的时间状语(如 yesterday , last week , a moment ago 等) 连用。故 9 的正确答案为 B。 10、B 11、现在完成时中,非延续性动词不能与 for 和 since 引导的表示一段时间的状语连用,通 常是用相应的延续性动词来代替。故 11 的正确答案依次为:D。 12、B 13、A 14、C 15、A。 16、“have/has gone to + 地点”表示“某人去了某地(还未回来)”,指主语所指的人 不在这儿。“have/has been in + 地点”表示“在某地呆了多长时间”,常与表示时间的 状语连用。“have/has been to +地点”表示“曾经去过某地(但现在已不在那儿)。”故 16 的正确答案为 A。 17、A 18、D 19、C 20、C

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二、句型转换。 1、has he? 2、How long 3、died, has been dead 4、has been open 5、has been away 6、joined;ago 7、It is, since 8、The bus has been here for ten minutes. 三、汉译英。 1、Jim has finished doing his homework already. He is free now. 2、He received a letter yesterday. 3、My father has been to the Great Wall before. 4、She hasn't seen the new film yet. 5、She has been to Shanghai. 6、Where has he been these days?

动词时态和语态课后练习
1.—You haven’t said a word about my new coat,Brenda. Do you like it? —I’m sorry I ________ anything about it sooner. I certainly think it’s pretty on you. A. wasn’t saying B. don’t say C. won’t say D. didn’t say 2.I wonder why Jenny ________us recently. We should have heard from her by now. A. hasn’t written B. doesn’t write C. won’t write D. hadn’t written 3.—When will you come to see me,Dad? —I will go to see you when you ________ the training course. A. will have finished B. will finish C. are finishing D. finish 4.—How long ________ at this job? —Since 1990. A. were you employed B. have you been employed C. had you been employed D. will you be employed 5. By the end of last year,another new gymnasium ________ in Beijing. A. would be completed B. was being completed C. has been completed D. had been completed 6. The little girl ________her heart out because she ________ her toy bear and believed she wasn’t ever going to find it. A. had cried; lost B. cried; had lost C. has cried; has lost D. cries; has lost 7.—Excuse me,sir. Would you do me a favor? —Of course. What is it? —I ________ if you could tell me how to fill out this form. A. had wondered B. was wondering C. would wonder D. did wonder 8. He will have learned English for eight years by the time he ________ from the university next year. A. will graduate B. will have graduated C. graduates D. is to graduate 9. I feel it is your husband who ________for the spoiled child. A. is to blame B. is going to blame

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C. is to be blame D. should blame 10.He has been writing the composition the whole morning and he still ________. A. has been B. does C. has D. is 11.If city noises ________ from increasing,people ________ shout to be heard even at the dinner table 20 years from now. A. are not kept; will have to B. are not kept; have to C. do not keep; will have to D. do not keep; have to 12.The price ________,but I doubt whether it will remain so. A. went down B. will go down C. has gone down D. was going down 13.—How long ________ each other before they ________ married? —For about a year. A. have they known; get B. did they know; get C. do they know; are going to get D. had they known; got 14.You can’t move in right now. The house ________. A. has painted B. is painted C. is being painted D. is painting 15.—Hey,look where you are going! —Oh,I’m terribly sorry.________. A. I’m not noticing B.I wasn’t noticing C.I haven’t noticed D.I don’t notice 16.The reporter said that the UFO ______ east to west when he saw it. A. was traveling B. traveled C. had been traveling D. was to travel 17.—Is this raincoat yours? —No,mine ________ there behind the door. A. is hanging B. has hang C. hangs D. hang 18.I turned around and saw everybody ________ at a man who ________ loudly in a foreign language. A. was staring; was shouting B. was staring; shouting C. staring; shouting D. stared; shouted 19.Henry remained silent for a moment. He ________. A. thought B. had thought C. was thinking D. was thought 20.We would like to go and thank him ourselves,but we ________ out his address yet, A. haven’t found B. hadn’t found C. didn’t find D. don’t find 21.Shirley ________ a book about China last year but I don’t know whether she has finished. A.has written B.wrote C.had written D.was writing 22.—Have you got your test result? —Not yet.The papers ________. A.are not correcting B.have not corrected C.are still being corrected D.have already been corrected 23.See the clouds! It ________ rain! A.will B.is going to C.must D.certainly 24.Do I have to take this medicine? It ________ so terrible. A.tastes B.is tasting C.is tasted D.has tasted 25.Don’t take the magazine away.It ________ me.

