2015 山西长治市高考英语语法填空及阅读类一轮自选练习（8）及答 案
语法填空。阅读下面材料，在空白处填入适当内容(不多于 3 个单词)或括号内单词的正 确形式。 【辽宁卷题型】 Linda：Hi, Leath, you're from Zimbabwe (津巴布韦). Could you talk about that? Leath: OK. Well, I
'm from Harare，the capital of Zim. I was born there. My folks are British. My dad is from Manchester and my mom is from Scotland.__1__we say there, growing up in Zimbabwe was “lacker”__2__means really cool in Africans. It was like you growing up in an open place__3__ animals and sunshine. Today it's not doing too well because the economy is crashed，__4__growing up there is really good. Linda：Wow! What animals could you see? Leath：Ah, just about__5__hour's drive out of any city, you are likely__6__(come) across anything. I've seen leopards often at night. You could see monkeys along the road. In certain areas you'll have to stop for elephants. There are some__7__(warn) signs they are actually quite dangerous at night. So, there's buck everywhere. And then away__8__residential areas, you can see rhinos (犀牛) and lions. They are never around human__9__(settle) because they are very dangerous. They do take people__10__time to time. Linda: Wow ! That's fascinating. Thanks, Leath. Leath: You're welcome! 1．______ 2.______ 3.______ 4.______ 5.______ 6．______ 7.______ 8.______ 9.______ 10.______ 答案： 1．As 考查连词。此处的意思是“正如??”，填 as。 2．which/that 考查定语从句的引导词。很明显，修饰的是 lacker，来解释说明这个词 的意思，因此用 which/that。 3．with 考查介词。“成长的地方有动物和阳光”，with 表示伴随的状态。 4．but 考查连词。前面说经济不好，后面说在那里长大真的很好，显然是转折关系。 5．an 考查冠词。“一小时的车程”，hour 是元音音素开头，用 an。 6．to come 考查固定用法。be likely to do...作“可能会??”讲。 7．warning 考查非谓语动词。修饰后面的 signs，只能用 warning。 8．from 考查介词。away from...作“远离，相距”讲。 9． settlement 考查名词。 settlement 除了可以作“解决”讲， 还可以作“定居点”讲。
本句中指的是人类定居点。 10．from 考查固定搭配。from time to time 作“不时，偶尔”讲。
完型填空。阅读下面短文，掌握其大意，然后从以下题所给的 A、B、C、D 四个选项中， 选出最佳选项。[议论文型完形填空] The city that I live in is about to put cameras at all traffic lights to catch people who run red lights.It yellow light as a __2__ __1__ me of how many people I've seen who take the
to go faster.I also can't understand why people don't
move when the traffic light has turned green. Above all, there are those __3__ situations in which someone doesn't even __4__ that the light turns red, and
just keeps going.That is why so many __5__ happen! All these situations make me __6__ the purpose of traffic lights.
__7__， it's even more frightening to imagine letting people make their own decisions at __8__ crossroads.Do the biggest cars get to go first? Who decides
who goes next? So I guess I do like the idea of a system to __9__ traffic.And I'll do my best to __10__ I'm __11__ to. have done much the same for me __13__ the traffic rules: to go, to be cautious, and to stop when
It occurs to me that my __12__
teaching me how to live.They have given me many __14__ lights: to get along well with others, to listen and talk to them, to help others, and to __15__ with joy
and purpose.They have also given me some red lights __16__ my life goes astray(误 入歧途): not to be greedy, to keep my temper, and to control my desires.And there __17__ have been some yellow caution lights: to watch how much I drink, to keep regularly and work hard.
contro l of my behaviour, and to__18__ school
If I obey these rules, my life will be as __19__ as it can be.Just as I'm wise to pay attention to the traffic lights when I'm walk ing across the street, I'm wise to pay attention to the“ __20__ signals” given to me by my parents.
