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新人教版选修八Unit3 Grammar课件


人教新课标必修8 Unit 3

Grammar

Grammar
Revise the Past Participle as the Attribute, Predicative and Object Complement

动词-ed形式作定语 动词-ed形式作表语 动词-ed形式作宾语补足语

一、动词-ed形式作定语

过去分词作定语往往与被修饰的词靠得 很紧, 渐渐地成为一个复合词。这种分词叫 分词形容词 (the Participle Adjective), 实际 上相当于一个单纯的形容词, 除表示“完成” 的动作之外, 还表示“被动”的意义。如: spoken English (英语口语); iced beer (冰冻啤酒);cooked food (熟食); fried chips (炸土豆条);

但要注意不及物动词的过去分词常表示
“完成”的动作, 而不表示“被动”意义。

如: boiled water(开水); fallen leaves(落
叶) the risen sun(升起的太阳)等。

1. The tall man is a returned student.
高个子的那个人是个归国留学生。

2. My parents are both retired teachers.
我的父母都是退休教师。

(1)前置定语
单个的动词-ed形式,一般放在被修饰 的名词的前面, 作前置定语。

The excited people rushed into building.
激动的人们冲进大楼。

(=the people who were excited) Lost time can never be found again.
虚度的时光, 无法挽回。

(=time which is lost)

(2)后置定语
①少数单个动词的-ed形式, 如left等, 只能 作后置定语。 1. Everything used should be marked.

所有用过的东西应该做好标记。

2. Among the invited were some ladies.
被邀请的人中, 有些是女士。

3. The books left are for my students.
剩下的书是给我的学生的。

② 动词-ed形式短语作定语时,通常要放在 被修饰的名词的后面,在意思上相当于一个 定语从句。

1. Is there anything planned for tonight? 今晚有什么活动吗? (=That has been planned for tonight) 2. The meeting, attended by a lot of people, was a success.
这次会议有很多人出席, 开得很成功。

(=which was attended by a lot of people)

1) Most of the artists to the party were from South Africa. A.invited B. to invite C.being invited D. had been invited 2) The first text books for teaching English as a foreign language came out in the 16th century. A. having written B.to be written C. being written D. written

3) The Olympic games, in 776 BC, didn't include women players until 1912. A. first playing B. to be first played C. first played D. to be first playing 4) Prices of daily foods through a computer can be lower than prices in stores. A. are bought B. bought C. been bought D. buying

5) Mr. Smith,____ of the speech, started
to read a ____ novel. A. tired, boring B. tiring, bored C. tired, bored D. tiring, boring

二、动词-ed形式作表语
过去分词作表语并无“完成”或“被动”之 意, 而是表示主语的状态或思想感情等。如:

He looked worried after reading the letter.
看完信后, 他显得很忧虑。

When we heard of it, we were deeply moved.
当我们听到这件事时, 被深深地感动了。

He seemed quite delighted at the idea.
听到这个想法, 他似乎很高兴。

常见的作表语的过去分词有:
amused(愉快的); broken(碎了的); closed(关闭的); astonished(吃惊的); crowded(拥挤的); experienced(有经验的); delighted(高兴的); lost(丢失的); gone(遗失的); disappointed(失望的); worried(担忧的); interested(感兴趣的) tired(疲劳的) pleased(高兴的); satisfied(满意的); surprised(吃惊的); married(已婚的); known(著名的) 等等

作表语的-ed形式可被much, very, quite 等 所修饰。

I was very pleased at the news.
听了这消息我很高兴。

He grew much tired of the work.
他十分厌倦这工作。

He seemed quite delighted at the idea.
听了这想法他似乎很高兴。

1)Cleaning women in big cities usually get ____ by the hour. A. pay B. paying C. paid D. to pay 2) As we joined the big crowd I got ____ from my friends. A. separated B. spared C. lost D. missed

3) The pilot asked all the passengers on board to remain ____ as the plane was making a landing. A. seat B. seating C. seated D. to be seating

三、动词-ed形式作宾语补足语
能用作宾语补足语的过去分词一般都 是及物动词,表示被动意义或已完成意义, 有时候两者兼而有之。作宾语补足语的过

去分词与宾语有逻辑上的动宾关系,即宾
语是过去分词动作的对象。

如:

She found the door broken in when she came back. 她回来时发现有人破门而人。 My grandfather had his old house rebuilt. 我爷爷找人重修了一下他的旧房子。

动词-ed形式作宾语补足语的基本用法
动词的-ed形式可以在“主语+谓语+宾
语+宾语补足语”句型中充当宾语补足语。 在这一结构中, 动词-ed形式和它前面的宾

语构成逻辑上的被动关系。如果这种句子
改为被动语态,原来的宾语补足语变成了主

语补足语。

1. I must get my bike repaired.
我必须请人修理自行车。 (宾语补足语)

2. The girl was found beaten black and blue.
人们发现那女孩被打得青一块紫一块。 (主语补足语)

(1)动词-ed形式可作表示感觉和心理状态的
动词的宾语补足语,这类动词包括see, hear,

watch, notice, feel, find, think, suppose,

consider等。
We thought the game lost.
我们认为球赛输了。

I have never heard him spoken ill of others.
我从未听过有人说他的坏话。

She felt a great weight taken off her mind.
她觉得心里轻松了些。

They considered the matter settled.
他们认为这问题解决了。

(2) 动词-ed形式可作使役动词的宾语补 足语, 这类动词包括make, get, have, keep, leave, hold等。 I have my hair cut once a month. 我每个月理一次发。 He was trying to make himself understood. 他正努力使别人听懂自己。 She held her hands pressed against her face. 她用双手按着脸。

“have+宾语+done”结构有三个含义: ① (请人)把某事做完。
She had her house repaired.

