? 1. What do you know about global warming? What is the cause of global warming? ? 2. What changes could the greenhouse effect create in the Earth‘s climat
e? ? 3. What can we do to deal with the greenhouse effect?
Global warming is the increase in the average temperature of the Earth‘s near-surface air and oceans since the mid-20th century and its projected continuation.
Global surface temperature increased 0.74+0.18°C during the 100 years ending in 2005. The Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) concludes that most of the temperature increase since the mid-20th century is ―very likely‖ due to the increase in anthropogenic greenhouse gas concentrations
http://video.sina.com.cn/v/b/515583441828899703.html ? These basic conclusions have been endorsed by at least 30 scientific societies and academies of science, including all of the national academies of science of the major industrialized countries. ? While individual scientists have voiced disagreement with these findings, the overwhelming with these findings, the overwhelming majority of scientists working on climate change agree with the IPCC‘S main conclusions.
A greenhouse is
made of glass and
is used for
? How does a greenhouse work? The air inside is warm because the glass traps the heat from the sun and keeps it from escaping. This makes the greenhouse heat up and so the plants can grow throughout the cold period.
What are the greenhouse gases?
In the atmosphere surrounding the
earth there are gases, which are
called “greenhouse gases”,
including carbon dioxide,
and water vapor.
What do you think greenhouse gases do?
heat from the sun and therefore warm the earth.
1.What are some of the environmental problems in today‘s world? 2. What is causing the environmental problems?
3. What should we do to protect our environment?
1.What are some of the environmental problems in today’s world?
?air pollution ?water pollution ?forests disappearing/deforestation ?farmland shrinking ?noise ?greenhouse effect
2. What is causing the environmental problems?
?vehicles giving off harmful gases ?factories emitting gases ?machines and vehicles making a lot of noise ?uncontrolled cutting down the trees ?massive use of fertilizer and pesticide ?buildings, factories and other facilities occupying farmlands ?people dumping garbage everywhere
3. What should we do to protect our environment?
?spare nature resources ?prevent waste water from being released from factories ?recycle ?make less noise ?plant more trees ?make laws to protect our environment ?use clean energy resources ?invent new clean materials
Environmental protection organizations
a British political party that aims to protect the environment. It is against the use of nuclear power and other forms of industry and transport which it considers harmful. It was formed in 1973as the Ecology Party, and changed its name to the Green Party in1985.Other countries also have parties that share the same name and ideals.
a large international pressure group that aims to protect the environment. Its members are well-know for taking direct action and putting their own lives in danger in order to stop people from harming the environment. For example, they often go out in small boats to stop people from killing whales or throwing poisonous materials into the sea.
3.The Environmental Protection Agency (EPA):
a US government organization that established rules and standards for protecting the environment, e.g. against pollution.
? All-China Environment Federation ? 中华环保联合会的宗旨是围绕实施可 持续发展战略，围绕实现国家环境与 发展的目标，围绕维护公众和社会环 境权益，充分体现中华环保联合会 “大中华、大环境、大联合”的组织 优势，发挥政府与社会之间的桥梁和 纽带作用，促进中国环境事业发展， 推动全人类环境事业的进步。
? 自然之友是一家非营利性的民间环保组织，致力于推动 公众参与环境保护，支持全国各地的会员和志愿者关注 本地的环境挑战。 ? 〖愿景〗 ? 在人与自然和谐的社会中，每个人都能分享安全的资源 和美好的环境 ? 〖使命〗 ? 建设公众参与环境保护的平台，让环境保护的意识深入 人心并转化成自觉的行动 ? 〖核心价值观〗 ? 与大自然为友，尊重自然万物的生命权利； ? 真心实意，身体力行； ? 公民社会的发展与健全是环境保护的重要保证
Fill in the blanks with an appropriate word
My Thoughts on Environmental Protection
When faced with all kinds of environmental problem, many people seem to believe that we have to ________ either economic prosperity choose or environmental protection. In my view, this is a _____ choice. I think false that economic development and environmental protection can and must coexist. brought It is true that development has _________ with it a number of shortages environmental problems, such as air pollution, water ________ and acid rain, but at the same time modern industry and commerce have improved greatly _________ our lives. benefits Few would wish to live without the __________ of television, developing automobiles, computers etc. To stop ____________ our industry and sentimentalism commerce for the sake of nature alone is pure _____________. Of course, we can‘t allow economic growth to go on at the ________ of the environment, either. When a healthy environment is expense gone, everything that our life _________ on is gone, too. So we must depends protect the environment – not for the sake of environment alone, but for the sake of man.
? Paragraph 1 ? Twenty-five years ago if you made a trip to the local library and perused the periodical section for articles on global warming… ? peruse to read through carefully 细读，精读 ? Eg.
? We perused the company's financial statements for the past five years... ? Have you perused the article?
? (1) n. Periodicals are magazines, especially serious or academic ones, that are published at regular intervals. 期刊 ? The periodical is obtainable on the very first day of every month. ? (2) adj. Periodical events or situations happen occasionally, at fairly regular intervals. 定期的 ? She made periodical visits to her dentist.
