定语从句：defining and non-defining 限制性和非限制性定语从句 Ⅰ . 概念： (1) 定语从句：在主从复合句中用作定语的从句叫定语从句。定语从句一般紧接在先行词 (antecedent)后面。 (2) 先行词：被定语从句修饰的成份。先行词可以为一个词，短语，或整个主句。 (3) 引导定语从句的词叫关系词，分为关系代词和关系副词。 关系
词的作用： 1) 引导定语从句，连接主句和从句，相当于一个连词； 2) 必在从句中作某个句子成份（可以做主语，宾语，表语，定语，状语） 常用的关系代词 : that 、 which 、 who 、 whom 、 whose 、 as 、 but ( 文语 , 置于否定词之后 =that/who…not…, "没有……不……", 在从句中作主语，宾语) 常用的关系副词（在从句中只作状语）: when、why、 where The student who answered the question was John. I know the reason why he was so angry. The boy (whom) you are talking to is my brother. I'd like a room whose window looks out over the sea. Relative Clause with where, when and why, where, when, why 引导的定语从句 关系副词 where, when 引导的定语从句可提供时间和地点的信息， 在 reason 后可用 why 引导 的定语从句。 介词+ which /whom 引导的定语从句 关系代词可做介词的宾语，通常在 which 和 whom 前加介词即介词+which/whom 结构 This is the book for which he is looking. 可以根据定语从句所修饰的名词或代词来选介词，也可以依据从句的相关动词来选用。但在 日常英语中，通常是吧介词放在从句句末，省略关系代词 which 和 whom The train(which /that) I’m travelling on is for Shanghai. 定语从句三步： 第一找出先行词； 第二看先行词在定语从句中的语法功能（做主语、宾语或状语） ； 第三选择合适的关系词。 Ⅱ . 几个关系代词的基本用法： ●that: 可指人或物；在定语从句中作主语，宾语，表语。(指人时，相当于 who 或 whom；指 物时，相当于 which)(一般不用于非限制性定语从句; 不可置于介词后作宾语) 如： 1. A letter that/which is written in pencil is difficult to read. (主语) 2. Do you know the gentleman that/who spoke just now? 3. You can take anything ( that) you like. （宾语） 4. What is the question (that/which) they are talking about? 5. Here is the man ( who/whom/that ) you want to see. 6. She's no longer the girl ( that) she used to be before.（表语） 7. Our hometown is no longer the one (that) it used to be. = Our hometown is not the same as it used to be.
= Our hometown is different from what it used to be。 = Our hometown is not what it used to be. ●which: 指物；在定语从句中作主语，宾语，表语，定语。如： 1. The book which/that was on the desk was bought by my father.（主语） 2. The book (which/that) I bought yesterday is very interesting.（宾语） 3. The factory in which his father works is far from here. 4. He was proud, which his brother never was. （表语） 5. Tom spent four years in college, during which time he learned French.（定语） 6. He may be late, in which case we ought to wait for him. ●who, whom, whose: who: 主格, 在从句中作主语，在口语或非正式用法中作宾语; 只可指人 whom: 宾格，在从句中作宾语; 只可指人 whose: 属格，在从句中作定语，可指人也可指物。 I like the students who/that work hard. （主语） All who heard the story were amazed. (代词如 he, they, any, those, all, one 等后多用 who.) Chaplin, for whom life had once been very hard, was a success as an actor. （宾语） He's a man from whom we should learn. = He's a man (whom/who/that) we should learn from. 比较：He is the student whom you think to be worthy of your praise. He is the student who you think is worth praising. A child whose parents are dead is called an orphan.（指人） I'd like a room whose window faces south. （指物） =I'd like a room of which the window faces south. =I'd like a room the window of which faces south. There is a teapot shaped like a Chinese duck, out of whose mouth tea is supposed to come 关系代词作介词宾语: 关系代词在定语从句中用作介词宾语时 , 介词可放于从句之首 , 也可放于从句之末. 但以放 于句首较为正式.（介词前置，必须注意不影响动词词组的含义。