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A.is belonged to B.belongs to C.was belonged to D.is belonging to 26.Is this the third time that you ________ late? A.have been B.am C.was D.had been 27.—Do you know when Tom ________ from abroad? —Perhaps it will be a long time before he ________. A.will come; will come B.comes; will come C.will come; comes D.comes; comes 28.My uncle said that he would telephone but I _____from him so far. A.didn’t hear B.hadn’t heard C.haven’t heard D.won’t hear 29.The telephone ________ four times in the last hour,and each time it ________ for my roommate. A.has rung; was B.has been ringing; is C.had rung; was D.rang; has been 30.A storm ________ by a calm. A.is often being followed B.was often followed C.is often followed D.has often been followed 31.The pen I ________ I ________ is on my desk,right under my nose. A.think; lost B.thought; had lost C.think; had lost D.thought; lost 32.—We could have walked to the station.It was so near. —Yes,a taxi ________ at all necessary. A.wasn’t B.hadn’t been C.couldn’t be D.won’t be 33.A friend of mine returned to his house after a holiday only to find it ________. A.to be broken B.had broken into C.was broken D.had been broken into 34.They believed that by using computers the production of their factory ________. A.will greatly increase B.would greatly increase C.would be increased greatly D.will have been greatly increased 35.His eyes shone brightly when he finally received the magazines he ________. A.had long been expected B.had long expected C.has long expected D.was long expected 36.—Do you like the new pen? —Yes,it ________ very well. A.is written B.is writing C.writes D.wrote 37.—Oh,it’s you? I didn’t recognize you. —I ________ my hair cut,and I ________ new glass. A.had; was wearing B.have had; am wearing C.had; wore D.have had; wear 38.As she ________ the newspaper,Granny ________ asleep. A.read; was falling B.was reading; fell C.was reading; was falling D.read; fell 39.However hard you _______,you will never succeed in pleasing her. A.try B.will try C.should try D.would try

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40.—Can I help you,sir? —Yes,I bought this radio yesterday,but it ________. A.didn’t work B.won’t work C.can’t work D.doesn’t work 41.—How are you today? —Oh,I ________ as ill as I do now for a very long time. A.didn’t feel B.wasn’t feeling C.don’t feel D.haven’t felt 42.When Jack arrived he learned Mary ________ for about an hour. A.had gone B.had set off C.had left D.had been away 43.By this time tomorrow we ________ the machine. A.have repaired B.shall have repaired C.will repair D.would repair 44.I don’t think Jim saw me,he ________ into space. A.just stared B.was just staring C.has just stared D.had just stared 45.Helen ________ her key in the office so she had to wait until her husband ________ home. A.had left; came B.has left; comes C.left; had come D.had left; would come 46.—You have left the light on. —Oh,so I have.________ and turn it off. A.I’ll go B.I’ve gone C.I go D.I’m going 47.This is Ted’s photo.We miss him a lot.He ________ trying to save a child in earthquake. A.killed B.is killed C.was killed D.was killing 48.The notice ________ “No smoking.” A.is wrote B.reads C.writes D.is read 49.Good care must ________ babies particularly while they are ill. A.take B.take of C.be taken D.be taken of 50.Shortly after we ____,a waiter came over to our table with a smile. A.seated B.were seated C.sat ourselves D.had seated 51.—You look pale,what troubled you? —I ________ my dead friend. A.am thinking about B.was thinking about C.had thought about D.will think about 52.John and I ________ friends for eight years.We first got to know each other at a Christmas party.But we ________ each other a couple of times before that. A.had been; have seen B.have been; have seen C.have been; had seen D.had been; had seen 53.Do make sure that you ________ a seat today! A.got B.get C.should D.have get 54.We ________ at the house as we ________ of buying it. A.looked; were thinking B.were looking; were thinking C.were looking; thought D.looked; had thought 55.—I’m told that you are leaving for Beijing. —Who ________ so? A.said B.had said C.says D.has said

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56.I ________ the room to be empty but found it occupied. A.had thought B.have thought C.didn’t think D.was thinking 57.Selecting a mobile phone for personal use is no easy task because technology ________ so rapidly. A.will have changed B.has changed C.is changing D.will change 58.I ________ ping-pong quite well,but I haven’t had time to play since the new year. A.will play B.have played C.played D.play 59.Visitors ________ not to touch the exhibits. A.will request B.are requested C.are requesting D.request 60.They ________ a snowstorm on their way home. A.caught in B.had caught C.were caught D.were caught in

动词时态和语态答案
1~5 DADBD 11~15 ACDCB 21~25 DCBAB 31~35 BADCC 41~45 DDBBA 51~55 BCBBC 6~10 BBCAD 16~20 AAACA 26~30 ACCAC 36~40 CBBAD 46~50 ACBDB 56~60 ACDBD

【解析】 1.用过去时表达没能早说之意。 2.用完成时表达到目前为止本应发生的动作。 3.主句将来时,状语从句用一般现在时表示将来。 4.本句用完成时当无疑问,值得注意的是后面的结构是系表结构表状态,不是被动语态。 5.受 by the end of last year 的影响,本句是典型的过去完成时。 6.体会一下时间的先后就可明白,前一句是一般过去时,后一句是过去完成时。 7.空格所指的是说话前正在考虑的动作。 9.本句是强调句型,sb. is to blame 是“得怪谁”的意思。 10.填空处是现在进行时的省略。 14.现在进行时的被动语态。 16.强调看见时 the UFO 正在发生的动作。 22.答语为现在进行时的被动语态,指“试卷正在被批改”。 23.有征兆表明某事即将发生一般用 be going to 表达。 24.taste 为连系动词,因而没有被动语态。 25.belong to 没有被动语态。 30.全句意为“暴风雨过后是一片宁静”。 33.only to 引导的是一个结果状语,所填空处是典型的过去完成时的被动语态。 40.一般现在时陈述事实。 43.受 by this time tomorrow 这一时间状语的影响,本题所填是中学不太常见的将来完成时。

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