The United States of America
Chapter 1 Geography and People
? Full name: the United States of America ? AKA: the United States, America, the
States, the U.S. ? Nickname: Uncle Sam
Position, Areas and Regions
? 9.5 million square kilometers. The 4th largest country in the world. (Russia, Canada and China) ? Is bordered by Canada on the north (open and undefended), boundary line 6000 kilometers ? Mexico and the Gulf of Mexico on the south, ? the Atlantic Ocean on the east and the Pacific Ocean on the west. ? 48 states and Washington D.C. located in the central part of North America, except Alaska(1867, 7.2 million) and Hawaii. Guam, Puerto Rico and Virgin Island ? Alaska is the largest in area and Rhode Island the smallest
? The eastern part: – the Atlantic Seacoast and the Appalachians ? The western part: – The Rockies West to the Pacific Ocean ? The Great Plains: – The Mississippi River Valley
The eastern part --- the Atlantic Seacoast and the Appalachians ? Begins Newfoundland and Labrador to central Alabama (3,200 kilometers) ? Holds one sixth of the continental territory ? The country of the first European immigrants and the 13 original states. (Delaware, Pennsylvania, New Jersey,
Georgia, Connecticut, Massachusetts, Maryland, South Carolina, New Hampshire, Virginia, New York, North Carolina, and Rhode Island )
New Hampshire Massachusetts Rhode Island New York Connecticut New Jersey Pennsylvania Delaware Maryland Virginia North Carolina South Carolina Georgia
The western part --- The Rockies West to the Pacific Ocean ? From Canada through the western part of the U.S. to Mexico and further south ? It holds one third of the country’s territory ? Stretches in 6 states: Montana, Idaho, Wyoming (Yellow Stone National Park, 1 of 38), Utah, Colorado and New Mexico
The Great Plains --- The Mississippi River Valley (Barn of America)
? Between the Appalachians in the east and Rocky Mountains in the west ? Stretches from the Great Lakes in the north to the Gulf of Mexico in the south ? Almost half of America’s landmass ? Great Lakes: Lake Superior, Lake Huron, Lake Erie (Niagara Falls) Lake Ontario and Lake Michigan ? The Mississippi River: longest river in N. America. Flows from the Lake Itasca (MN) to the Gulf of Mexico, length of 3,780 kilometers and more than 3 million sq kilo drainage area: “the father of waters”, “Old Man River”
Six regions: formed by history, geography, economy, literature and folkways that all the parts of the region share. New England: 6 states, long history, first settlements, historic cities, towns and schools the Mid-Atlantic States: 5 the South: 12 states the Midwest (Mississippi Basin): 12 states, the Southwest: 4 states the West : 11 states, CA, AK, HI, Las Vegas
? ? ? ? ? ?
? Alaska : full of glaciers, waterfalls and lakes * Native population: the Eskimos (50%), the Indians, and the Aleuts * Main agricultural output: seafood (crab) * Industrial outputs: crude petroleum, gas, metals and timber Hawaii: 8 major islands, cane sugar, pineapple, flowers, coffee, bananas and macadamia nuts. The tourist business is Hawaii’s largest source of income Las Vegas: Casino hotels
? Temperate with some mild subtropical zones ? Tropical zones: FL, Hawaii ? Rainfall: 50-centimeter rainfall line (to the east of which more rain, to the west of which is less rain)
New York: Commercial and financial center of the US ? Includes 3 islands: Manhattan Island, Long Island and Staten Island (斯塔腾岛） ? Includes 5 boroughs: Manhattan, Brooklyn, Bronx, Staten Island and Queens --- Manhattan: financial and entertainment center Broadway, Times Square, Wall Street, Fifth Avenue and Central Park. Headquarters of UN, the Statue of Liberty
Statue of Liberty is the greatest symbol of New York City. The Statue of Liberty was originally called “Liberty Enlightening the World”, and it was a gift of friendship from the people of France to the people of the United States and is a universal symbol of freedom and democracy.
Was done for approximately nine years, starting from 1875 and completed in 1884. A statue with a height of 46.5 meters which describe the physical condition of a woman standing erect with her right hand holding a torch and a tablet of her left hand symbolizes the enlightenment of the United States bearing the date of independence of Britain on July 4, 1776. The broken chains that lie at her feet, symbolize the overthrow of tyranny. There are 167 steps from the land level to the top of the pedestal, 168 steps inside the statue to the head, and 54 rungs on the ladder leading to the arm that holds the torch.
Washington: Washington D.C.
? The White House: 132 rooms, the America’s oldest federal building, the first US president, George Washington helped lay the building’s first stone in 1792. John Adams, the second president, was the first president to live in the White House. Capital Hill: It has been the seat of the US Senate and House of Representatives since 1800.
