1、主语和谓语基本保持单复数的一致，即：主语是可数名词单数或不可数名词时， 谓语动词用单数形式：如： The computer was a great invention.（计算机是个了不起的发明） The water in the glass is very cold.（玻璃杯里的水很冷） 2、集体名词（如 family, class, team, gr
oup, row, police, school 等）做句子主语时， ① 如果表示整体概念，则谓语用单数形式，如： Class Three is a very good class.（三班是好班） ② 如果表示其中的所有成员时，则谓语用复数形式，如： Class Three have a map of China.（三班有张中国地图） 3、Chinese, Japanese, fish, sheep, people 等表示单个时谓语用单数，表示许多时， 谓语用复数。如： There is a sheep in the yard.（院子里有只绵羊） There are some sheep in the yard.（院子里有一些绵羊） 4、maths, news 等虽然有 s 结尾，但不是复数，因此谓语仍用单数： The news is very exciting. （这个消息令人兴奋） 5、glasses, shoes, socks, trousers, gloves 等名词往往用复数形式，故谓语用复数。 如：The trousers are very cheap and I want to take them.（裤子很便宜，我想买） 6、a lot of 后跟名词复数时谓语用复数形式，跟不可数名词时谓语用单数形式。如： A lot of students are playing baseball now.（现在有许多学生在打垒球） A lot of time was wasted on that work.（大量的时间花在了那个工作上）（被动句） 7、 and 连接两个名词做主语时， 谓语原则上用复数， 但是两个名词若构成一个整体事物时， 谓语则用单数。如： The teacher and his son are picking apples now.（老师和他的儿子在摘苹果） Fish and chips is very famous food. （鱼和薯条是一种出名的食品） 8、 there be 句型中 be 的单复数一般由靠近的名词决定。如： There is a table and four chairs in the room.（房间里有一张桌子和四张椅子） 9、用 both…and…连接两个事物做主语时，谓语一般用复数。如： Both you and I are required to be here tomorrow.（你和我明天要求都来） 10、主语中含有 with 的短语时，谓语单复数由 with 之前的人物决定。如： A woman with a 7-year-old child was standing at the side of the road. （一名妇女 带着一个七岁的孩子（当时）就站在路边） 11、either…or…或者 neither…nor…连接两个人物做句子主语时，谓语采用就近原则。 如：Either you or he is right.（要么是你对，要么是他对。/你和他有一个人是对的） Neither you nor I am going there.（你和我都不打算去那里） 12、表示一段时间或长度概念的复数名词做主语时，谓语一般用单数。如： Two months is not a short time.（两个月不是个短时间） Two thousand kilometers is quite a long distance（距离）。（两千千米是相当长 的一段距离）
13、主语中含有 half of… / three quarters of… / all (of) the …等词语时，谓语的单 复数由名词确定，如： Over three quarters of the information on the Internet is in English.（因特网上 四分之三以上的信息是用英语写的） A third of the students were playing near the lake.（学生的三分之一（当时）正在 湖边玩耍） All of the water in these rivers has been polluted.（这些河流中的水已经被污染了） （被动句） 但是，population 一词又有特殊情况： What's the population of China?（中国人口是多少？）（句子用单数） Three quarters of the population in this city are Arabs（阿拉伯人）。（这个城市四 分之三的人口是阿拉伯人）（句子用复数）
（一）完型填空概述和解题技巧 1．各小题有四项答案的完型填空中，只有一项最佳，其余均是干扰性的或迷惑性的。做完 型填空时，要注意下列几个步骤： 第一步，要快速通读全文，了解文章大意，正确分析、归纳文章主旨。 第二步，在理解文章大意基础上，对每道题所给的词语进行剖析，考虑语境，上下呼应，运 用逻辑思维进行推理，再根据自己最有把握的、最熟悉的短语、习惯用语、动词形式和句子 结构等，先完成简单的，把难的留在后面。 第三步，再细读全文，集中精力解决难点，填补空缺。 第四步，答题完毕，遵循由整体到局部、由局部到整体的规律，再耐心通读全文，认真复查 所选答案是否得当，语法是否正确，逻辑推理是否合理。 2．首字母已给的完型填空比“四选一”的完型填空还要难些。除了掌握上述四步的答题技 巧外，还要了解空格所缺词的词性，确保语法的正确性，注意数的变化。在填名词时，应联 系文章的主题，注意它的单复数；在填动词时，要注意它的时态、语态；在填连词时，注意 分析文章中前后句和上下文的逻辑关系； 在填形容词和副词时， 注意比较级和最高级的用法； 在填代词时，要注意它的性、数、格是否准确；在填介词时，注意它的固定搭配和常用语法 特点。 （二）经典例题解析 1．根据上下文的情景确定“意义”上正确的词 利用上下文信息， 选择或填写正确的词是完型填空解题时最常用的方法之一。 在做四选一的 完型填空时，我们有时会发现每一个选项从语法角度来讲都可以说得通，遇到这种情况，我 们应细读上下文，正确答案会在上下文中得到提示。试看以下例题： [例 1]What do I remember about my childhood? There were good things and bad things. We used to live______ , and my parents always got up early in the morning to feed the cows and sheep. A. in a town B. on a farm C. on a busy street D. in a city 【解析】本段主要讲作者回忆儿童时代所居住的地点。从四个选项来看都是可能的，语法上
都说得通。但通过下文 my parents always got up early in the morning to feed the cows and sheep.提示我们可以知道作者生活在农村，正确答案选 B。 [例 2]1 was making a trip from Paris to London. At a small town near London, I stopped to do some s_____ .As l was going into a very crowded shop. I saw a few young people talk in about something they had just b_____. 【解析】 本段主要讲作者在伦敦的一个小镇的经历。 在第一空格上， 由下文 a very crowded shop 这个词组可以推断应填 shopping， 这样也就很容易判断第二空格内应填 bought 了。 [例 3]I always remember waking up to the smell of the breakfast my mother was cooking. What a wonderful smell! I used to _______ ,wash quickly and run downstairs. My breakfast would be waiting for me on the table. A. leave the bed B.lie in bed C. jump out of bed D. get up 【解析】本段讲每天早上妈妈煮的早餐发出诱人的香味，使得躺在床上的我立即起床。根据 题干，A、C、D 均和床有关联，但是按上下文情景的提示，此处还要表达作者的一种迫不 及待的心情。因此只能选 C。 [例 4]This is a special class. The students come from different c_____1 . Some come from America, others from Germany, France, Japan. Their parents are w_____ 2 in Shanghai.【解析】这是一个特殊的班级，学生们来自于不同的地方。根据下文提到的 America，Germany，France，Japan，可以判断第一格指的是国家 country，由此也推断 出学生的父母亲目前在上海工作。第二格由于谓语动词是 be 动词，所以这里的时态为进行 时，表示目前状态。故应填现在分词 working。 2．根据词汇的辨析和词组的搭配来解题 在选项中设置四个词性一致、 意义相近的词是完型填空命题时常用的手段之一。 在做此类题 目时，必须要在特定的语境中选择最佳，或者也可以推敲一些固定的词组搭配来进行选项。 在做首字母完型填空时，尤其应注意空格所缺单词的词性及词组搭配。 [例 1]On the train, Tom was looking for his ticket_____1 , because the conductor was coming _____ 2 to his ticket. 1. A. out B. forward C. anywhere D. everywhere 2．A. down B. up C. in D. on 【解析】第一空格指 Tom 在火车上到处找车票，因此选 D。everywhere 为最佳答案， anywhere 常用于否定句和疑问句中。第二空格意为列车员上前查票，走到某人面前 come up to sb.为固定词组搭配，因此选 B。 [例 2]A Japanese manager once said he himself and his workers would all stand while they were having meetings. Do you _________what he means? A. think B. guess C. know D. understand 【解析】 本段讲述了一个日本经理和他的员工在开会时将都站着。 本题问的是你知道他说话 的含义吗。从四个选项看，A 和 B 放人句中意思不通，而 C 和 D 两个答案很接近。D 选项 强调理解他的意思， 从上文句子看当然很好理解这句话讲述了什么事。 但是其中的含义就不 知道了。因此选项 C 才是最合适的。 [例 4]In March 1982, there was a t_____ drought in Australia. The summer rain didn't fall, and the grass didn't grow. The farmers had to sell all their sheep. Many sheep d _____of hungry.