关系代词 who 和 that 用作 介词宾语时, 介词必须放在句末.） This is the book for which you asked. =This is the book (that/which) you asked for. Do you know the person with whom I shook hands？= Do you know the person (whom/who/that) I shook hands with? The beginning of agriculture was a big step in human progress with which nothing could compare until our information age. In the dark street, there wasn't a single person to whom she could turn for help. Is this the factory to which you paid a visit last week? Is this factory the one to which you paid a visit last week? This is the girl whom they are looking after. (介词 after 与 look 构成固定词组， 不可前置。 look at, look for, look after, take care of 等) ●as 的用法:(as 引导定语从句, 在定语从句中作主语、宾语、表语) ① 如为限制性的，多用于 the same …as ; the same as；such …as …; as many/much as；so …as
等结构中。如： ※ I have the same book as you (have). 我有一本和你的一样的书。 Her attitude to him was quite the same as it had always been. (关系代词 as 和指示代词 same 连 用, 在从句中用作表语, 先行词是 same.) .---Why didn't you mention that in face of the police just now? --- I thought it was such a minor detail as was hardly worth mentioning. We will only discuss such problems as have something to do with our own interests. Don't do such things as you are not sure about. There is no such place as you dream of in all this world. 比较：I live in the same house that he used to live in. I'm wearing the same shirt as you wore yesterday. 比较：Here is so big a stone as no one can lift. （定语从句） Here is so big a stone that no one can lift it.（结果状语从句） ② 如为非限制性的，多单独引导一个定语从句，这种定语从句可置于句首，句中或句尾，译 为"正如，这一点"。 （动词常为 know, see, expect, point out, etc.） As we all know, smoking is harmful to one's health . (as 作宾语) =As is known to all, smoking is harmful to one's health . （as 作主语） =It's known to all that smoking is harmful to one's health . =Smoking is harmful to one's health , as we all know .（as 作宾语） =Smoking, as we all know, is harmful to one' health. He was a foreigner, as I knew from his accent. (宾语, 先行词是前面整个句子) Ⅲ . 关系副词引导的定语从句: ●When 指时间， 在定语从句中作时间状语。 其先行词是表时间的名词 （如： time, day, week, tear, month, etc.） He came last night when I was out. We will put off the picnic until next week, when the weather would be better. 注意：先行词为"时间名词"，可用 when 引导定语从句，when 在定语从句中作状语；还可以 用 which 或 that 引导，which 或 that 在从句中作主语或宾语。 比较: I still remember the day when /on which my brother joined the army.（作状语） Next month, when you will be in your hometown, is just around the corner. I still remember the days which/that we spent together. （作宾语） Next winter which/that you'll spend in Harbin, I'm sure, will be exciting. I shall never forget the day when Shen Zhou Ⅴ was launched, which has a great effect on my life. There are occasions when joking is not permissible. ●Where 指地点，在定语从句中作地点状语。其先行词是表示地点的名词，如：place, school, factory, room, etc. This is the place where I was born. I live in the room where /in which he used to live. 注意：先行词是"地点名词"，定语从句可用 where 引导，还可用 which 或 that 引导，which/that 在从句中作主语或宾语。 比较: ※ This is the factory where /in which he worked last year. （作状语） The treatment will continue until the patient reaches the point where he can walk correctly and safely.
