What is a Summary?
A summary is a short account giving the main points of something longer or detailed.
? 确定主题句 ? 寻找关键词 ? 重构主题句
定时态 The passage tells us that… ? 定人称：一般用第三人称（书信则用第一、 第二人称） ? 定技巧 ： 重组句 段落概括 文章概括
1)Use words of similar meanings同义替换法 I didn’t catch any fish owing to the fact that I was not patient. because I didn’t catch any fish_________ I was not patient. 2)Adopt the opposite way when saying a sentence正话反说法 not succeed You will fail. = You will ____________.
3)Change the part of speech词性转换法 Patience is very important. of great importance → Patience is of __________________. The writer made a vivid description of the beauty under the sea. The writer ___________ the beauty described under the sea.
4)Change the structure of a sentence句式变 化法 语态变换：Parents should give children more praise. be given →Children should ________ more praise. 简单句变复合句： Children should be encouraged more. This will help them learn faster. Children should be encouraged more, which _______ will help them learn faster..
5)Use the shortest possible transitions连词 衔接法 注意使用一些短而精的连词，如but, and, so, while, however, then, yet, for, therefore, thus, including, instead of 等。 We should encourage children. We should not scold them. instead of We should encourage children__________ scolding them. 6) Change the order of the words.词序改变 法
? ? ? ? The parrotfish had a bird-like mouth. The boy’s girlfriend was heart-broken. Lynda was sad-looking. That girl’s special and unique fair style impressed me greatly. ? Much water was polluted by the paper plant. ? Our school will consider the daily expense before carrying out the plan. ? In spite of / Despite their conveniences, bit cities certainly have their own disadvantages.
? ? ? ? Skill1: Omit (省略) the details Skill2: Omit the repetitions Skill3: Omit the examples Skill4: Use general(概括性) words instead of specific(具体的) words ) ? Skill5: Put the main points of a dialogue in indirect speech
? 1.Skill1: Omit the details ? There are some tips for children to follow so that they can get on well with their parents. ? 2. Skill2: Omit the examples. ? It is quite natural that we children look at the same problem differently from our parents.
? 3. Skill5: Put the main points of a dialogue in indirect speech. ? Kate suggested that Paul should eat less salt. But Paul disagreed. He said that food without salt would be tasteless. ? 4. Skill4: Use general(概括性) words instead of specific (具体的) words. ? To hold her birthday party at weekend, she bought many vegetables and eggs.
? 5. Skill2: Omit the repetitions ? Different colors usually give different feelings to people.
议论文通常包括论点、论据和结论, 因此写议论文的概要主要是找出主题句 (the topic sentences)、支撑句(supporting sentences)和结论句(conclusion sentences)。 其中最主要的是找准主题句。 概要模板：论点+论据(+结论)
关键词： not to be addicted to TV, pay kids with cash for ,failed All school kids admire this trend. But it upset adults. (范文1) Ethan’s mother tried to stop him being addicted to TV by giving him money, but failed. All the school kids like this way of encouraging them to behave better, but adults show worries about this.
? (范文2)The passage mainly tells us that parents give money to their children so that they can show up or get good grades recently by the way of taking the example of Ethan and his mother.
[解题过程] 第一步，根据文体, 找出要点。略读短文, 本文是典型的议论文, 第一段为议点, 第二、 三自然段为论据, 最后一段为结论, 首尾呼 应。论点、论据和结论分别为：
论 Getting up early has been regarded as 点 a good habit
论 (1)we memorize some things more 据 quickly and accurately in the morning (2)build our bodies and become much healthier (3)have enough time to make a plan and get ready for our work or study of the day 结 getting up early is a good habit and try 论 our best to keep it
第二步, 用自己的话将其表达出来。参考 范文为： (范文1) The passage mainly tells us getting up early in the morning is a good habit that will benefit us a lot. It enables us to have a better memory, healthier body and better preparation for the day.
(范文2) The passage tries to tell us that getting up early in the morning is a good habit that will benefit us a lot, including a better memory, healthier body and better preparation for the day.
2）The author (The passage) discussed the benefit of extracurricular activities including being a way to improve students’ health, widen their social circle and introduce them to new ideas and people.
—串联要素法 写作方法—串联要素法 记叙文的概要, 一般包括记叙文的六个 要素(who; when; where; what; how; why), 也就是考生应先通读阅读短文，找出这六 个要素,然后用自己的话将这六个要素串成 一两句话即可。
当然, 不一定每篇记叙文都包含这六个 要素,但“某人做了某事, 结果如何”是应当 包括的。因此, 要写好概要, 须找到以下两 个问题的答案： (1) 谁做了什么？(who did what) (2) 结果如何？(what was the result) 如果是夹叙夹议的文章, 还要加上这个 故事给人们的启示或教育。
［例1］(2011年广东) ［写作内容］ 1. 以约30个词概括上文的主要内容； 2. 以约120个词讲述一次你(或你的朋友)想 家的经历。
解题过程 第一步, 根据［写作内容2］, 快速获取大意。 解题前, 可以通过［写作内容2］和材料文 体,快速准确地把握阅读材料的主要内容并 形成概要的基本框架。如本题阅读［写作 内容2］,并扫视材料可知是记叙文, 于是可 推知,本文的概要框架应是：Sam想家的时 间、地点、原因、影响和结果。
第二步：阅读材料，回答以下两个问题。 (1)谁做了什么？ Sam got to a boarding school and he felt homesick. (2) 结果如何？ He got sick. He was angry with his parents and felt lonely.
