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被动语态

? 英语动词有两种语态,主动语态和被动 语态。主动语态表示主语是动作的执行 者,被动语态表示主语是动作的承受者
? They will build a new bridge over the river. (主动) ? A new bridge will be built over the river. (被动)

? 汉语中常用“被”、“给”、 “由”、“受”等词用来表示被动, 而英语用:助动词be + 及物动词的 过去分词构成。

(二) 各种时态下的被动语态

结构:be+过去分词
时态变化主要体现在be的变化上,以 do 为例,列表如下:
am / is / are + done 一般现在时: was / were + done 一般过去时: shall / will + be done 一般将来时: should / would + be done 一般过去将来时: am / is / are + being + done 现在进行时: was / were + being + done 过去进行时: have / has + been + done 现在完成时: had + been + done 过去完成时: [注]被动语态没有将来进行时和过去将来进行时。

1.一般现在时 Simple Present
1. 人人都喜欢她。 2. 她受人人喜欢。 1. Everyone likes her. 2. She __ is ______ liked by everyone.

一般现在时 Simple Present

1. 他经常嘲笑我。 2. 我经常被他嘲笑。
1. He often laughs at me. 2. I am ___ often ___________by him. laughed at

2.一般过去时 Simple Past

1. 警察抓到一个小偷。 2. 一个小偷被警察抓到了。

1. The police caught a thief. was caught by the police. 2. A thief ___________

2.一般过去时 Simple past 1. 狗咬了他。 2. 他被狗咬了。 1. A dog bit him. bitten 2. He was _________by a dog.

3.一般将来时

地铁将在明年完成。

The subway will ______________ be finished next year.

1. 河上将建一座桥。 2. 如果你违反法律,你就会受到惩罚。
1. A bridge ____________ will be built over the river. will be punished 2. If you break the law, you _____________.

4.现在完成时 Present Perfect
1. BP机已经被手机所取代。 2. 这件事已经被遗忘了。 1. Beepers have _________________by mobile been replaced phones. 2. This matter _________________. has been forgotten

5. 现在进行时的 被动语态

Examples:
1. A stranger is following the girl.

The girl __ is _____ _______ by a stranger. being followed

Examples:
2. A policeman is searching his bag. is ______ being ________ His bag __ searched by a policeman.

Examples:
3. They are building a bridge over the river. ?A bridge __ _____ is_____ being built over the river (by them).

被动语态的使用
1.当不知道或没有必要指出动作的执行者时, 常用被动语态,这时往往不用by 短语。 ? “Mr. White, the cup with mixture was broken after class. ” ? (只是告诉老师杯子坏了,不知是谁弄坏的, 或不想说出谁弄坏的)。 2.突出或强调动作的承受者,如果需要说出动 作的执行者,用by 短语。 ? These records were made by John Denver. ? The cup was broken by Paul.

3.当汉语句子的主语既不是动作的执行者,也 不是动作的承受者时,这时常用in + 名词作 状语,而代替 by 短语。 ? These cars were made in China. ? 15, 000 cars will be produced each year in the new factory.

主动语态变被动语态的方法
(1) My aunt invited me to her dinner party. 主语 谓语 宾语

→ I was invited (by my aunt ) to her dinner party. 主语 谓语 宾语 (2) The school set up a special class to help poor readers. → A special class to help poor readers was set up in the school.
1.把主动语态的宾语变成被动语态的主语。 2. 把主动语态的谓语变成被动语态的 be + 过去分词,时态要与原 句保持一致。 3. 把主动语态的主语变为介词 by 的宾语,放在被动语态里谓语动 词之后,by 短语可以省略。如果原句主语是地点名词,在被动语 态中用in + 地点名词作状语。

语态转换时要注意的问题
1. 把主动语态变为被动语态时,其谓语动词 的时态要与原句时态保持一致,其谓语动 词的数要与新主语保持一致。

? ? ?

We have bought a new computer. A new computer has been bought. (正确) A new computer have been bought. (错误)

2. 当否定句中的宾语是anything, anybody, anyone等不定代词时,在被动句中应将其 分别变为nothing, nobody, no one作主语, 并将谓语动词变为肯定的被动语态。如: ? They haven't done anything to make the river clean. ? 误:Anything hasn't been done to make the river clean. ? 正:Nothing has been done to make the river clean.