Washington, D.C. is well known for its monuments ? Washington Monument: 169 meters high, built from 1848-1884 to commemorate the 1st U.S. president George Washington ? Thomas Jefferson Memorial (principal author of the Declaration of Independence, 3rd president) ? Lincoln Memorial: 16th, 17th US president. (200,000 people in 1963 heard Martin Luther King, Jr., give his famous “I Have a Dream” speech.) ? Roosevelt Memorial: the 32nd U.S. president. He led the nation through the difficult years of the Great Depression (1930s) and World War II (1939-1945) *Mount Rushmore near Keystone, South Dakota
FDR: Franklin Delano Roosevelt
San Francisco: ? The center of oil-refining, chemicals, commerce, finance, and the shipping industry. ? Golden Gate Bridge, Chinatown ? Los Angeles: ? The second largest city, electronic center, manufacture of tires, automobiles and aircrafts ? Hollywood, Disneyland ? Chicago: “the Windy City”, third largest city. ? Main connection between the eastern coast cities and the west. The largest industrial city for both heavy and light industries.
1 3. 5 7 9 Population: the third in the world 300 million on Oct. 17, 2006, will be 400 million by 2043 China 1,341(million) 2 India 1,215 United States 310 4 Indonesia 234 Brazil 193 6 Pakistan 166 Bangladesh 164 8 Nigeria 156 Russia 140 10 Japan 127
? White people: 74.7% ? Blacks: 12.1% (The first group of blacks was brought into Virginia colony as slaves in 1619, 1808 became a crime) ? Asians: 4.3% ? Native Americans: 0.8% ? Native Hawaiians & Pacific Islanders: 0.1% ? Mixed race people: 1.9% ? Others : 6%
The distribution of the population in the U.S. is rather uneven. ? The northeastern part: The most densely populated region ( ? land, ? population) ? The Great Plains: comparatively small population ? The South: 57.5 million (1/5 population) ? The West: is not densely populated, except metropolitan centers like L.A. S.F. Will grow faster
Nation of Immigrants
U.S. is a nation of immigrants
– 55 million people in the last 4 centuries – The majority of American people are descendants of the European immigrants (make up 85%) – Currently U.S. admits more immigrants than all other industrialized counties combined
US is called “melting pot” and “salad” that mixes but at the same time keep their distinct culture and custom
Immigration Dept. ? Immigration and Naturalization Service (INS) was established on June 10, 1933, ? INS was ceased to exist under that name on March 1, 2003 ? Most of its functions were transferred from Department of Justice to three new components within the newly created Department of Homeland Security, as part of a major government reorganization following the 911 of 2001. ? These three components include U.S. Citizenship and Immigration Services (USCIS), U.S. Immigration and Customs Enforcement (ICE), and U.S. Customs and Border Protection (CBP). ? Green Card :Permanent Resident Card
People and Ethnic Groups
? A nation of over 100 ethnic groups ? An ethnic group is made up of people with some common characteristics that make them different from other ethnic groups. ? Most lost much of the distinctiveness of their culture. Especially with white immigrants from Europe. (3rd generation Germans and Frenchmen may only speak English and think of themselves as “plain” Americans. ? Immigrants from Asia prefer to retain their distinctiveness by defining themselves as ChineseAmericans or Korean-Americans (banana).
? White People (Caucasian): from European nations. Most of them believe in Christianity. American culture is based on Anglo-Saxon culture. ? Black People: first group of blacks was brought into Virginia as slaves in 1619. Importing salves to US became a crime in 1808. 500,000 black slaves were sold to US between 1619-1808 (unwilling immigrants) ? The Hispanics: Spanish-speaking people from Latin America, which was once dominated by the Spanish Empire. 28 million takes up about 10% of US population. (mixed blood, can claim to be any race, some claim as white others are called blacks.)
? Chinese-Americans: 2.8 million in US. The first Chinese-Americans came as gold miners in Qing dynasty (500 in 1850). By 1882 there were 300,000. 1882 Chinese Exclusion Act《排华法案》 , stopped Chinese immigration for ten years. In 1902, Congress stopped immigration from China for an indefinite period (took jobs away, hard to be assimilated or naturalized). ? Jewish-Americans: 6 million .
– First group 1654. – During 1880s a lot of Jews fled to US. – During the Second World War, many Jews went to US to escape the holocaust started by Hitler. Skillful financiers or moneylenders (as rich as Jew)
? Allen Greenspan ? Ben Bernanke ? Warren Buffett
Upper, Middle, and Lower Classes
The Upper Class: ? 10% of the total American population controls some 65% of the nation’s private wealth in form of corp. stock. ? 10% of the Americans paid 51% of the Fed. Income tax. ? Own things that are beyond the reach of common people ? Contribute money to the campaign funds of politicians in making policies, the government has to take their interests into full account.
The Middle Class: ? It is between the upper and lower classes ? Mostly professional people (white-collar) ? Manual workers of low educational levels not included. ? 40% of the total American population The Lower Class: ? Income is below the national average. ? Includes blacks, Hispanics, and new immigrants
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