? you'd probably have come up with only a few abstracts from hardcore science journals or maybe a blurb in some esoteric geopolitical magazine. ? abstract：
? 1) n. An abstract of an article, document, or speech is a short piece of writing that gives the main points of it. 摘要 = summary
? The whole text of the abstract shall contain not more than 300 Chinese characters. ? 摘要文字部分不得超过300个汉字 。
? 2) adj. An abstract idea or way of thinking is based on general ideas rather than on real things and events. 抽象 的；理论的 = theoretical
? We may talk of beautiful things, but beauty itself is abstract. ? 我们尽可谈论美的事物，然而美 本身却是抽象的。
? 3) adj. In grammar, an abstract noun refers to a quality or idea rather than to a physical object.抽象名词
abstract words such as
? vt. remove sth from somewhere; obtain facts from a calculation or piece of research 提取; 抽取; 分离
? They are trying to abstract iron from ore. ? 他们正试图从矿石中提取铁。 ? vt. make a written summary of a book etc.写 出摘要; 摘录
? 1) adj. Often derogative very strongly following a particular belief or activity, and unlikely to change 核心的；铁杆的
? ? ? ? e.g. hard-core opposition to the government 与政府势不两立的反对派 a hard-core criminal type 一名死不悔改的罪犯
? 2) adj. Showing or describing sexual activity in a very open and detailed way. 露骨的
? Hard-core pornography ? 赤裸裸的色情作品
? n. often derogative the small central group that takes the most active part within a larger group or organization.中坚力量
? The hard core of party activists make/makes all the decisions. ? 党的积极分子中的中坚力量制定全部决策。
? If you describe something as esoteric, you mean it is known, understood, or appreciated by only a small number of people. (FORMAL) 神秘的；难懂的
? esoteric knowledge. ? I asked, but he said he couldn't tell me the recipe because it was esoteric. ? 我问了，但是他说他不能告诉我那药方，因为那是秘 传的。
As an Internet search on global warming now attests, the subject has become as rooted in our public consciousness as Madonna or microwave cooking.
? 1. vi 证实,证明[(+to)] ? 历史资料和古老的陵墓都证实了这个家族过去的辉煌。 ? Historic documents and ancient tombstones all attest to the past glories of the family.
? 2. vt. 作为...的证明;表明[+(that)] ? His achievements attest his devotion to science. ? 他的成就是他对科学的献身精神的明证。
? 麦当娜，这个流行的象征，时尚 的符号，已经陪伴了全世界四分 之一个世纪。与众不同的 Madonna ，深深影响了流行乐的 发展，流行天后简直成了麦当娜 的专有名词，也许有人说她不是 最伟大的，不是最优秀的，但也 不得不承认她是最红，最成功的 歌手之一。身为“摇滚女王”， 麦当娜给摇滚乐注入了新的活力， 全世界无数次为她疯狂，直到现 在，麦当娜的巨星光芒依然不减， 无论时代在变，一代又一代人， 麦当娜证明了她的流行并不是红 极一时，而是超越时间的当红。 麦当娜已在20世纪和新世纪的流 行乐史上烙下了深深的印记。
paragraph2 Perhaps all this attention is deserved. ? deserve ? have earned by one?s actions or character; be worthy of 应该，应受,该得 ? [+to-v] (not used in the progressive) ? ? ? ? They deserved to be punished. 他们应该受罚。 He deserves this glory. 他应该得到这一荣誉。
With the possible exception of another world war, a giant asteroid…
? asteroid 火星和木星之间的小行星
? one of the very small planets that move around the sun between Mars and Jupiter.
? artificial asteroid人造小行星 ? asteroid belt小行星带
global warming may be the single largest threat to our planet.
? threat ? 1. A strong possibility that sth. Very bad will happen. 威胁 ? 构成威胁的人(或事物)[(+to)]
? Some people think that machinery is a threat to their jobs. ? 一些人认为机器是对他们工作的一种威胁。 ? 这次争端对和平构成了威胁。
? The dispute poses a threat (=is a threat) to peace.
? Threaten vt. 1. to tell someone that you will cause them harm or problems, especially in order to make them do something （尤指为迫使某人做某事而）威胁，恐吓 [+tov][+that] ? 恐怖分子威胁要杀掉人质。 ? The terrorists are threatening to kill the hostages. ? 2. to be likely to harm or destroy something 威胁到；可 能危害到 ? Nearly 1,000 of the world‘s bird species are threatened with extinction. ? 世界上有近1,000种鸟类面临着灭绝的危险。 ? Threatening adj.凶兆的；险恶的 ? The country faces dangers greater and more threatening than any known in the past. ? 国家面临比以前任何时候更加巨大的严重威胁。
For decades human factories and cars have spewed billions of tons of greenhouse gases into the atmosphere…
? Spew ? 1). to flow out with a lot of force, or to make something do this （使）涌出； （使）喷出 ~ sth out ? The volcano continued to spew out magmas. ? 火山持续喷出岩浆。 ? 汽车的引擎冒出黑烟 ? The engine of the car spewed black smoke. ? 2) 呕出 ? She spewed her vomit into the sink. ? 她呕吐在洗手池里。
Many see this as a harbinger of what is to come. ? harbinger
? noun: something that precedes and indicates the approach of something or someone 先驱；预兆， 前兆
? The arrival of swallows is a harbinger of spring. ? 燕子的到来预示着春天的来临。
If we don't curb our greenhouse gas emissions, then low-lying nations could be awash in seawater...