I think you have got to the point where a change is needed, or you would fail. Government reports, legal papers and most business letters are the main situations where English is used. He's got himself into a dangerous situation where he's likely to lose control of the plane. The small mountain village where we spent our holiday last month lies in what /the place which is now part of Hubei. This is the park which/that they visited last year. （作宾语） Not having been there before, he simply had no idea about the place, which everyone says is worth visiting. ●Why 指原因，在定语从句中作原因状语。先行词为 reason 时，可用 for which 指代；当关 系词在从句中作主语或宾语时，则用 which 或 that 引导。如： The reason why / for which / (that) he didn't attend the meeting was that he was ill. I don't believe the reason (that/which) he gave me. （作宾语） Have you asked him the reason that may explain his success? （作主语） Ex.) He was late .That's because he got up late. .He got up late. That's why he was late.(表语从句) (the reason) why/for which he was late. (定语从句) 当先行词为 way 时，定语从句常用 that, in which,或 how 引导，that 常可以省略。 way 后的定语从句 的引导词不用时较多。但如果关系词在句中作主语或宾语 时，则用 which 或 that 引导。如: This is the way (that) /in which I do such things. 比较: Please do the experiment in the way （that/which）I have shown you. Ⅳ . 限制性定语从句与非限制性定语从句的区别： 1. 形式上，非限制性定语从句往往用逗号隔开。 2. 语法上，非限制性定语从句一般不用 that. 3. 语义上，限制性定语从句与先行词关系紧密，起限定作用，如果去掉了这个定语从句，整 个句子就不完整或者会改变意思；而非限制性定语从句与先行词关系不是很紧密，对先行词 起补充说明或描述的作用。 This is the book I like best. 这就是我最喜欢的那本书。 Beijing, which has been China's capital for more than 800 years , is rich in cultural and historic relics. 北京是中国八百年之久的古都，它有着丰富的文化和历史遗产。 4. 翻译时，限制性定语从句可译为一句（较短的一般译为"的"字结构） ；而非限制性定语从句 可译为两句。 （见上句翻译） 比较: He has a sister, who is a musician. He has a sister who is a musician. 引导非限制性定语从句的关系代词， 指人时用 who, whom, whose , 指物时用 which , whose; 关 系副词 when，where, why, etc. 1. He studied hard at school when he was young, which leads to his success in his later life. 2. Tom's father, who arrived just now, is a famous scientist. 3. They set up a separate state of their own, where they would be free to keep Negroes as slaves. 4. He was proud, which his brother never was.
Ⅴ . 几个易混淆的关系代词的比较: ●that & which: 在定语从句中，which 和 that 在指代事物时，一般可以互换使用，但并非在任何情况下都是 这样，这里介绍宜用 that, 而不宜用 which 的情况. ① 先行词为不定代词,all,much,something,everything,anything,nothing,none,the one 等, 1.We should do all that is useful to the people . 2.There's nothing that can be said about it . 3.Do you mean the one that was bought yesterday? ② 先行词被 only, any, few, little, no, just, very, one of 等词修饰时。 1.The only thing that we could do was to wait. 2.That's the very word that is wrongly used. The last place (that) we visited was the chemical works. You can take any (=whichever) seat that is free. I hope the little that I can will be of some help to them. 比较 *This is one of the best novels that were published last year. *This is the only one of the best novels that was published last year. ③ 先行词是序数词时或被序数词修饰时。 1.When we talk about Wuxi, the first that comes into mind is Tai Lake. 2.This is the third film that has been shown in our school this term. ④ 先行词是最高级或被最高级修饰时。 1.This is the best that can be done now. 2.The most important thing that should be done right now is how to stop him from going on. ⑤ 先行词既有人又有物，用 which 和 who 都不适合，这时宜用 that. 如： 1.The writer and his novel that you have just talked about is really well known . 2.The rider and his bike that had run over an old woman were held up by the police. ⑥ 被修饰词为数词时. 1.Yesterday I caught two fish and put them in a basin of water .Now you can see the two that are still alive . ⑦ 如果有两个从句，其中一个关系代词已用 which ,另一个关系代词宜用 that，以避免语言的 单调或重复。 Edison built up a factory which produced things that had never been seen before. ⑧ 疑问词是 who 或 which，关系代词宜用 that，以避免重复。 1. Which is the book that you like best? 2. Who is the man that is standing at the gate? ⑨ 主句是 There be 结构，修饰其主句的定语从句宜用 that 作关系代词. 如： 1. There is still a seat in the corner that is still free. ⑩ 被修饰成分为表语时，或者关系代词本身是定语从句的表语时,该关系代词宜用 that . 1. That's a good book that will help you a lot. 2. My home village is no longer the place ( that ) it used to be . 定语从句中宜用 which 而不宜用 that 的情况: ① 当关系代词的前面有介词时. 1.A zoo is a park in which many kinds of animals are kept for exhibition. 2.Is this the room in which Mr. White lives? ② 在非限制性定语从句中. 1.Crusoe's dog, which was are now very old, became ill and died .