【解析】从下句 the summer...推断这是一场严重的干旱，第一空格填 terrible。根据上文 提及的严重干旱可以知道由此而导致很多羊死于饥饿，die of 是固定词组，第二空填 died。 3．利用逻辑关系解题 利用逻辑关系是完型填空命题设计过程中用得较多的方法之一。 解这类题目时需要我们多注 意周围生活常识、行文的脉络及句子之间的转承关系。 [例 1]The English language has now become an international language because it is widely used by most countries in the world, ____you want to do business with foreigners, you have to learn English, for most of them speak and write English. A．As B．If C．So D．Since 【解析】本段主要讲述英语语言在世界上被广泛地运用，后面一句是举例说明。假如你想跟 外国人做生意， 你就必须学英文， 因为他们大多数人讲英文。 两句句子是论点和论据的关系， 论据部分用了假设的条件关系。因此，在理清句子之间的脉络之后，很容易知道应选 B。 [例 2]Western country music describes life. It talks about love, jobs, home and money. It talks about friends and enemies, farms and crops. People in many parts of the world like western country music b____ everyone knows something about these ideas. 【解析】 我们中国人对于西方乡村音乐还是有所了解的， 它描述生活中的一些事情， 如爱情， 事业，家庭，朋友，农场，庄稼等，人们对乡村音乐耳濡目染。本段的最后一句因与前文存 在因果关系，因此填 because。 [例 3] Sadly, it is very difficult for pandas to live in the world. Here are some of the_______ that pandas may have in the future. If hunters catch a panda, they will kill it for its fur. If farmers cut down trees and forests, pandas will have no place to live in. A. examples B. questions C. matters D. problems 【解析】根据下文 people will kill pandas 和 pandas will have no place to live in 可以 判断，这都是说明熊猫在将来可能面临的问题。B 选项 questions 只是表达一般的问题。D 项最为恰当。 [例 4]A month later, Mary hadn't heard from Peter or received any money, s_____ she phoned him. 【解析】根据上文 Mary hadn't heard from Peter 和下文 she phoned him 可以判断两句 之间存在着因果关系。因此填 so。 4．利用语法和句型解题 这类题目主要考查学生在一定的语境中运用语法知识和识别句型的能力。 由于学生对这类选 项把握较大，因此这类题型的数量越来越少。 [例 1]The earth is our home. We must take care of it. Life today is easier than it was________ years ago, but it has brought some new problems. A. hundred B. hundreds of C. hundred of D. hundreds 【解析】答案为 B。此句主要考查数词的用法。表示具体几百时，应是 some hundred； 表示成百上千时，则是 hundreds of。 [例 2] Every day, standing at my information desk, I have to answer a lot of questions of
the travelers coming from all ___o__ the world. 【解析】答案为 over。all over the world 是一个最为常见的固定搭配。 [例 3]Grandma Yang lives alone in our neighborhood. Her husband has been dead for eight years. Her only son lives and works in Britain. He asked her mother to go to Britain so that he can look ________her. But Grandma Yang won't go. A. for B. around C. after D. care 【解析】look for 寻找；look around 向四周看；look after 照顾。根据上文 He asked her mother to go to Britain 这一提示我们可以知道儿子为了是照顾妈妈，所以选 C。 [例 4]April Fools' Day is on April l. People can playj____ on others on this special day. If you succeed, you usually laugh and say, “April Fool!” 【解析】根据文章意思，在 4 月 1 日愚人节这天，人们经常相互开玩笑。从语法角度看， play jokes on sb.是固定词组。所以答案是 jokes。 [例 5]Around the world, people have different ideas about what good manners are. When you go to restaurants in different parts of the world, it's important to know the right and wrong things to do. For example, in China it's OK to 1____ a lot of noise in a restaurant. In fact, if a restaurant isn't noisy and 2____ ,you may think there's something wrong with it. However, in many western countries, restaurants are quiet places. If a table is too loud, other people who are eating there might even 3____ to the owner of the restaurant. Paving the bill is also different from country to country. In China, one person usually pays for4____ ． In western countries, one person pays if he or she is entertaining clients（宴请宾客）, but ____5____ friends eat together, they usually share the cost. This is called “going Dutch” （均摊费用） ． Also, when westerners pay the bill, they usually leave some money for the waiter. This is called “leaving a tip” . Leaving a tip is thought to be polite. In the US, it's ____6____ to leave tips of 10%, 15%, or 20% of the bill, which is decided by how good the service is, Good waiters can make a lot of money! The way people eat food is different in the world, but you can ____7_____ the same kinds of food in many countries. Chinese and Italian food, for example, is popular all over the world. 