? to control or limit something that is harmful or may cause problems 控制；约束
? I could be able to curb my desires. ? 我能够抑制住自己的欲望。 ? 为抑制通货膨胀所作的努力 ? efforts to curb inflation
? An emission of something such as gas or radiation is the release of it into the atmosphere. (FORMAL) 散发； 排放
? Sulfur emissions from steel mills become acid rain. ? 炼钢厂排放出的硫形成了酸雨。
adj. 1）lying close to water or ground level 接近地面或海平面的
2）situated below the normal height or altitude 低洼的
The doctor knows about low-lying coastal areas.
Many people like low-lying deserts of central Arizona. 很多人喜欢亚利桑那中部的低洼沙漠。
…hurricanes could become more frequent, and El Ninos could become more intense.
Hurricane & typhoon
? 飓风和台风都是指风速达 到33米/秒以上的热带气旋， 只是因发生的地域不同， 才有了不同名称。出现在 西北太平洋和我国南海的 强烈热带气旋被称为“台 风”；发生在大西洋、加 勒比海和北太平洋东部的 则称“飓风”。飓风在一 天之内就能释放出惊人的 能量，约等于整个美国6 个月电力的需求量。
? 飓风与龙卷风不能混淆。 后者的时间很短暂，属于 瞬间爆发，最长也不超过 数小时。此外，龙卷风一 般是伴随着飓风而产生。 龙卷风最大的特征在于它 出现时，往往有一个或数 个如同“大象鼻子”样的 漏斗状云柱，同时伴随狂 风暴雨、雷电或冰雹。龙 卷风经过水面时，能吸水 上升形成水柱，然后同云 相接，俗称“龙取水”。 经过陆地时，常会卷倒房 屋，甚至把人吸卷到空中。
? 厄尔尼诺（El Nino Phenomenon）又称厄 尔尼诺海流，（西班牙 语：El Nino）或称圣婴 现象，是秘鲁、厄瓜多 尔一带的渔民用以称呼 一种异常气候现象的名 词。
? 主要指太平洋东部和中 部的热带海洋的海水温 度异常地持续变暖，使 整个世界气候模式发生 变化，造成一些地区干 旱而另一些地区又降雨 量过多。其出现频率并 不规则，但平均约每4年 发生一次。
基本上，如果现象持续期少于五个月，会称为厄尔尼诺情况 （condition）；如果持续期是五个月或以上，便会称为厄尔 尼诺事件（episode）。
厄尔尼诺在西班牙语中意为“圣婴”，因为这种气候现象通常 在圣诞节前后开始发生。而其中nino在西班牙语是“男孩” 之意，El是定冠词。这现象往往持续好几个月甚至1年以上， 影响范围极广。厄尔尼诺相反的自然现象称为拉尼娜（La Nina），拉尼娜就是“女孩”的意思。
Paragraph 3 What has worried many people now is that over the past 250 years humans have been artificially raising the concentration of greenhouse gases in the atmosphere.
1) [U]专心,专注 the direction of attention on a single thing, idea, subject, etc. 2) [C]集中,集结 a close gathering
The largest concentrations of ancient sites are around Cairo and Luxor. 最大的古遗址集中地在开罗及卢克索周围。
vt. 集中,聚集 come or bring together in a small area vt. 浓缩 make stronger vt. & vi. 专心于; 注意 focus (one's attention) on
现代工业曾经集中在一些大型的城市中心。 Modern industry has been concentrated in a few large urban centers. The confusing matters make him unable to concentrate on his study.
? ? ?
? …and cars burn coal and gasoline and spit out a seemingly endless stream of carbon dioxide.
? spit out: to flow out suddenly or violently 吐出 ? spit—spat, spat
? I didn’t want to eat the pips, so I spat them out.
? Finally he decided to spit out what was really on his mind.
? We produce millions of pounds of methane by allowing our trash to decompose in landfills and by breeding large herds of methane-belching cattle.
? decompose 分解，拆分，拆解；腐烂
? When things such as dead plants or animals decompose, or when something decomposes them, they change chemically and begin to decay.
? There is a decomposing corpse of a deer. ? 那儿有一具鹿的腐尸。
? rot decay decompose
? rot指蔬菜水果或肉类的分解、腐烂。 ? decay通常指事物（国家或人）由盛转衰。 ? decompose侧重指动物或植物类物体由于内 部组织的分解而导致的腐烂过程。
? 1) of animals to produce young.繁殖，产仔；
? Some animals will not breed if they are kept in cages. ? 有些动物关在笼子里就不繁殖。
? 2) keep animals, plants, etc.