她请人把屋子修好了。
Where did you have your hair cut?

你在哪儿理的发?

② 参遭遇某种意外情况。
He had his hat blown away on
his way home.

在回家的路上他的帽子被吹掉了。
She had her wallet stolen yesterday. 昨天她的钱包被偷了。

③ 完成某事 (自己也可能参与)。
I have had all my spelling mistakes corrected. 我把所有的拼写错误都改正了。 He has had one thousand yuan saved this year. 他今年已存了1000元。

(3) 动词-ed形式可作表示希望、要求、命 令等动词的宾语补足语,这类动词包括 like,want, wish, expect, order等”这 一类 动词的后面作宾语补足语。 He won’t like such questions discussed at the meeting. 他不喜欢在会议上讨论这样的问题。 The students wish the TV serial plays continued. 学生们希望电视连续剧继续播下去。

(4) 过去分词用在“with+宾语+宾补”这
一结构中, 过去分词与宾语之间是动宾关

系。
With many brightly colored flowers planted around the building, his

house looks like a beautiful garden.
周围种了许多色彩鲜艳的花, 他的房子看

上就像一座漂亮的花园。

1) --- Good morning. Can I help you? --- I’d like to have this package _____, madam. A. be weighed B. to be weighed C. to weigh D. weighed

2) The missing boys were last seen ___ near the river. A. playing B. to be playing C. play D. played 3) The managers discussed the plan that they would like to see ____ the next year. A. carry out B. carrying out C. carried out D. to carry out

4) Mrs. Brown was much disappointed to see the washing machine she had had ________ went wrong again. A. it B. it repaired C. repaired D. to be repaired

Exercises
Ⅰ.单项选择: 1. From the dates ____ on the gold coin, we decided that it was made five hundred years ago. A. marking B. marked C. to be marked D. having been marked

2. It was so large a room that a

hundred people looked ____ in it. A. losing B. lost C. to lose D. having lost 3. Laws that punish parents for their little children’s actions against the laws get parents ____. A. worried B. to worry C. worrying D. worry

4. With ____ leaves ____ in the
earth every year, the soil becomes

richer and richer.
A. falling; burying

B. fallen; buried
C. fallen; burying D. falling; buried

5. She was glad to see her child well ____ care of. A. take B. to be taken C. taken D. taking 6. Friendship is like money easier made than ____. A. kept B. to be kept C. to keeping D. being kept

7. Don’t use words, expressions or phrases ____ only to people with specific knowledge. A. being known B. having been known C. to be known D. known

8. John rushed out in a hurry,
____ the door ____. A. leaving; unlocked

B. leaving; unlocking
C. left; unlocking

D. to leave; unlocking

9. The girl ____ forward to buying a new gold watch.

A. referred to look
B. referred to looking

C. referred to looks
D. referring to looks

10. The disc, digitally ____ in the studio, sounded fantastic at the party that night. A. recorded B. recording C. to be recorded D. having recorded

11. ____ with the size of the whole earth, the biggest ocean does not seem big at all. A. Compare B. When comparing

C. Comparing
D. When compared

12. ____ time, he’ll make a first
class tennis player.

A. Having given
C. Giving

B. To give
D. Given

13. ____ in thought, he almost ran
into the car in front of him.

A. Losing
C. Lost

B. To lose
D. Having lost

14. ____ in 1636, Harvard is one of
the most famous universities in

the United States.
A. Being founded

B. It was founded
C. Founded D. Founding

Ⅱ.选择恰当的非谓语动词填空:
1. John Snow told the story about

the _________ (astonish) people in astonished
Broad Street.

2. Some of the people _______ invited
(invite) to the party couldn’t come.

3. There is a car _______ (park) parked
outside the house.

4. The experience _______ (gain) will be of gained
great value to us. 5. These seats arereserved (reserve) for you. _______

closed 6. The library is ______ (close) on weekends.
7. Don’t drink the polluted (pollute) water. _______

worried 8. The ________ (worry) mother looked at
worrying her________ (worry) son, looking
_______(worry). worried

Ⅲ. 单句改错: 1. The foreigner tried his best to make his point be understood. 去掉 be 2. They found a piece of rope with one end tying in a circle. tying → tied 3. Mark got his hands to be burnt in the accident. 去掉 to be 4. They both spent the night locking in the room. locking → locked

5. How would you like the rent to pay,
in cash or by cheque? to pay → paid 6. What kept you so exciting? exciting → excited

7. You should speak loudly enough
to make yourself hear. hear → heard 8. I noticed the traffic holding up after a bad accident. holding →held

9. He wanted the door to paint

yellow.

to paint→paid

10. I know little about the girl calling
Lily. calling→called

Homework
1. Finish the exercises on grammar in this unit. 2. Preview the reading materials in Using Language.


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