1. A. cause B. keep C. hear D. make2. A. lively B. friendly C. lucky D. polite 3. A. shout B. explain C. complain D. peak 4. A. everybody B. nobody C. somebody D. none 5. A. until B. when C. unless D. since6. A. terrible B. common C. serious D. unusual 7. A. invent B. discover C. prefer D. find 【解析】第一选 D，在不同国家有不同风俗习惯，根据我国特有的风俗习惯在餐厅都是吵吵 闹闹的。make a noise 是固定搭配。 第二选 A，事实上，如果在中国的餐厅不热闹那就意味着出事情了。lively 也是表达活跃的 气氛，而 BCD 三个意思都不对。 第三选 C，根据上文论据 in many western countries, restaurant are quiet places.和下 文论点 If a table is too loud（如果餐厅吵闹），可以推断出客人甚至可以向店主投诉。
第四选 A， 按照中国风俗习惯在付费方面与西方人也不一样， 中国人常常一人付所有人的钱。 第五格选 B，这里讲述西方人在……情况下一个人付所有人的钱，在……情况下，他们是 AA 制。这里句子之间存在状语从句关系。因此，选 B。 第六选 B，强调西方人付小费是比较常见的风俗习惯。unusual 表达特殊的习惯。 第七选 D，虽然吃饭的风俗习惯不同，但是在不同国家却能找到相同的食物。 [例 6] People often think Dimetrodon is a dinosaur(恐龙),but it was in fact _n_(1)_____ a dinosaur at all. It was one of the reptiles （ 爬 虫 动 物 ） on Earth during the _l_(2)_____ Permian（二叠纪）period. It was a large reptile. It lived in swampy（沼泽的） areas and had a very funny _ f_(3)_____ ---a large sail(脊鳍)on its back. Dimetrodon was a (4) to warm up in the morning and cool off _q_(5)____ ——during the day with the help of its sail. It's easy to distinguish（区分）a Dimetrodon _ f_(6)______ a dinosaur. Dimetrodon's legs were on the side of its body while dinosaurs had their legs under their bodies. It probably ran very fast _a_(7)____ it was very heavy. 【解析】第一格填 not。根据前半句人们经常认为是一种恐龙，但事实上它并不是，but 表 达转折与前句的否定。 第二格填 late。表达时间是很清楚的，这种动物在二叠纪时期的后期出现，所给首字母是 l， 而不是 e。如果是早期出现，那么应填 early。 第三格填 feather。本题所缺词性为名词，讲这种爬行动物的后背有一个大的脊鳍，这是讲 它的特征。 第四、第五格分别填 able 和 quickly。表达这种动物的脊鳍的作用：可以早上暖和，白天 又很快地冷却。Be able to 是固定搭配。 第六格填 from。从语法角度看，distinguish 只能与 from 搭配。 第七格填 although。上句 It probably ran very fast 和下句 it was very heavy.推断两句 为转折承让关系。因此填 although。
given information 1． "Leaving School"
Write a passage of at least 60 words on the following topic according to the
●Old school life●Teacher(s) and. schoolmate(s)●Future plan
I don't want to leave school, because my old school life was full of fun and I had many good friends in my old school. We used to share our lunch together. We used to play ball games together. We often did some surveys during the holiday. All of my teachers and schoolmates are very friendly and helpful. Now I have to leave school, I hope l will keep in touch with them and my new school life will be more enjoyable.
2. "Everyone Needs Help" ●Did you get any help from others? ●Did you give help to people when they needed?●Tell your story
In our daily life, we are dealing with different kinds of people, no matter at home, in school, or at some other places. Everyone needs help, I think. And only those who are willing to help others will also be helped. One day I saw a little girl in the street carrying a heavy schoolbag on her back. She was walking happily. Then suddenly an old man fell down while he was crossing a street. She ran towards him at once, but she was too short to help him to stand. I helped her and we together brought the old man to safety. He thanked us over and over. I think the little girl was, though very young, a very warm-hearted person. 3．"Saving Water"●What do we use water for? ●Why water is very important in our daily life?●How do we save water?