第三步：用自己的话将其串联起来。参考范 文如下： 范文1：Sam could not get used to the life of the boarding school, and he thought his parents hated him and left him in it, which made him sick, angry and lonely.
范文2：In the passage, the writer talks about Sam’s experience of homesickness. He suffered a lot and felt dissatisfied with his parents after being left in a boarding school.
［例2］ (2011年广州一模) 阅读下面短文, 然后按要求写一篇150词左 右的英语短文。—内容略 ［写作内容］ 1. 以约30个词概括这篇演讲稿的主要内容； 2. 然后以约120个词写一篇读后感, 说明“诚 信的重要性”。
[解题过程] 第一步, 根据[写作内容2] , 快速获取大 意。[写作内容2]说明“诚信的重要性”， 扫读原文可以发现该文章是夹叙夹议的记 叙文, 那么我们可以形成概要框架: 作者讲 述了一个故事来说明诚信的重要性。这样, 就有了方向和思路了。
第二步：阅读材料, 回答以下三个问题。 (1) 谁做了什么？The writer tells a story of an overseas Chinese student. The student had been caught without a ticket in the subway three times.
(2) 结果如何？He was not even allowed the chance for an interview.
(3) 说明了什么？Honesty is the best policy.
第三步：用自己的话将其串联起来。参考 范文如下： 范文1：Today I read an instructive speech, in which the speaker argues honesty is the best policy by telling the story of an overseas Chinese student who couldn’t find a job because of dishonesty.
范文2：The writer tells a story about a Chinese student with an excellent academic achievement couldn’t find a job in Germany because of his dishonesty to skip the subway tickets, which shows honesty is the best policy.
about two ? 2）On arriving home at __________in the morning, the writer failed to wake his wife up___________by the doorbell. He tried climb towards the bedroom window to______________________________, a policeman but was found by_______________. Soon his shouting woke his wife.
我们根据说明文的不同类型, 分别给出 三种参考模板： 1. 描写某事物的性质功用。即“对象+性 质功用+利好”： (In the passage) the writer introduces... (对象)to us, especially its...(性质或功用), from which we know...(对象带来的利好).
2. 针对某个问题提出解决方法或措施。 即“问题+解决方法”： The passage tells us...(问题), including...(方法1), ...(方法2)and...(方 法3).
3. 介绍某现象及其原因和结果。即“现象+ 原因+结果”： (The author/writer said/talks about)...(现 象)of..., because /but...(原因/本质1), and... (原因/本质2).
在高考读写任务中, 多为说明某种社会 现象的说明文。
阅读下面短文, 然后以约30个词概括这段短文的 内容。 Eye care is an important factor in all of our lives. Without eyes, we seem to be able to do nothing. But, what can we do to take care of eyes? Firstly, we should eat healthy foods. Secondly, don’t sit before a computer screen or TV for too long time and take regular rest at intervals so as to relax the eye muscles. Thirdly, having enough sleep is the best rest for eyes.
Besides those notices, you should be aware of some threats to eyes in daily lives. Excessive exposure to bright sunlight is harmful to eyes, therefore, when going out, especially in summer time, put on a pair of qualified sunglasses. Stay away from smoking. Some ingredients in cigarettes are carcinogenesis(致癌的).
Last but not least, take regular medical examines to check out the potential eye disease and prevent its deterioration(退化). Eyes are the most important sense organs and one should use proper eye care products to avoid further irritations (刺激)and ensure longevity at ease.
[解题过程] 本文在指出眼睛重要后, 紧接着提出问题“为 保护眼睛, 我们可以做些什么呢”, 然后分三点说 明应该做些什么。因此, 我们可以套用“问题+解 决方法”模式： Our eyes are important for us, so the author tells us how to take care of our eyes, including eating healthy food, giving them enough time to rest, knowing some threats, and taking frequent eye examinations.
There was natural climate change even before humans appeared on earth. However, the sudden rise in global temperature over the past two centuries is being caused by our modern, energy-hungry way of life.
2） Advertising can be useful when it provides customers with reliable information，while some advertisements are not the case as they are produced only to persuade customers to buy what they don’t need.
? Part III. 概括大意时应注意的几个事项 ? 1. 不可忽略, 忘记写. 概括要点占5分. ? 2. 不可一字不漏地完全照抄原文.( 但可以灵活地 抄，特别对基础差的同学) ? 3. 不可加入自己的观点. 必须忠于原文、忠于作 者. ? 4. 不要概括太广，缺乏针对性，也不要只针对原 文某个细节太狭窄. ? 5. 不要用列举、描绘性语言当成概括性语言. ? 6. 不要只用一个简单句来概括.或写得太多句子 （单词）。 ? 7. 要注意文体特征. 文体不同, 概括的方式也不同.