? He breeds tropical fishes. ? 他饲养热带鱼。
? 3) to cause (a usu. undesirable condition or feeling) to develop; produce. 酿成，产 生
? They oppose corporal punishment because they believe that violence breeds violence. ? 他们反对体罚，因为他们相信暴力只会招致暴力。
breeding n. (动物的）繁殖； 饲养动物；教 养，有教养的举止
? Large improvements in potential yields of maize have occurred through breeding programs. ? 通过育种使玉米获得了很大的增产潜力。 ? I observed that he was a boy of good breeding. ? 我看出他是个很有教养的孩子。
? Nitrogen-based fertilizers, which we use on nearly all our crops, release unnatural amounts of nitrogen oxide into the atmosphere.
? 1). Let a substance spread into atmosphere, esp. as part of a chemical reaction. （化学物品等的） 排放 ? Oxygen from the water is released into the atmosphere.
? 2). to make a film, video, or CD available for people to see or buy 公开发行（电影、录像或唱 片） ? They have just released their second album. ? 他们刚刚发行了第二张唱片。
? 3. set free; allow to come out 释放,解放 [(+from)] ? 放开这条狗，它已被拴了好几小时了 。 ? Release the dog. He has been chained up for hours.
? Unusual , peculiar不平常的;稀有的;奇特的
? ? ? ? ? It is unnatural for birds to fly north in the winter. 鸟儿在冬天飞向北方是反常的。 全球气候变暖导致气候异常频繁发生。 Global warming has led up to the frequent unnatural weather
? Paragraph 4 ? Once these carbon-based greenhouse gases get into the atmosphere, they stay there for decades or longer.
? Paraphrase: If the green house gases, whose main component is carbon, get into the air, they will remain in it for dozens of years or even more.
? Analysis: 连词once引导条件状语从句，表示“一旦， 一…就”，从句不能用将来时态，而必须使用某种 现在时态或过去时态。 ? T: 一旦这些以碳为主要元素的温室气体进入大气层， 它们就会在那儿停留几十年甚至更久。
…show that these gases, two of the most abundant greenhouse gases…
? ? ? ? ? ? ? ?
abundant more than enough 1. 大量的;充足的 abundant rainfall 充沛的雨量 2. 丰富的;富裕的[(+in)] The country is abundant in natural resources. 那个国家自然资源丰富
? In essence, these gases are trapping excess heat…
? In essence ? used for emphasizing what is the most important feature of something (a formal expression used when you are explaining what the basic truth about sth. is) 本质上； 根本上
? 这两件事有本质上的区别。 ? These two matters are different in essence.
? Paragraph 5 ? Temperature data gathered from many different sources all across the globe… ? Gather
? Look for and find information in different places; collect 聚集；集合；收集
? I gathered my maps together and tucked them into the folder. ? 警方一直在搜集对他不利的证据 ? The police have been gathering evidence against him.
? Look for and find information in different places; collect ? I gathered my maps together and tucked them into the folder. ? 造句：警方一直在搜集对他不利的证据 ? T： The police have been gathering evidence against him.
? That's an increase of roughly 1℃ every 4,000 years. ? Roughly ? Almost, approximately粗略地；大致地
? The meeting lasted roughly 45 minutes. ? 会议持续了大概45分钟。
? 大致说来，我们有3种可能解决问题的方法 ? There are, roughly speaking, three possible solutions to our problem.
? Readings gathered from glaciers reveal a steady recession of the world's continental glaciers. ? recession ? 1. （of water, glacier. Etc.）the process of moving back from an area that it was covering退 后，撤退
? A few days later, there was a gradual recession of flood waters.
? 2. (经济的)衰退;衰退期[C][U]
? His factory closed down during the period of economic recession. ? 他的工厂在经济衰退时期关闭了。
? paragraph 6 ? Not surprisingly, many scientists speculate that such changes in the climate will probably result in hotter days and fewer cool days. ? Speculate ? 1. Make guesses vi. 思索;沉思;推测 [(+on/upon/about)]
? She speculated about her friend‘s motives. 她猜测她朋友的动机。
? Speculate ? 2. vt. 推测,推断[+that]
? We don’t know why the prehistoric stone circles were built. We can only speculate.
? Speculation n.思索;沉思;推测 [(+about/on/upon)]
? The papers are full of speculation about who is likely to be the next prime minister.
buy and sell goods or stocks and shares in the hope of making a profit through changes in their value, but with the risk of losing money 后接 (in/on)投机，做投机买卖
He’d been speculating in gold shares, and lost a lot of money.
? result in ? Have as a result, lead to, cause 导致；结 果是
? The making of false statements could result in the invalidation of the contract. ? 提供虚假资料可能导致合同失效。
? These regions could exceed mean global warming by as much as 40 percent. ? Exceed ? be greater than, as in quantity or degree超 过;胜过[(+in)]
? The sales exceeded my expectation. ? 销售超过了我的预料。
? exceed, excel, outdo, outstrip, surpass, transcend
这组词的共同意思是“超过”。其区别在于: transcend原指超越世俗、物质世界等,暗示高高凌驾于一 般事物之上; exceed指超出权利、权力的限度或管辖的范围,也指超出 规定的时空范围,还指在大小、数量、程度上超过; excel指在成就或学识上胜过他人; outdo指有意打破先前的纪录或胜过前人; outstrip指在竞赛、竞争中超过对手; surpass指在质量上、气力上、速度上、技术上等超过对 方。
A slight increase in heat and rain in equatorial regions would likely spark an increase in vectorborne diseases such as malaria. spark
N.[C] 火花; 火星 a small bit of burning material thrown out by a fire or by the striking together of two hard objects
spark (off) v.(动词)
vi. 发出火光 give out sparks vi. & vt. (使)大感兴趣 show great interest in vt. 导致 lead to; be the immediate cause of
? All across the globe, hotter summers could lead to more cases of heat stroke and deaths among those who are vulnerable… ? Vulnerable
? Weak and easily affected by illness 易受伤的，脆弱的
? ? ? ? China is a country vulnerable to natural disasters. 中国是世界上自然灾害较多的国家。 老年人独自居住特别容易受伤。 Elderly people living alone are especially vulnerable.