As we all know, water is essential in our daily life. We drink water every day, we use water to wash things and cook food, we also use water to make machines. People can't live without water. Though about 75% of the earth is covered with water, only 3% of it is fresh water. So we must save water by having a shower instead of a bath. We can save water by fixing the dripping taps immediately and we can also save water by not washing under a running tap. 4. "Growing Pains and Gains" ●一个戴深度近视眼镜的女孩面对一大堆的作业 ●一个小女孩在弹钢琴，母亲站在旁边拿着尺 ●小女孩和许多人在开生日晚会，脸上露出微笑●小女孩孜孜不倦地在看书
I think I have a happy life, though sometimes I cannot do the things I like. For example, I like reading different kinds of books in my spare time, especially some detective stories. But my mum always asks me to practise playing the piano one hour every day. That's boring. I like having parties with my friends during the holidays. But I have to do lots of homework. Teachers always give us more homework when we have holidays. That's my growing pains and gains. 5. "Changes in Shanghai" ●300 年前的上海●上海的今天（东方明珠、金茂大厦） ●上海的明天（2010 年的世博会）
Shanghai was a small town three hundred years ago. There were only a few thousand people living here. Many of them were fishermen and farmers. Today, Shanghai is becoming an international city. Many tall buildings have been built. Some bridges have been put up over the Huangpu River. More and more foreigners come to Shanghai for a visit every day. Shanghai has already won the bid for holding the World Exp0 2010. I think the environment will be better and better and the city will be more and more beautiful. 6. "An Accident" ●四个孩子刚出校门回家 ●一卡车经过，车速较快，掉下几只西瓜●一骑车人倒下，身边有血 ● 孩子们有的打 110，有的打 120，有的保护现场 ●他们向警察陈述经过，救护车把伤者送医院
Last Thursday afternoon, four students were on their way back home. Suddenly they saw a truck coming round the corner at a high speed and some watermelons fell off. At the same time, a middle-aged man on a bicycle fell to the ground. Blood came from his body. One of them called the policeman, one dialed 120. and the others were taking care of the cyclist. Soon the police came and they reported what they had seen and an ambulance took the cyclist to the hospital soon. 第六部分 写 话（一）写话概述和指导 根据《英语学科教学基本要求与训练》，要求中学生能对人物、事件、物件和场所等作简单 的描述和议论，内容贴切，意思连贯，不少于 60 个词。并且能填写表格，能写简单的便条、 信件和日记。 英语写作是体现学生英语水平和能力的重要表现形式。 综观近年中考的书面表 达题目，一般有三种体裁，分别是记叙文、说明文、应用文（写信、告示、邀请函等）。看 图写话是初中英语作文常考的一种形式， 随着上海英语教材的多样化， 学生的写作能力有了 较大的提高，因此中考作文的要求和难度也相应提高。但它是一种情景作文，多数是以记一 次活动或一件事为主。也有其他可能。考生一定要认真审题，理解图意，注意提示的图片内 容或提示词，分清体裁，准确地进行描述。 怎样才能写出好文章？我觉得我们应从文章的取材、 文章的结构与布局以及语言表达等几个 方面考虑。 下笔前，要认真审题，仔细阅读前面的中文提示以确定文章的主题和体裁。写作时，要切记 “凤头、猪肚、豹尾”的要领。要想写好中考作文要做到：第一，审题要准，然后，定文体、 定人称、定中心句，切不可丢三落四。第二，根据已经确定的要点，先写什么，后写什么， 需要用哪些单词、词组、句型等，都要心中有数。动笔写时，要多用学过的词汇，尽量不出 现语法错误，如：名词的单复数、所有格等；句子结构、语序、标点等都要准确无误。第三， 要理顺全文，然后再检查一下文章格式是否正确、要点是否齐全、开放式作文还需要再想一
想观点是否正确等。最后要保持卷面整洁，还要发挥自己的聪明才智、观察力、想象力和创 造力写好句子， 这样会增强文章的可读性， 使文章具有感染力。 这看似简单， 但做起来很难， 我们要多写多练。 （二）记叙文及范文点评 记叙文记人叙事，初中英语记叙文与语文中的记叙文是相通的，耍弄清是写人、写事。初中 学生的英语写作处于入门阶段， 写人作文只是介绍性的， 但要重点突出， 用词力求准确贴切， 多用简单句，适当使用复合句。 写人可以写的方面很多，如姓名、年龄、职业、兴趣爱好、外貌、特长等，常见的句式如： This is my friend, Mary.She is ... years old. She is a teacher/an artist/a singer...She/He gets up at 6/5 ... /early/late. She/He has sports at school.She/He likes... She/He is strong/fat/slim/kind/thin...She/He looks like... She/He is good at English/maths/Chinese/physics... （三）说明文及范文点评 说明文是就某一件事说明清楚，一般总是以空间顺序展开的，可以自上而下，自左而右，从 里到外，从整体到局部等等。写物的文章常用“某处有某物”的句子表示物的存在。常用的 句型如： There be...I have got a/an... It is-red/green/colour/round...I like…best. It looks like...I like it very much. I will keep it for ever. 