1．A.suggests B．infor ms C．reminds D．warns
2．A.sight B．signal C．message D．switch 3．A.instant B．exciting C．dangerous D．cautious 4．A.notice C．remember 5．A.events B．sense D．feel B．problems
C．situations D．accidents 6．A.fond of B．wonder about C．care for D．worry about
7．A.Besides B ．Anyway C．Instead D．However 8．A.no isy B．narrow
C．crowded D．key 9．A.control B．direct C．improve D．serve 10．A.learn B．obey
C．protect D．carry 11．A.supposed B．used C．devoted D．delighted 12．A.teachers B．friends C．leaders D．parents 13．A.in charge of B．in face of C．in terms of D．in danger of 14．A.safe B．green C．beneficial D．helpful 15．A.live B．share C．work D．communicate
16．A.unless B．when C．before D．till
C．leave D．miss 19．A.good B．colourful C．meaningful D．healthy 20．A.traffic B．light C．life (二) 【要点综述】本文讨论了在目前的生活中，人们不严格按照交通信号灯的指示通行，由 此作者想到了父母对自己的教导就如红绿灯一样，指引作者走向正确的人生之路。 1．C 由城市将安装摄像头想到了很多人闯红灯的事情。remind sb of sth 使某人想到 某事。 2．B 很多人把黄灯当作一个加速的信号。sight 景象，眼界，见解；signal 信号； message 消息；switch 开关。 3．C 由后文可知，行人闯红灯的情形是非常危险的。 4． A 行人甚至没有注意到红灯亮了， 就径直走过去。 notice 注意； sense 感到； remember 记得；feel 感到。 5． D 句意： 那就是有那么多的交通事故发生的原因！ accident 事故； event 事件； problem 问题；situation 形势。 6．B 所有的这些危险的情形使“我”想知道设置交通信号灯的目的。worry about 担 心，担忧；wonder about 想知道；care for 关心，喜欢。 7．D 上文说到了一些不遵守交通灯指示造 成的危险情况，下文说到更让“我”感到害 怕的情况，故此处的连接词应选择 however，用以强调后文。8．C 此处修饰十字路口，应选 择 crowded。noisy 吵闹的； narrow 狭窄的； key 关键的。 9．A control 管理，控制。 10．B 根据前一句可知，这里应指 obey the traffic rules“遵守交通规则” 。 11．A 该停下的时候就停下。be supposed to 理应??； be used to 习惯于??；be devoted to 致力于??；be delighted to 高兴(做)??。 12．D 通过本文最后一句可以看出是 my parents，此处应选择 parents。
13．C 父母在教“我”做人方面对“我”的指导。in terms of 在??方面，就??来 说；in charge of 负责；in face of 面对；in danger of 面对??的危险。 14．B 通过后文可以看出，下面说的是可以做的事情，应理解为绿灯(green lights)。 15．A 16．C 根据逻辑可知，要在孩子误入歧途前给予提醒。 17．D 前面介绍了绿灯和红灯，下面应介绍黄灯的情况。also 也。 18．B attend school 上学。 19．A 此处用 good 是相对于前文“误入歧途”而言，因此不能选择 B、C 项。 20．C 升华主题，由道路的信号灯联想到人生的信号灯。
Below is a selection from a popular science book.
If blood is red，why are veins(静脉) blue? Actually，veins are not blue at all.They are more of a clear，yellowish colour.Although blood looks red when it's outside the body，when it's sitting in a vein near the surface of the skin，it's more of a dark reddish purple colour.At the right depth，these blood?filled veins reflect less red light than the surrounding skin，making them look blue by comparison. Which works harder，your heart or your brain? That kind of depends on whether you're busy thinking or busy exercising.Your heart works up to three times harder during exercise，and shifts enough blood over a lifetime to fill a supertanker.But，in the long run，your brain probably tips it，because even when you're sitting still your brain is using twice as much energy as your heart，and it takes four to five times as much blood to feed it. Why do teeth fall out，and why don't they grow back in grown?ups? Baby (or “milk”) teeth do not last long；they fall out to make room for bigger， stronger adult teeth later on.Adult teeth fall out when they become damaged， decayed and infected by bacteria.Once this second set of teeth has grown in， you're done.When they're gone，they're gone.This is because nature figures you're set for life，and what controls regrowth of your teeth switches off. Do old people shrink as they age?