? …which would likely cause more perilous air quality days and hospital admissions for those with respiratory problems. ? perilous ? dangerous or risky 危险的; 冒险的
? The journey through the jungle was perilous. 穿过丛林的旅行充满了危险。 ? Learning without thought means labor lost; thought without learning is perilous. ? ——Confucius ? 学而不思则罔，思而不学则 殆。——孔子
? Admission ? Permission to enter (学校,会场,俱乐部等的) 进入许可,加入许可[U][C][(+to/into)]
? She has the qualifications for admission to the college. ? 她具备进入该学院的条件。 ? 影院老板有权不准17岁以下少年入场 ? The cinema owners have the right to refuse admission to anyone under seventeen.
? Paragraph 8 ? Fortunately, we can take actions to slow global warming.
? 1. begin to act采取行动
? 政府已经采取行动制止这场罢工。 ? The government was already taking action to stop the strike.
? 2. 开始起作用
? The medicine will not take action for two hours. ? 这药在两小时后才会起作用。
? Global warming results primarily from human activities that … ? result from: happen as a result of 起因于， 来自于
? Success results from hard work.
? result from ＆ result in
result from ＆ result in
? These two phrases are kind of opposites; we use result from to express the cause(强调引起 某件事的原因） and result in to express the result（强调某件事引起的结果）.
? result in = lead to ―导致，引起”，主语是原因， 定语是结果。 result from = because of ―因...而导致...‖，宾语 是原因，主语是结果。
? Tom's lie resulted from his lack of confidence. ? 汤姆的撒谎是由于缺乏自信。 ? Tom's lie resulted in his dismissal from his job. ? 汤姆的撒谎导致他被解雇。 ? 努力工作造就他的成功。 result in Hard work his success. result from hard work. His success
? Paragraph 9 ? We can also do things to mitigate the impacts of global warming and adapt to those most likely to occur …
? Make an unpleasant situation or its effect less serious and less difficult to bear 减轻
? 我们要尽一切可能减轻灾难引起的忧虑（distress）。 ? We need to do everything we can to mitigate the distress caused by the disaster.
? distress ? 指“精神上悲痛或造成痛苦的原因”、“身体上的疼痛或不 适”或“某种灾难所造成的痛苦或苦难”, 如: ? Famine caused widespread distress. ? 饥荒引起了普遍的忧虑。 ? suffering指“身体或精神上的痛苦”, 着重“对痛苦的感觉 和忍受”, 一般用于人, 如: ? His wound caused him great suffering. ? 他的伤使他深受痛苦。 ? agony指“肉体上或精神上的巨大痛苦”, 如: ? He suffered agonies from his arm. ? 他感到胳膊痛极了。 ? anguish多指“精神上令人难以忍受的痛苦”, 如: ? the anguish of despair ? 绝望引起的极度痛苦。 ? misery指“在身体、精神或感情方面长期的极大痛苦或不 幸”, 含“无希望解脱”的意思, 如: ? She died in misery in a convent.
? a strong influence of effect produced by an idea, invention, etc. ? (~ on) 对...影响
? 微电子技术的发展对工业进程 产生了巨大的影响。 ? Development in microelectronics has had a major impact on industrial processes.
? To happen, take place; come about ? 发生；存在；出现；想到 ? If headaches only occur at night, lack of fresh air and oxygen is often the cause. ? 如果只是在晚上头疼，那常常是由于缺乏 新鲜空气和氧气的缘故。
? Occurrence 的事情
n.发生, 事件, 发生
? daily occurrences 日常发生的事
? Riots are of frequent occurrence in this province. ? 这省经常发生骚乱。
Accident; incident; event; occurrence; happening
? accident强调偶然或意外发生的不幸事情。 ? incident既可指小事件或附带事件，又可指政治上具 有影响的事件或事变。 ? event可指任何大小事件，但尤指历史上的重大事件。 ? occurrence多指日常生活中发生的一般事件，有时也 指偶然发生的事。 ? happening与occurrence相似，多指日常生活中发生 的一般事件，有时也指偶然发生的事。
? Paragraph 10 ? We are also advocating policies that will combat global warming over the long term, things like using clean cars that run on alternative fuels…
? advocate ? Vt. Support拥护;提倡;主张[+n/v-ing]。
? 他主张改良监狱制度。 ? He advocates reforming the prison system.