范文 1Our Language Lab There is a language lab in our school. It's on the third floor. It's big and clean. There are 50 desks and 50 chairs in it. There are 50 computers and a control desk（操纵台） in it. There are50 headphones（耳机）on the desk. Every week we have our English lessons here. We watch slides, TV, video and listen to tapes. Then the teacher asks us questions. We like our language lab and always keep it clean and tidy. 点评：这篇文章写了“我们的语音室”，按照一定的空间顺序，先写设备，再写功能，让人 对语音室的概貌有一个全面，准确的了解。范文 2Our Housing Estate There are many nice housing estates in Pudong New Area. Our Housing estate Rainbow Estate is one of them. You can see three blocks in the middle. There is a beautiful garden in front of Block 2.In the garden there is a fountain. There is a shop on the right of Block 1.A big playground lies on the left of Block 3. You can see many men, women, boys and girls having exercise there. There is a small kindergarten in our housing estate. It is convenient and comfortable for us to live in our housing estate. 点评：文章的结构与布局较合理，有一定的顺序，层次分明。
（四）议论文及范文点评 议论文要有自己的观点，要有论证过程，强调观点。常用的句型如： 1. 论点 Computer is important.We must learn English well. It's very important for us to...In my opinion... 2. 论证过程常用一些衔接词可使文章读起来流畅， 紧凑。 如： Firstly...Secondly…， Lastly ... Above all 等 3．结尾强调观点，最好用不同的句型来表达相同的观点，如： So we must...So it's very important for us to... I believe...We should... 范文 1Why Are Trees Important? Trees are very important to us. Do you know why? Let me tell you. Trees take in carbon dioxide from the air and make oxygen. That's important. People and animals need oxygen to live. Many small animals and insects live in the trees. Some of them also get food from trees. Trees can also stop water and soil from going away. If we have a lot of trees, we stop deserts from being large. I think this is very important. You know, trees are green. They can make our country even more beautiful. Trees are our good friends. We should plant more trees and take good care of them. 点评：文章先阐明论点，接着论证，最后重申自己的观点。 范文 2It's Our Duty To Protect Our Environment It's our duty to protect our environment. Where we live? The earth. The earth is the only one place we live in. So you know how important the environment is. But now, some people are harming the environment, like cutting down trees, drawing pictures on public walls, littering onto the ground. It's terrible if we still do it. Now, it's time for all the people in the society to protect the environment. It's our duty. It needs each of us to make a contribution to improving the environment. We should make our environment more and more beautiful. 点评： 作者多用学过的词语不但保证了正确， 还巩固了所学的知识， 并且注意句型的多样化， 如长句，短句，疑问句，使用了“if，so, now, but”等词，整篇文章读起来朗朗上口。实 际上，写文章就像串珠子，连接词就在于把一个个单词串起来。 第三部分 听 力（一）听力理解概述 听力在整个的语言交际活动中约占 50%左右。听力部分在近年的上海市中考卷中已占总成 绩的四分之一， 可见听力在英语中的重要性。 初中阶段的听力主要考查学生对所听语言材料 的理解能力。听力部分共有五个部分组成：选图片、快速应答、对话、短文和表格。
（二）影响听力理解的几个因素 学生对语言基础知识的掌握程度决定了听力理解以及反应速度的差异。 取得听力部分高分的 诀窍首先在于注重日常生活中听力的不断积累， 因为语言是长期积累的结果。 注重精听和泛 听有效的结合；其次学会在平时用英语思维，排除母语的干扰。再次要学会在听力中“领先 一步”。即拿到试卷后，快速预览听力部分的全部内容。做到听前已了解考题的大致趋势， 听时胸有成竹、 有的放矢抓住每小题的关键词。 平时良好的心理素质的培养也是必不可少的。 为了提高准确率，建议做到以下几点：1．答题时先做在试卷上。2．学会必要的放弃，不 要因为一小题没听清楚而影响整个听力部分。3．听力部分结束后不要轻易改动答案。 （三）各大听力部分的解题技巧 1．第一大题是根据你所听到的句子，选出相应的图片。这个大题中的句子一般分成两种。 一是直接描述画面， 另一种是根据画面中的背景和相应的提示找出正确的图片。 此类题目的 关键是仔细看清图片，根据图片的提示和句子的关键词，选出图片． [例 1] How do you like Shanghai? 解析】 由于这句话是征求他人的意见， 所以选择以上海为背景， 两人在对话的那幅图片更佳。 [例 2]Shanghai is one of the biggest cities in China. 【解析】 听到这种句子时只要找出上海的标志性建筑即可。 如： 东方明珠电视塔、 金茂大厦、 上海博物馆、南浦大桥、杨浦大桥等地。同时平时要多了解一些其他国家著名城市的标志， 如：美国的标志性建筑为自由女神像、白宫、五角大楼等。 法国的标志性建筑为埃菲尔铁塔、凯旋门、卢浮宫等。 英国的标志性建筑为白金汉宫、海德公园、大本钟、塔桥、牛津大学等 澳大利亚的标志性建筑为悉尼歌剧院、动物为袋鼠、考拉熊。 [例 3]1 want to be an astronaut when I grow up. 