Yes and no.Many people do get shorter as they age.But，when they do，it isn't because they're shrinking all over.They simply lose height as their spine(脊柱) becomes shorter and more curved due to disuse and the effects of gravity(重力)． Many (but not all) men and women do lose height as they get older.Men lose an average of 3?4 cm in height as they age，while women may lose 5 cm or more.If you live to be 200 years old，would you keep shrinking till you were，like 60 cm tall， like a little boy again？No，because old people don't really shrink！It is not that they are growing backwards—their legs，arms and backbones getting shorter.When they do get shorter，it's because the spine has shortened a little.Or， more often，become more bent and curved. Why does spinning make you dizzy(眩晕的)? Because your brain gets confused between what you're seeing and what you're feeling.The brain senses that you're spinning using special gravity?and?motion?sensing organs in your inner ear，which work together with your eyes to keep your vision and balance stable.But，when you suddenly stop spinning the system goes out of control，and your brain thinks you're moving while you're not! Where do feelings and emotions come from? Mostly from an ancient part of the brain called the limbic system.All mammals have this brain area—from mice to dogs，cats，and humans.So all mammals feel basic emotions like fear，pain and pleasure.But since human feelings also involve other， newer bits of the brain，we feel more complex emotions than any other animal on the planet. If exercise wears you out，how can it be good for you? Because our bodies adapt to everything we do to them.And as far as your body is concerned，it's “use it，or lose it”！It's not that exercise makes you healthy； it's more that a lack of exercise leaves your body weak and easily affected by disease. 1．What is the colour of blood in a vein near the surface of the skin? A．Blue. C．Red. B．Light yellow. D．Dark reddish purple.
解析 细节理解题。根据第一个标题下的“...it's more of a dark reddish purple colour.”可知答案。 答案 D
2．Why do some old people look a little shrunken as they age? A．Because their spine is in active use. B．Because they are more easily affected by gravity. C．Because they keep growing backwards. D．Because their spine becomes more bent. 解析 细节理解题。根据第四个标题下的“They simply lose height as their spine(脊 柱) becomes shorter and more curved due to disuse and the effects of gravity(重 力)．”可知，老年人变矮是因为脊柱收缩和弯曲造成的。 答案 D 3．Which of the following statements about our brain is true? A．In the long run，our brain probably works harder than our heart. B．When our brain senses the spinning，we will feel dizzy. C．The brains of the other mammals are as complex as those of humans. D．Our feelings and emotions come from the most developed area in our brain. 解析 细节理解题。 根据第二个标题下的第三句“But， in the long run， your brain...” 可知答案为 A 项。 此题最易误选 B 项， 根据第五个标题下的最后一句可知， 眩晕是由于 “你 已经不动了，而你的大脑认为你还在动”的错觉引起的。 答案 A 4．What is the main purpose of the selection? A．To give advice on how to stay healthy. B．To provide information about our body. C．To challenge new findings in medical research. D．To report the latest discoveries in medical science. 解析 写作意图题。考生易误选 D 项，但是在医学领域，概括失误。文章主要涉及我们身 体的问题，包括身体的、情绪的等等。故选择 B 项较全面。 答案 B
阅读理解【2014·湛江市普通高考测试一】 When you make a mistake，big or small，cherish it as it’s the most precious thing in the world. Most of us feel bad when we make mistakes，beat ourselves up about it，feel like failures，and get mad at ourselves.