? n. [C] 提倡者;拥护者[(+of)]
? They are advocates of free trade. ? 他们是自由贸易的倡导者。
? fight (against)战斗,格斗,反对
? The combat between good and evil will continue forever. ? 善与恶的斗争将永远继续下去 ? 政府把价格管控看作一种对抗通货膨胀的方法。 ? The government see price controls as a way to combat inflation.
? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? Adj. Other, different from the usual 1.两者(或若干)中择一的; There was no alternative route open to her. 她别无选择。 2. 替代的;供选择的 Electricity companies were criticized for failing to develop alternative energy sources. N. 供选择的东西(或办法等)[C] What alternatives are there? 还有什么可选择的? 3. 选择的自由(或余地)[U] They had no alternative in the matter. 在这件事上,他们没有选择的余地 Alternatively ad. We can arrange for a car to be delivered, or, alternatively, you may book through our London office.
Present perfect tense 现在完成时 现在完成时的基本结构为：have/has +过去分词 （done)。现在完成时的基本用法如下： 1.表示现在之前已发生或完成的动作或状态，但其 结果却和现在有联系，也就是说动作或状态发生 在过去，但它的影响现在还存在。注意现在完成 时的这种用法与一般过去时的区别：若用一般过 去时，则仅表示该动作或状态是过去发生的，不 涉及对现在的影响。如： I have lost my wallet. 我的钱包丢了。（含义是： 现在我没有钱花了。）
Present perfect tense 现在完成时 2. 现在完成时可以用来表示在过去某一时刻发生 并持续到现在的情况，常与for, since引导的时间 状语连用，此时应用持续性动词。如： Mary has been ill for three days. 玛丽已经病了三天。 3. 现在完成时的特殊用法： ①现在完成时不能与表示过去的时间状语连用，如 yesterday等。
Present perfect tense 现在完成时 ②现在完成时常与already, yet, just, before, recently, still, lately等时间副词连用， 如： He has already obtained a scholarship. 他已经得到了奖学金。 ③现在完成时可与表示频度的时间状语连用，如 often, sometimes, ever, never, twice, on several occasions等，如： George has met that gentleman on several occasions. 乔治与那位先生见过几次。
Present perfect tense 现在完成时 ④现在完成时可以与包括现在时间在内的时间状语 连用，如now, up to these few days/ weeks/months/years, this morning/ week /month/ year, now, just, today, up to present, so far等，如：
Up to the present everything has been successful. 目 前为止一切都很成功。
⑤现在完成时还可以用来表示从过去某个时间以来 重复发生的动作，如： We have had four texts this semester. 本学期我们学 了四篇课文。
一般过去时(simple past tense)：
? 一般过去时表示 ? (1)过去某个特定时间发生，并且一下子就完成了的 动作（即：非持续性动作) ? I had a word with Julia this morning. ? 今天早晨，我跟朱丽亚说了几句话。 ? (2)过去习惯性的动作。一般过去时不强调动作对现 在的影响，只说明过去。 ? He smoked many cigarettes a day until he gave up. ? (3) 一般过去时常与表示过去的时间状语或从句连用， 如：yesterday, last week, in 1993, at that time, once, during the war, before, a few days ago, when 等等。
? Have you had your lunch? 你吃过午饭了吗？ （意思是说你现在不饿吗？）
? Yes, I have. 是的，我已经吃过了。（意思是说 已经吃饱了，不想再吃了。） ? When did you have it? 你是什么时候吃的？（关 心的是吃的动作发生在何时。） ? I had it about ten minutes ago. 我是大约十分钟 以前吃的。
since, for, because, as, 表原因的用法区别
because （因为）的用法： because通常表示直接的原因。because 引导的从句表示直接而明确的原因和理由， 表示按因果关系的推断，语气很强， 可用于回答 why 提出的问题、引导表语从句、 用于强调句等，而其余三者均不行。
We couldn't go out because it was too cold. 因为天气太冷，我们不能外出。
2. Since侧重主句，从句表示显然的或已为人知的理 由“既然” 语气较because弱，通常句首，含有勉强 语气的原因。
Since you can‘t answer the question, I’ll ask someone else. 既然你回答不出这个问题，我就问别人了。
Since so, I have nothing to say.
? 3. As表示的“原因”是双方已知的事实或显 而易见的原因，或者理由不是很重要，含义 与since相同，但语气更弱，不如since正式。 “由于，鉴于”从句说明原因，主句说明结 果。主从并重。
? As it was late, we came back soon. ? 由于时间很晚了，我们很快就回来。
4. for（因为）的用法： 是并列连词(其余三者为从属连词)，它有时可表 示因果关系(通常要放在主句之后，且可与 because 换用)； 有时不表示因果关系，而是对前面分句内容的 解释或推断(也要放在主句之后，但不能与 because 换用)。比较：
? The ground is wet，for (＝because) it rained last night. ? 地面是湿的，因为昨晚下过雨。 ? It must have rained last night，for the ground is wet this morning. ? 昨晚一定下过雨，你看今天早上地面是湿的。(此句不能用 because 代 for)
? I. A
? II. 1. T; ? 2. T; ? 3. F; ? 4. F; ? 5. F.
refer to paragraph 5 refer to paragraph 6 refer to paragraph 8-9
? III. ? 1. Paragraph 2. ? Because global warming may be the single largest threat to our planet（the earth）. Low-lying nations could be awash in seawater, rain and drought patterns across the world could change, hurricanes could become more frequent, and El Ninos could become more intense. ? ? 2. Paragraph 3. ? Our factories, power plants, and cars burn coal and gasoline and spit out carbon dioxide, produce methane by allowing our trash to decompose in landfills and by breeding large herds of methane-belching cattle, and release nitrogen oxide by using nitrogen-based fertilizers.