【解析】这种题目只要在图片中找出相关的职业或制服即可，职业（教师、建筑师、农民、 工程师、律师、医生、护士、司机、银行工作者、作家、演员、商人等） 2.第二大题是根据你所听到的内容，选出最恰当的应答。这是考查学生对语言功能项目的掌 握及运用能力，即能否在不同场合正确、得体地使用英语的一种能力。由于句子相对比较简 短、精练，部分学生来不及应变，失分率较高。想要得高分的关键是：1）熟知考纲中的语 言功能表。2）了解东西方文化的差异，排除母语的干扰。3）预览被选项，抓住关键词。 [例 1] Are you a singer or a dancer? A. Yes,I am. B.No,I am not. C.Neither. D.All. 【解析】这是一句选择疑问句，不可以用 Yes 或 No 来回答。而问句中的 singer 和 dancer 是两种职业，不能用 all。这样只有 C 是正确的。 [例 2]I am really sorry for what I have said. A. Not at all. B.All right. C.Never mind. D.Don't say that. 【解析】按照汉语的表达应选 D。但是英语的正确表达应该是 C。平时学生要注意积累英汉 表达的不同。 [例 3] Smith broke his right arm in an accident yesterday. 1 A. You'd better take him to the hospital. B. Be careful next time. C. I'm sorry to hear that. D.I don't like him.
【解析】本题所考的语言功能为表达同情。A 和 B 都是一种建议，而 D 显然与同情没有任 何的关系，只是表达对一个人的态度。答案只能是 C。 句子类型同步练习 的重要考查内容。 宾语从句考点：(1)一连词的选择；(2)主句与从句时态的呼应；(3)宾语从句的语序问题；(4) 宾语从句和状语从句的区分。 状语从句考点：(1)主句与从句的时态呼应问题；(2)连接词的选择（注意区别几组连接词： while/ as/ when 引导时间状语从句； because/ since/as/for 引导原因状语从句； if/unless 引导条件状语从句；so... that/such...that 引导结果状语从句等。 （二）基础知识梳理 1．简单句 只包含一个主谓结构的句子叫简单句。如： Neither Bruce nor Susan can speak French. Mother bought a new schoolbag for me at the beginning of this term. 2．并列句由两个或两个以上并列而又相互独立的简单句构成。两个简单句常由并列连词连 在一起。常见的并列连词有 and，but，or，so，for 等。如： Go straight on and you will find a toilet. I would like to go with you, but I can't. Hurry or you will be late. She practices every day, so she plays the piano very well. It must have rained last night, for the ground is wet. 3．复合句 由一个主句和一个或一个以上的从句构成的句子叫复合句。 主句是句子的主体， 从句是句子 的一个成分，不能独立使用。下面总结一下初中阶段的主要从句。 1)宾语从句 宾语从句在复合句中作主句的宾语。引导宾语从句的连接词有以下几种形式： (1)由 that 引导，只起连接作用，不充当句子成分，没有实际意义，可以省略。如： We know (that) there are two kinds of sports. He decided (that) he was not going to say anything about it (2)由 whether 或 if（是否）引导，只起连接作用，不充当句子成分，但不能省略。如： No one knows whether/if they have decided on the date of the meeting. (3)由连接代词 who， whom， what， which， whose 和连接副词 when， where， why,how 等引导的宾语从句， 这些连接词除了起连接主句和从句的作用外， 还可在句中充当某个成分， 不能省略。如：Could you tell me how I can get to the nearest subway station? She told me what she had seen in the museum. (4) 由 it 作形式宾语的从句。如： I think it necessary that everybody should try his best to help fight pollution. (5) 由形容词 sorry, afraid, sure, glad 等引出的宾语从句。如： （一）句子类型概述 句子的类型一共有三种：简单句、并列句和复合句。复合句中的宾语从句与状语从句是中考
We were surprised that Peter was the first to come. I am sure that you will be a success in the future. 2)状语从句在复合句中作状语的句子叫状语从句。常用状语从句有以下几种类型： (1)由 when, while, as, since, until, as soon as 等连词引导的时间状语从句。如： It's more than ten years since they came to Shanghai. Please send me an E-mail as soon as you arrive in Switzerland. (2)由 if，unless 等词引导的条件状语从句。如： We shall go for a picnic if it doesn't rain tomorrow. I won't buy the dress unless it fits me well. (3) 由 because, since, as, now that 等词引导的原因状语从句。如： He asked for leave because he had to see the dentist. Now that everyone is here, shall we begin our discussion? (4)由 though/although 引导的让步状语从句。如： Although it was very late, he went on working. (5)由 so that, in order that 引导的目的状语从句。如： He ran as fast as he could so that the people in Athens could learn the news earlier. (6)由 so... that, such... that 等词引导的结果状语从句。如： He ran so quickly that we couldn't keep up with him. The bus broke down, so we had to walk to the cinema. English is such a useful language that it is spoken in many countries. (7) 比较状语从句。常用的句型有 as... as 与 more than 结构。（参见形容词、副词一章） 3)定语从句在复合句中作定语的从句称为定语从句。 定语从句一般直接跟在被修饰的名词之 后。被修饰的名词称为“先行词”。定语从句一般由关系代词 who, whom, that, which 引 导，它位于先行词与定语从句之间，本身又在定语从句中充当某个成分。如： The boy who/that is reading under the tree is my elder brother.