2.More and more people are beginning to learn English, which is becoming very popular in our country. (which 指代主句) ③ 在一个句子中有两个定语从句， 其中一个定语从句的关系代词用了 that, 另一个宜用 which . 1. Let me show you the novel，that I borrowed from the library which was newly open to us. 2. At the station I bought some magazines that might help me to pass the time on the train and which I could pass on to others when I finished them. ④ 当关系代词后面带有插入语时. 1. Here's the English grammar which, as I have told you, will help improve your English. ⑤ 先行词本身是 that, 宜用 which . What's that which she is looking at? ⑥ 先行词是 those+复数名词. A shop should keep a stock of those goods which sell best. (B) who & that: who 和 that 指代人时，有些情况宜用 who, 而不宜用 that ① 先行词为 anyone, anybody, those, all, one, ones, they, he, people 时. 如： 1.The person I want to learn from is the one who studies hard and works well. 2.Anyone who (=Whoever) failed to come to the meeting yesterday must give his reason . 3.Those who are not fit for their work should leave office at once 4.I don't like the ones (= those ) who talk big. 5.Persons who are quarrelsome are despised. ② 在 There be 结构中，修饰主语的定语从句宜用关系代词 who 指代人. 如： 1.There is a gentleman who wants to see you . 2.There are several students in our class who are still not sure about the use of attributive clauses. ③ 当先行词有较长的后置定语时. 如： 1. I met a foreigner in the park yesterday afternoon who could speak Chinese very well. ④ 一个句子中带有两个定语从句， 其中一个定语从句的关系代词是 that ,另一个则宜用 who, 以 免重复. 如： 1. The student that was praised at yesterday's meeting is the monitor who is very modest and works very hard . ●as & which: as & which 引导非限制性定语从句的区别： ① 位置的不同： which 引导的定语从句只置于所限制的 句子后；as 位置较灵活，也就是说 as 可置于所限制 的句子前面；插在句子中或放在句子后。如： 1. He was late again, which made his teacher very angry. 2. Jack, as you know, is an honest man. 或 Jack is an honest man , as you know. 或 As you know, Jack is an honest man. ② 先行词的不同： as 引导非限制性定语从句时，其先行词多为一个句子； which 引导非限制性定语从句时，其先行词可以是一个词，一个短语或一个句子。 He was proud, which his brother never was. （先行词是一个词） She was very patient towards the children, which her husband seldom was. He was proud, which I dislike very much.（先行词是一个句子） He is an honest man, as is known to all.
He was a foreigner, as I know from his accent. ③ as 一般译为"正如""就像"，"这一点" as we all know； as you know; as is known to all; as you see; as we can see; as has been expected; as we have imagined. 二、形容词和副词的比较 More and more 越来越… Less /the least 不如/最不… The …the …越…就越… The less I worried, the better I worked. 三、修饰形容词比较级 Much, a lot, slightly, a little, almost, a bit, far, even, still, twice/ three times …more than/twice as much/many as/twice the +n +of …比…多/是… 的两倍/三倍。 四、状态或动作动词 英语中动词分为两类：动作动词和状态动词。动作动词描述动作，可用于一般时态和进行时 态；状态动词描述状态，一般不用于进行时态。 状态动词 表达思维活动的动词：admit, believe, know, mean, prefer, realize, remember, think, understand, want, 表达情感的动词：adore，care, like, dislike, love, hate, hope 表达拥有和存在的动词：appear, be, belong, contain, have, include, need, seem, possess, own. 感官动词 feel, hear, look, see, smell, sound, taste,有些状态动词也可以表示动作，在此意义上， 这些动词可用于现在时。 How are you feeling? 感官动词后用形容词修饰二不用副词。 The roses look and smell beautiful.
copyright ©right 2010-2020。