当前位置:首页 >> 学科竞赛 >> 高中高考英语知识汇总(真题+解析+教程+练习+答案)第06章形容词与副词


第六章 一、形容词、副词的等级 (一)形容词/副词的比较级和最高级构成 1.规则形容词级的构成 构成规则 一般在词未加-er 和-est 单 音 节 词 er 和 est 型 以 e 结尾的只加-r 和-st


原级 tall great hard nice large dry big thin hot happy simp

le clever narrow careful usefull quickly

比较级 taller greater harder nicer larger drier bigger thinner hotter happier simpler cleverer narrower more careful more usefull more quickly more difficult more beautiful

最高级 tallest greatest hardest nicest largest driest biggest thinnest hottest happiest simplest cleverest narrowest most careful most usefull most quickly

以辅音字母加 y 结尾的,先变 y 为 i,再加-er,-est 闭音节单音节词如末尾只有一个 辅音字母,须先双写这个辅音字 母,再加-er,-est

双 音 节 词

多 音 节 词

er 和 est 型 mor e和 mos t 型 mor e和 mos t 型

少数以-y, -er, -ow, -ble, -ple 结尾 的双音节单词,方法同单音节词

其他的在前面加 more,most 分别 构成比较级和最高级

在其前面加 more 和 most

difficult beautiful

most difficult most beautiful

2.不规则形容词的级的构成 原级 good well bad ill many much little far old

比较级 better worse more less farther further older elder

最高级 best worst most least farthest furthest oldest eldest

3.形容词、副词递减的比较等级的构成 在形容词、副词前加 less 和 least,表示“较不”和“最不”

interesting 有趣的 less interesting 较无趣的 least interesting 最无趣的 important 重要的 less important 较不重要的 least important 最不重要的 4.没有比较级和最高级的形容词、副词 有些形容词由于其本身涵义一般不用来比较。如: ① 表示“完全、特别”意义的形容词 final, hopeless, fatherless, matherless, universal, complete, entire, excellent, perfect, thorough, total, whole, full, empty, relative, homeless, harmless, impossible 等。 ② 表示“极限、主次”意义的形容词 chief, extreme, main, major, basic, primary, first, most, wonderful, ③ 表示“几何形状”的形容词 angular, circle, level, oval, round, square, horizontal, triangle, straight, hollow 等。 ④ 表示“处所、方位、时间”的形容词 ahead, daily, weekly, here, now, present, then, backward, outside, future, once 等 ⑤ 表示“状态和强调”的形容词 asleep, ashamed, awake, aware, blind, deaf, dead, naked,favorite, hardly, simple, very ⑥ 表示“国籍、性质、材料”的形容词 American, economic, scientific, woolen, true, false, illegal ⑦ 表示“独一无二”的形容词 mere, only, single, sole, matchless ⑧ junior 等词 junior, senior, inferior, prior 没有比较级和最高级,要同 to 连用,不能和 than 连用。 ⑨“most+形容词”可表达一种程度上非常高的特性和品质,表示“非常”或“在很大程度上”,但 却 不表示比较,这时 most 前一般无 the。 What he said is most interesting.他说的话有趣极了。 Don't you know it is a most important question?难道你不知道这是个很重要的问题? (二)形容词比较级和最高级的用法 1.二者之间的比较 (1)递增:用于事物二者之间的比较,表示程度上“更高”;常用从属连词 than 连接。其结 构为含有形容词比较级的主句+than 引导的从句(其中意义上和主句相同的部分常省去) 。 Tom is taller than his deskmate.汤姆比他同桌高。 The black car is more expensive than the red one .这辆黑车比那辆红车更贵。 (2)递减:用于事物二者之间的比较,表示程度上“更低”;常用从属连词 than 连接。 She is less beautiful than Mary.她不如玛丽漂亮。 (3)同级比较:表示程度相等(同)或不相等(同)时,as…as, not so(as)… as…as 之间通常用表示数量、程度、性质的词:many, much, little, few, good, tall, far 等。 You look as tall as your father.你看上去跟你爸爸一般高。 Now Jack isn't driving so fast as he used to.如今杰克开车不如以前那么快了。 2.二者以上的事物比较 用于二者以上的事物比较,形容词、副词的最高级表示程度上“最高”。形容词最高级前一 般需加定冠词 the。 This is the best film I have ever seen.这是我看过的最好的电影。 3.修饰比较等级常用的副词 形容词和副词的比较等级常用下列词修饰表程度:much, far,by far, even, still, a little, no , a lot, rather, any(用于否定句或疑问句)a great deal 等。 I'm sure you'll make still greater progress.我肯定你能取得更大的进步。