? 3. Paragraph 4. ? The increased concentrations of greenhouse gases prevent additional thermal radiation from leaving the Earth, so cause the global warming. ? ? 4. Paragraph 7. ? A slight increase in heat and rain in equatorial regions would increase vector-borne diseases such as malaria; more intense rains and hurricanes could cause more severe flooding and more deaths in coastal regions and along riverbeds; even a moderate rise in sea level could threaten the low-lying islands; hotter summers could lead to more cases of heatstroke, hospital admissions and deaths among vulnerable people with heart problems or respiratory problems.
? III. ? 5. Paragraph 8 and 10. ? We can curb our consumption of fossil fuels and use technologies to reduce the emission of heattrapping gases like carbon dioxide, methane, and nitrous oxides, and protect the forests in the world, and we can also advocate policies that will combat global warming over the long term, things like clean cars, environmentally responsible renewable energy technologies, and stopping the clear-cutting of valuable forests.
Ⅳ. Explain in your words the following sentences taken from the text. 1. With the possible exception of another world war, a giant asteroid, or an incurable plague, global warming may be the single largest threat to our planet.
Global warming will probably be the most serious threat to our Earth, if we do not take into account some other possible incidents, such as another world war, collision of our Earth with some large orbiting planets, or spread of incurable diseases.
Ⅳ. Explain in your words the following sentences taken from the text.
2. As far as human health is concerned, those hit hardest will probably be residents of poorer countries that do not have the funds to fend against changes in climate. In terms of human health, it is those who live in the poorer countries that will suffer most, because they do not have money to protect themselves against climate changes.
Ⅰ.Explain the underlined part in each sentence in your own words. 1. With the possible exception of another world war, … global warming may be the single largest threat to our planet. except; apart from
Ⅰ.Explain the underlined part in each sentence in your own words. 2. In essence, these gases are trapping excess heat in the Earth’s atmosphere in much the same way that a windshield traps solar energy that enters a car. essentially; basically
Ⅰ.Explain the underlined part in each sentence in your own words. 3. To reduce the emission of heat-trapping gases…, use technologies that reduce the amount of emissions wherever possible, and protect the forests in the world. wherever it is possible
Ⅱ. Fill in the blank in each sentence with a word or phrase taken from the box in its appropriate form.
1. You must try to ____________ your mind on work focus and study.
2. The two poems convey _____________ emotional much the same tone. 3. Heroes and heroines are men and women recognized for shaping our nation’s ______________ and consciousness development as well as the lives of those who admire them.
Ⅱ. Fill in the blank in each sentence with a word or phrase taken from the box in its appropriate form. 4. The most serious ________ to European unity threat is the tendency of some states to pursue their own national interest.
5. The Chinese team ___________ to win the deserved championship—they played much better than any of the other teams.
Ⅱ. Fill in the blank in each sentence with a word or phrase taken from the box in its appropriate form. 6. Coal is formed from peat, which consists of different kinds of organic matter that have _____________. decomposed
7. The way he spoke in the bar afterwards ______________ prejudice and bitterness that I revealed had never suspected.
8. Most local radio station managers have close frequent and ____________contact with community organizations.
Ⅲ. Fill in the blanks with the appropriate forms of the given words. 1. Her natural good sense was improved by the __________ of the best books. (peruse) perusal 2. Efforts to reach the injured men have been ___________ because a sudden deterioration of intensified weather conditions. (intense) 3. I knew he deserved to be punished bur making him stay in every night for a year is a little excessive ____________. (excess)
Ⅲ. Fill in the blanks with the appropriate forms of the given words. 4. Theories of the origin of life are partly _____________, since there is so little direct speculative evidence available. (speculate) 5. This is a book that contains an _____________ of valuable information. (abundant) abundance
6. The cost of the flights, accommodation and car rental is two thousand dollars _____________. (include) inclusive
Ⅲ. Fill in the blanks with the appropriate forms of the given words.
7. When an iron object is heated in a fire, it glows red and ______________ radiation. emits (emission) 8. We hardly ever go into London. Whatever we need we can buy _______________. (local) locally
? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ?
IV. 1. A; 2. D; 3. B; 4. C; 5. D; 6. A; 7. C; 8. A.
? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ?
V. Synonym / Antonym 1. Synonym: mainly, basically, firstly 2. Antonym: unfortunately, unluckily 3. Antonym: exclude 4. Synonym: part, division 5. Antonym: decrease, lowering 6. Antonym: unavailable 7. Synonym: weak, insecure, unsafe 8. Antonym: irresponsible
? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ?