And that’s only natural：Most of us have been taught from a young age that mistakes are bad，and we should try to avoid mistakes.We’ve been scolded when we make mistakes—at home，school and work.Maybe not always，but probably enough times to make feeling bad about mistakes an unconscious reaction. Yet without mistakes，we could not learn or grow.If you think about it that way， mistakes should be cherished and celebrated for being one of the most amazing things in the world：They possible. By trial and error—trying things，making mistakes，and learning from those mistakes—we have figured out how to make electric lights，to paint the ceiling of the Sistine Chapel，and to fly. Mistakes make walking possible for the smallest toddler，make speech possible， and make works of genius possible. Think about how we learn：We don’t just consume information about something and instantly know it or know how to do it.You don’t just read about painting，or writing， or computer programming，or baking，or playing the piano，and know how to do them fight away.Instead，you get information about something，from reading or from another person or from observing usually...then you construct a model in your mind...then you test it out by trying it in the real world...then you make mistakes...then you revise the model based on the results of your real world experimentation...and repeat， making mistakes，learning from those mistakes，until you’ve pretty much learned how to do something. That’s how we learn as babies and toddlers，and how we learn as adults.Mistakes are how we learn to do something new—because if you succeed in something，it’s probably something you already knew how to do.You haven’t really grown much from that success—at most it’s the last step on your journey，not the whole journey.Most of the journey is made up of mistakes，if it’s a good journey. So if you value learning，if you value growing and improving，then you should value mistakes.They are amazing things that make a world of brilliance possible. 1．Why do most of us feel bad about making mistakes? A．Because mistakes make us suffer a lot. B．Because it’s a natural part in our life. C．Because we’ve been taught so from a young age. D．Because mistakes have ruined many people’s careers.
learning possible；they make growth and improvement
2．According to the passage，what is the right attitude to mistakes? A．We should try to avoid making mistakes. B．We should owe great inventions mainly to mistakes. C．We should treat mistakes as good chances to learn. D．We should make feeling bad about mistakes an unconscious reaction. 3．The underlined word “toddler” in Paragraph 6 probably means________. A．a small child learning to walk B．a kindergarten child learning to draw C．a primary pupil learning to read D．a school teenager learning to write 4．We can learn from the passage that________. A．most of us can really grow from success B．growing and improving are based on mistakes C．we learn to make mistakes by trial and error D．we read about something and know how to do it right away 5．The author wants to tell us________. A．what you should do when meeting with difficulties B．where you can find your mistakes C．how you can avoid making mistakes D．why you should celebrate your mistakes
语篇解读 本文是一篇说明文，主要说明错误是生活中不可避免的事情，我们应该正确 对待错误，在修正错误中不断地学习和成长。 6．解析： 细节理解题。根据第三段第一句话中“Most of us have been taught from a young age that mistakes are bad，and we should try to avoid mistakes.”可知，C 项符合题意。 答案： C 7．解析： 推理判断题。根据文章第一段“When you make a mistake，big or small， cherish it as it’s the most precious thing in the world”以及下文的表述可推断， 人们在错误中学习和提高，故选 C 项。 答案： C 8．解析： 词义猜测题。根据该词所在句子中“walking”和“smallest”可猜测，此 处 toddler 应指“蹒跚学步的孩子”。句意为：错误使幼小的孩子学会走路成为可能，使学 会讲话成为可能??故选 A 项。
答案： A 9．解析： 推理判断题。根据第八段第三句话中“ You haven’t really grown much from that success”可知，A 项与文章不符；根据第五段第一句话“By trial and error—trying things，making mistakes，and learning from those mistakes”可知，C 项与文章不符； 根据第七段第一、二句话可知，D 项与文章不符。根据第四段中“they make growth and improvement possible”可推断 B 项与文章相符。 答案： B 10．解析： 推理判断题。文章开头提出了文章的写作主旨，即我们应该珍惜错误。全 文叙述了为什么我们应该珍惜并庆祝我们的错误。 答案： D。
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