? 8.不要把概括跟下文写成一起。（即要求分段） ? 9．不要用序号标概括和下文，注意概括和下文构 成一个不可分隔、完整的文章。 ? 10. 卷面书写要求如下： ? 1) 贴底线书写，保持字母大小基本一致， 字母主 体部分占行线约一半大小为宜； ? 2）单词间距保持基本一致，一般为1个字母的空 间； ? 3）错词只用一条横线或斜线划掉，尽量不要重复 涂写同意字母或单词； ? 4）每段前空格约4个字母的空间。
2.摘要后过渡语:在写完摘要之后,要有过渡 词或过渡句,才使上下文自然衔接 记叙文的过渡语(引出类似的经历) This story reminds me of another story that happened to… This story reminds me of a similar experience of… I also went through such an experience. I have a similar experience. ….have/has a similar experience as….
如何提高作文档次 (1)表达精练简洁:表达不要罗嗦,若能用非谓 语动词做定语或状语就不要用定语从句或状 语从句. (2)避免低级错误:避免语法和拼写的低级错 误,避免被扣印象分. (3)保证赏心悦目:注重字体的美化,保持卷面 整洁,提高印象分. (4)句子错落有致:根据表达需要,交叉使用长 句与短句,简单句与复合句. (5)句式多种多样:多样化句式,方能显示较强 的语言功底,大大提高作文档次.
(1)用it is/was …that…强调句式. (2)用作状语的介词短语开头的完全倒装句或用 以only in this way 等开头的部分倒装句. (3)用with的复合结构(with+宾语+宾补)作状语. (4)用非谓语动词简化状语从句或并列结构. (5)用what引导的名词性从句. (6)用独立主格结构. (7)恰当运用感叹句,被动句等. (8)适当使用插入语,如to be honest, I guess, I think,personally等. (9)尽量用短语代替单词来表达同样的意思. (10)恰当使用关联词语, 除使用复合句的连词外, 写作中经常用到的关联词:
举例:for example; for instance, such as 等 列举:for one thing…and for another…一
来…,二来…等. 转折:however(然而),but(但是),after all(毕 竟)等. 总结:in a word(总之),in brief(总之),in conclusion(最后)等. 因果:thanks to, as a result(of…), due to , therefore, so等. 强调:indeed(确实),certainly(一定),above all(尤其)等.
对比:in the same way(同样地),just as(正
如),compared with…(与…相比),on the one hand…and on the other hand…一方面…,另 一方面….等. 递进:then(然后),besides(此外,还有),what’s more(而且)等. 备考策略:
1.打好词汇语法基础 2.阅读注意概括要点 3.关注社会现象和社会热点,学会用英语表达想法 4.每天一篇作文训练(25分钟) 5.积累 “万能”句型,写作常用到的正确句型. 6.建立词句 “错题集” 7.保证卷面整洁美观
丰富的句式：(常用到的句型结构） 利用不同的句型来表达同一个意思， 能增加文章的文采。 感叹句 e.g. What a kind boy he is! How disappointed he was !
强调句 e.g. It was this young boy that
helped the old granny. I do hope you can come if possible.
e.g. Only in this way can you solve this problem. There comes the police car. Hardly had they got to the station when they met the young man. e.g. They read while walking or riding on a bus. Come to me if necessary.
with短语 e.g. I saw a young lady walking slowly in the street with a handbag in her hand.
定语从句 e.g. In my opinion, cyber cafes
should be a place where we can find much useful information. Let’s come to the main teaching building, at the back of which stands the school library.
e.g. That’s what I should do. We should do a favour to whoever needs help at present.
e.g. Time passed quickly before we knew it. The moment we reached the farm, we got down to harvesting. So long as we work harder at our lessons, we’ll catch up sooner or later.
1. To his surprise, the little girl knows so many things.（使用名词 性从句） What surprises him is that the little girl knows so many things.
2. Though I’m weak, I’ll make the effort. (使用倒装句)
Weak as I am, I’ll make the effort. 3. He did not know what had happened until he had read the news in the newspaper.(使用强调句型) It was not until he had read the news in the newspaper that he knew what had happened. 4. I passed the physics exam because of your help.(用虚拟语气） I couldn’t have passed the physics exam but for your help.
5. She walked out of the lab and many students followed her. (使用过去分词) Followed by many students, she walked out of the lab. 6. They sang and laughed as they went back to school.( 使用 V-ing形式) Singing and laughing, they went back to school. 7.I won’t believe what he says. （no matter what状语从句） No matter what he says, I won’t believe.
8.If you study hard, you will make rapid progress. （祈使句 +and…）
Study hard and you’ll make rapid progress.
9．He had no sooner come back from Beijing than he was sent abroad. (使用倒装句)
No sooner had he come back from Beijing than he was sent abroad.
10.We all think he is a great man. (think highly of)
We all think highly of him .
11.As a result the plan was a failure. (turn out)
The plan turned out to be a failure. 12. When he spoke, he felt more and more excited. (the more…the more)
The more he spoke, the more excited he felt.
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