There're now a lot more trees on the hills around the village. 现在村庄四周的山上树木多多了。 4.比较级+and+比较级 常用“比较级+and+比较级”来表达“越来越’。 His voice got weaker and weaker.他的声音越来越弱。 Take some medicine and you'll get better and better.吃些药吧,你会越来越好。 5. “the+比较级…, the+比较级…”来表达“越…, (就)越…” The harder you study, the greater progress you’ll make.你越努力,进步就越大。 6.“the +比较级+of the two”来表示“两个中最…” 表示两者中较突出者,且比较级后又有名词, 这时的比较级前一定要加定冠词 the。 如: Joan is the taller of the two girls.琼是这两个女孩中较高的一个。 7.“more A than B”表示“与其说是 B,不如说是 A” He is more diligent than clever.与其说他聪明,不如说他勤奋。 8.表示倍数 (1) 倍数+形容词 (或副词)的比较级+than This rope is twice longer than that one.这根绳的长度是那根绳的三倍。(比那根绳长二倍) (2)倍数+as+形容词(或 much)或副词原级+as This big stone is three times as heavy as that one. 这块大石头的重量是那一块的三倍。(这块石头比那块重二倍) (3)倍数+the size(length, width, height)of This street is four times the length of that one.这条街是那条街的四倍长。 注意:如果形容词是修饰名词的,要把名词放在形容词后面。即:①倍数+more+名词 (可 数,不可数)+than②倍数+as many(或 much)+名词+其他+as 9.“no+比较级+than”表示该形容词的反义词。 He is no richer than a beggar.他穷得像乞丐。 10.使用比较级要注意的几点: (1)比较的对象必须是属于同一性质(范畴)内的人或物。如: [误]The weather of Shanghai is finer than Beijing. 这句表达的是上海的天气与北京相比,比较对象不一致。应改为: The weather of Shanghai is finer than that of Beijing. (2)要避免比较级中自身与自身比较。如: [误]Joan studies harder than any student in her class. Joan 属于 any student 中的一位,没有排除自身比较。应改为: Joan studies harder than any other student in her class. Joan studies harder than any of the other students in her class. Joan studies harder than anyone else in her class. 上述三个正确的句子可分别用下列结构表示: any other+单数可数名词 ……比较级+ than + any of the other+复数可数名词 anyone else 但是,不同范围的同类人或物进行比较时,则 than 引导的从句中不用 other。 China is larger than any country in Europe. (3).要避免重复比较。如: [误] Mary runs more faster than Lucy. more 是 many/ much 的比较级,它只能构成比较级而不能修饰比较级。 应改为: Mary runs faster than Lucy.

【课堂练习】 1. The bread is ____ than these cakes A. very delicious B. much delicious C. more delicious D. as delicious 2. Lin Tao jumped ____ in the long jump in the school sports meeting A. far B. farther C. farthest D. quite far 3. When they met in the hotel . They talked and laughed ______ A. happily B. happy C. happier D. happiest 4. In our city it’s ____ in July ,but it is even ____ in August A. hotter hottest B. hot hot C. hotter hot D. hot hotter 5. Hainan is a very large Island .It is the second ______ island in china. A. large B. larger C. largest D. most largest 6. An elephant is ____ than a tiger . A. heavy B. very heavy C. the heaviest D. Heavier 7. A horse is ______ than a dog . A. much heavy B. more heavier C. much heavier D. more heavy 8. Emma always makes a lot of mistakes . She is _____. A. care B. careful C. carefully D. careless 9. Which subject is _____ , physics or chemistry ? A. interesting B. most interesting C. more interesting D. the most interesting 10. He is ___ enough to carry the heavy box . A. strong B. stronger C. much stronger D. the strongest 11. Li lei often talks ___ but does ___ so everyone says he is a good boy . A. less,more B. few,much C. more,little D. little,many 12. When the famous singer started to sing , everyone began to shout very ___ . A. loudly B. loud C. heavily D. high

巩固提高 1. It takes a long time to go there by train. It’s_______by road. A. quick B. the quickest C. much quick D. quicker 2. ---if you don't like the red coat, take the blue one. ---Ok, but do you have _______size in blue? This one's a bit tight for me. A. big B. a bigger C. the big D. the bigger 3. ---Are you satisfied with her answer? ---Not at all. It couldn't have been_______. A. worse B. so bad C. better D. the worst 4. He made the _______ mistakes in the final exam. A. less B. least C. fewer D. fewest 5.She doesn't speak _______ her friends, but her written work is excellent. A. as well as B. as often as C. as much as D. as good as 6.The horse is getting old and cannot run _______ it did. A. as faster as B. so fast than C. so faster as D. as fast as 7.Children shouldn't stay up _______ grown-ups do. A. as later as B. so late than C. so later as D. as late as 8.---How did you find your visit to the museum? ---I thoroughly enjoyed it. It was _______ than I expected. A. far more interesting B. even much interesting C. so more interesting D. a lot much interesting 9.He had never spent a _______ day. A. more worry B. most worrying C. more worrying D. most worried 10.John has three sisters. Mary is the _______ of the three. A. most cleverest B. more clever C. cleverest D. cleverer 12.The salesman showed her several bags and she chose _______ one as she didn't want to spend too much money on it. A. the less expensive B. less expensive C. the least expensive D. least expensive 14.Of the two shirts. I'd like to choose_______one. A. the less expensive B. the most expensive C. less expensive D. most expensive 15.If the manager had to choose between the two, he would say John was_______choice. A. good B. the best C. better D. the better



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