VI. Prefix 1. centigrade centimeter centi-: one hundredth 2. kilogram kilometer kilo-: one thousand 3. synopsis synthetic syn-: synonymous 4. supervise superior super-: extremely, more or better than normal
? ? ? ? ? ? ? ?
5.submarine submerge sub-: below; less than; under 6. astronaut astronomy astro-: connected with the stars or outer space 7.microbiology microwave micro-: small; on a small scale 8. overwork overload over-: more than usual; too much
? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ?
I. Complete the following sentences using the appropriate verb forms. 1. began / / have had 2. A: Have // talked B: Have talked // talked 3. He __has invented__ (invent) hundreds of things. He is one of the most productive inventors of our generation. 4. have // telephoned // went 5. have been 6. has got (gotten) 7. has been 8. have forgotten 9. A: Is your father at home? B: No, I‘m afraid he ___has gone____ (go) out. A: When exactly __did he go___ (he, go) out? B: About ten minutes ago. 10. was // has disappeared.
? I. Complete the following sentences using the appropriate verb forms. ? 1. began / / have had ? 2. A: have // talked ? B: have talked // talked ? 3. has invented ? 4. have // telephoned // went ? 5. have been ? 6. has got (gotten) ? 7. has been ? 8. have forgotten ? 9. has gone //did he go ? 10. was // has disappeared.
? III. ? 1. a. simple present form; b. ―has obtained‖. ? 2. synonymous a. the speaker‘s point of view; b. the listener‘s perspective. ? 3. a. definite; b. indefinite ? 4. a. still suffering; b. past ? 5. a. on the way or in Italy; b. left Italy. ? 6. a. in the morning; b. after the morning ? 7. a. today is not finished and he may drink more; b. simply happened today. ? 8. a. passed away; b. still living.
? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? IV. 1. have had -- have 2. have been – be 3. laying – lying 4. bore – bear 5. Rang -- Rung 6. rised – risen 7. had – has
? V. Fill in the blanks with because, as, since, seeing that, for or because of. ? 1. As / Since ? 2. because / as ? 3. As / Since / Seeing that ? 4. because ? 5. because of ? 6. As / Since ? 7. for ? 8. as / because ? 9. because of ? 10. for
? 1. 到因特网上查一查就可以证明，全球变暖这个主题在公 众意识中已经和麦当娜和微波炉一样根深蒂固了。 ? 2. 如果我们不限制温室气体的排放，低地国家就可能会遭 到海水的冲刷，全世界雨水和干旱的规律就可能发生变化， 飓风可能会更加频繁，厄尔尼诺现象也可能更为严重。 ? 3. 我们还主张实施有关政策，与全球变暖现象进行长期斗 争，如驾驶使用替代燃料的清洁汽车、采用有利于环境保 护的可再生能源技术，以及阻止滥伐宝贵的森林。 ? 4. 这个问题需要所有的人——包括各国政府、工业界、社 团，以及个人的协同合作，才会有真正的改观。
? 3. It is still a puzzle as to how the ancient Egyptian pyramids were built over 4,000 years ago. Some people speculate that they were built by supernatural beings.
? 4. The illegal use of inferior building materials eventually resulted in the collapse of the hotel.
? 1. After months of negotiation, the two companies finally came up with a solution, which was in essence our original proposal.
? 2. The people of that African tribe worship the moon in much the same way that our ancestors worshipped the sun.
? 5. At present, many countries are taking action to mitigate the impact of the financial crisis on their economy.
? 6. The couple finally divorced after years of incessant quarrels, which had resulted from a lack of understanding.
? 7. The governments of the two countries agreed to set up a military hotline to reduce the risk of war due to incorrect information. ? ? 8. Some Chinese students were not very successful in American universities because they failed to adapt to the new environment there.
Exercises for integrated skills
? Ⅰ. Dictation ? It could be the title of a 21-century horror movie:/ ―Death by Global Warming.‖ / Instead, it is a real life warning / from an American ecologist / who believes / global warming may account for / millions of human deaths from disease. / Right now, the evidence of significant global climate change / is minimal, / but there are already noticeable increase / in human diseases worldwide. / Most of the pollution by chemicals /
Exercises for integrated skills
? and biological wastes, / and shortage of food, / Global warming will only / make matters worse. ? Global climate change / will result in a loss of available food. / Although there may be some benefits / in crop production from warmer climates, / these beneficial effects / will not be so great. / Crop losses from plant disease and weeds / will increase in a warmer climate.
Exercises for integrated skills
? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? Ⅱ 1. among 2. with 3. by 4. up 5. much 6. not 7. to 8. as 9. whose 10. to
A. ? Product ? Greenhouse, ? Slightly wet ? Ground, dirt ? Bother, upset ? Eat and chew noisily ? A plant that never lose its leaves and stay green throughout the year ? Destroy, kill off ? Wood from trees
B ? Are very important to the environment ? Have many different shades of green ? Always smell so fresh and clean ? Are fun to climb ? Display beautiful colors in autumn ? Make life possible ? Make her feel peaceful and inspire her to make the best of herself
C 1. She uses many different colors of paint. 2. The smell. 3. She likes to think and relax, or read a book in the tree while eating apples. 4. They produce oxygen so we can breath. 5. The girl believes that trees help her become a better person.
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