3. 含有双宾语的主动句变被动句时,可分别将 其中的一个宾语变为主语,另一个不动,一 般变间接宾语为主语时比较多。 ? My uncle gave me a present on my birthday. ? I was given a present on my birthday. ? 如果把直接宾语(指物)改为主语,则在间接 宾语(指人)前加适当的介词,如上句还可以 说: ? A present was given to me yesterday.

用被动语态改换下列各句: 1. My father will repair my bike for me. My bike will be repaired by my father for me. 2. I have found my wallet. My wallet has been found. 3. She told me to wait here for her. I was told to wait here for her.

4. The police will surely arrest the murderer. The murderer will surely be arrested by the police. 5. They invited Mr. Green to make a speech. Mr. Green was invited to make a speech. 6. The students clean their classroom every day. Their classroom is cleaned by the students every day.

7. You mustn’t take those books out of the reading-room. Those books mustn’t be taken out of the reading-room.

8. I din’t tell you the girl could do the job. You weren’t told by me that the girl could do the job. 9. Do people speak English in your country? Is English spoken in your country?

10. He gave me a present. I was given a present. A present was given to me.
11. Mother often tells her children a story at bed time. Children are often told a story at bed time by mother. A story is often told by mother to children at bed time.

考点一:

被动语态的基本结构:

be + PP
有各种时态的变化

[1]. Now English ____ by more and more people all over the word. A. speaks B. is spoken C. was spoken
一般现在时的被动语态: am / is / are + PP

[2]. The lost boy ____ at the street corner last night. A. was found B. is found C. was looked for
一般过去时的被动语态: was / were + PP

[3]. More man-made satellites ____ in the future. A. will send up B. will be sent up C. are sent up
一般将来时的被动语态: will + be + PP be going to + be + PP

[4]. Three bridges ____ since last year. A. have built B. were built C. have been built

现在完成时的被动语态: have / has + been + PP

[5]. Flowers ____ every day. A. has been watered B. should be watered C. should water

含有情态动词的被动语态: 情态动词 + be + PP

[8]. The man ____ clean the toilet because he ___ rubbish bout when the police walked past the park. A. was made; was seen to throw B. was made to; was seen throwing C. made; saw

主动: see / hear sb. do sth 被动: be seen / heard to do sth 主动: see / hear sb. doing sth. 被动: be seen / heard doing sth.

主动: make sb.do sth. 被动: be made to do sth.

[9]. Children should ___. A. take good care of B. be taken good care C. be taken good care of 固定短语的被动不要丢掉后面的 介词或副词

[10]. Your desk ___. A. needs repair B. needs repairing C. needs to repair need, allow 可以用-ing形式表示 被动 need to be done = need doing be allowed to do = allow doing

1. Old Mike gave up smoking for a while, but soon ___ to his old ways. A. returned B. returns C. was returning D. had returned 2. In some parts of the world, tea ____ with milk and sugar. A. is serving B. is served C. serves D. served

3. The new dictionaries are very useful. They ____ well and _______ already. A. sell, have been sold out B. sold, had sold out C. sell, sell out D. are sold, have been sold out 4. The train ____ arrive at 11:30, but it was an hour late. A. was about to B. was likely to C. was supposed to D. was certain to

5. This dictionary mustn’t ____ from the library. A. take away B. taken away C. are taken away D. be taken away 6. My shoes ____ . I went out for a new pair. A. is worn out B. wore out C. were worn off D. were worn out

7. That kind of shirts __ cotton. A. is made from B. are made from C. is made of D. are made of 8. Rice ___ in South China. A. growing B. is grown C. are grown D. is grow

9. All the preparations for the task ______, and we’re ready to start. A. completed B. complete C. had been completed D. have been completed

10. The teacher told his students that they ____ to be useful men to the country. A. were all expected B. were all expecting C. all were expected D. all expected

11. Some of the hotels in my hometown _______. A. have now been rebuilding B. are now rebuilding C. are now being rebuilt D. are rebuilt now


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