The present which/that you gave me for my birthday is very nice.
(1) who 和 whom 指人，who 在从句中作主语，不能省略。而 whom 在从句中作宾语， 一般可以省略。如： The woman who will give us a talk tomorrow is a famous professor. Do you know the girl (whom) we met outside the school gate? (2) which 指物，在定语从句中可以作主语或宾语。作宾语时可以省略。如： The story which tells about three monkeys is very interesting. The magazine (which) I borrowed from the library was newly published. (3) that 指人或物，在定语从句中作主语或宾语。作宾语时可以省略。如： The pictures that hang on the back wall were all painted by her. The restaurants (that) they have set up are welcomed by children. (4)如果先行词被序数词、形容词最高级、不定代词 all, everything, nothing 等以及 only
修饰时，关系代词必须用 that。如： All that we need is fresh water. I'll never forget the first job that I found. Judy is the most honest girl that I have ever seen. （三）经典例题解析 1. Don't drink too much coffee in the evening,____you won't fall asleep. A．and B．or C．but D．so 2. Study hard,____you will catch up with others. A．and B．or C．but D．so 3. Could you tell me____we will have a discussion tomorrow? A. whom B.that C.what D.where 4. My sister asked me____ kite____． A. who...this was B． whose... this was C. whose...was it D.who...was this 5. "Have you returned the book to the library?" “What did she ask?" “She asked ____,” A. whether you have returned the book to the library B. if you had returned the book to the library C. whether have you returned the book to the library D. if had you returned the book to the library 6．“I am writing a report and I can't go shopping with you”，George said.（改为 由 that 引导的宾语从句） 7. Will you please tell me____ with Peter? A. what's the matter C. the matter is what B. what the matter is D.what the matter it is
8.I don't know if Mr Wang____．If he____,please let me know. A. Comes... comes B. will come...will come C. comes...will come D. will come...comes 9. Could you tell me____? A. where the bookshop was B. where the bookshop is C. where was the bookshop D. where is the bookshop 10. Light travels faster than sound. （句型转换） The teacher told us that light____________faster than sound. A. travelled B. travels C. is travelling D. was travelling
11.“Can you help me with physics or not” She asked me.（句型转换） She asked me____I could help her with physics or not. 12. He can't work out the problem by himself. I believe.（用宾语从句改写句子） 13. She is going to report to us as soon as she____. A. will arrive B.arrives C. is arriving D. is going to arrive 14. Mr Smith has worked in that factory ____ he moved to this city. A. since B.by C.when D.until 15. He was so tired that he couldn't go any further.（句型转换） He was_______ tired ________go any further. 16. Jane studied so hard that she passed the entrance examination finally(句型转换) Jane studied hard _____________ pass the entrance examination finally. 17. Because he is ill, so he can't go to school.（误） He is ill, so he can't go to school.（正） He can't go to school because he is ill.（正） 18. Although he is old, but he is still in good health.（误） Although he is old, (yet) he is still in good health.（正） He is old, but he is still in good health.（正） 19. In fact, I didn't understand the question ______ was asked in French. A. who B.whose C.which D.what 20.All_______ we need is fresh water. A. that B.what C.which D.who
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