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虚拟语气


虚拟语气的动词形式 1.七种形式
跟动词时态一样, 虚拟语气也是通过谓语动词的变化来表示的。虚拟语气的动词 主要有七种形式, 这七种形式概括了虚拟语气所涉及到的基本动词形式,是掌握 虚拟语气的基础。 谓语动词形式 were/did 型虚拟语气 would do 型虚拟语气 be 型虚拟语气 had done 型虚拟语气 would have done 型虚拟语气 should have done 型虚拟语气 should do 型虚拟语气 表示命令、建议或劝告等 表示与过去事实相反的情况 表示与现在或将来事实相反的情况 主要作用

2. 根据意思表达的需要,虚拟语气也可以用进行时态。 ⑴You wouldn’t be smiling if you knew the truth. 3.情态动词用于虚拟语气。
部分情态动词的过去式(could、might、should、would)可以表示虚拟语气。 ⅰ表示想象或猜测 ⑴There could be something wrong with the tape recorder. ⑵He might have said so. ⅱ表示委婉或客气 虚拟语气(could,would ,might+动词原形)可以使说话者的口气闲的委婉客 气。

⑴You could answer this email for me. ⑵Would you mind opening the window? ⅲ表示惋惜或责备 ⑴You could have got up a little earlier! ⑵This wall shouldn’t have been painted blue.

★条件句中的虚拟语气 1.非真实条件句
非真实条件句指的是与现在的事实、过去的事实或将来的事实相反的假设,其谓 语动词形式在主句和从句中也比较特殊,也比较有规律。 假设情况 与现在事实相反 与过去事实相反 if 从句中的动词形式 were/did had done 可能性较小 were/did would(could/should/might)+ do 与将来事实相反 可能性很小 should do 可能性最小 were to do A. 与现在事实相反 与现实事实相反的非真实条件句中,谓语动词形式常用 were/did,也就是说用动 词的过去式,其中 be 动词不管主语是单数还是复数,一般都用 were.主句中的谓 语动词用 would(could/might)+ do,第一人称也可以用 should do。 1.If I were you, I would take an umbrella. 如果我是你,我会带把伞。(事实:我不可能是你) 2.If I knew his telephone number, I would tell you. 如果我知道他的电话号码,我就会告诉你。(事实:不知道) 3.If there were no air or water, there would be no living things on the earth. 如果没有水和空气,地球上就不会有生物。(事实:地球上既有空气也有水) 主句中的 should 只用于第一人称 主句中的动词形式 would(could/should/might)+ do would(could/should/might)+ have done

B. 与过去事实相反 在表示与过去事实相反的非真实条件句中,谓语动词常用 had done,而主句中的 谓语动词用 would(could/might)+ have done,第一人称也可以用 should have done. 1. If I had gotten there earlier, I should/could have met her. 如果我早到那儿,我 就会见到她。(事实:去晚了) 2.If he had taken my advice, he would not have made such a mistake. 如果他听 我的劝告的话,就不会犯这样的错误了。 C.与将来事实相反 在表示将来的非真实条件句中,谓语动词根据说话的语气,可以有 were/did, should do 和 were to do 三种形式,而主句只有 would(could/should/might)+ do 一 种形式。 1.If he should come here tomorrow,I would talk to him.如果他明天来这儿的话, 我就跟他谈谈。(事实:来的可能性很小) 2.If there were a heavy snow next Sunday, we would not go skating. 如果下周日下大雪,我们就不能去滑冰了。(事实:下雪可能性很小) 3.If she were to be here next Monday, I would tell her about the matter. 如果她下周一来这儿的话,我就会告诉她这件事的始末。(事实:来的可能性很 小)

2.省略 if 的条件句
如果非真实条件句的谓语动词含有 were, had 或 should, 可以省略连词 if, 而把 were, had 或 should 放在主语前构成倒装。 如果条件句是否定形式倒装时只能把 not 放在主语的后面,一般不用缩写形式把 not 一起 一起放到主语之前。 1.Were I not so busy, I would go with you. 2. Had he learnt about computers,we would have hired him to work here.

3. Should he fail in the examination, he would have to wait for another year.

3.混合条件句
主句和从句的动作分别发生在不同的时间, 这时主句和从句谓语动词的形式因时 间不同而不同,这叫做混合条件句。 A.条件指过去,而后果指的是现在或将来。 ⑴If it had rained last night, it would be cooler today.如果昨晚下雨的话,今天就要 凉快些了。 ⑵If I had worked harder at school, I would have a better job now.要是我当时在学校 用功读书的话,我现在就有一个更好的工作了。 C. 条件并不指某一确定时间,而后果却指的是过去。 ⑴If I wasn’t afraid of spiders, I would have picked it up. 如果我不害怕蜘蛛的话, 我就会把它抓起来的。 ⑵If he were not so absent-minded, he would not have mistaken you for your sister. 如果他不是那样心不在焉的话,他就不会把你当成你的姐姐了。

4.含蓄条件句
在特定的上下文或一目了然的情况下,if 条件从句可以省略,或使用介词短语、 副词或非谓语动词等形式来代替 if 条件句, 这种虚拟语气表达形式叫做含蓄条件 句。 ⑴But for his help,we would be working now. 要不是他的帮助,我们还会在工作呢。 ⑵Without your instruction,I would not have made such great progress. 要是没有你的指导,我不会取得如此大的进步。 ⑶We didn't know his telephone number,otherwise we would have telephoned him. 我们不知道他的电话号码,否则我们就会给他打电话。

★名词性从句中的虚拟语气 1.主语从句
在“it is +形容词/某些动词的过去分词+that 从句”的结构中,从句的谓语动词用 should do 型虚拟语气来表示命令、要求或者建议等表示现在的情况时,should 可以省略。 这些形容词与过去分词常见的有 decided、 important、 necessary、 ordered、 advisable、 demanded、 desired、 insistent、 natural、 proposed、 recommended、 required、 urgent、vital 等. ⑴It is necessary that he(should)come to see us. ⑵It is required that Class Two (should)make everything ready ahead of time. ⑶It will better that we (should) meet some other time. ★如果表示过去的情况,则需要用 should have done 型虚拟语气。 ⑴It is a shame that our football team (should) have failed again. 真丢人,我们的足球队又输了。 ⑵It is strange that we should have met there.很奇怪,我们居然在那里相遇了。

2.宾语从句
A.在表示主观判断、建议、命令和要求的动词后的宾语从句中,常采用 should do 型虚拟语气,should 可以省略。这类动词包括 advise,ask,decide,command, demand,insist,order,propose,request,require, recommend,suggest,urge 等。
⑴The teacher suggested that we(should) have a rest.老师建议我们休息一会儿

⑵He insisted that a dead line (should) be set for completing the task.
他要求定出已完成任务的期限。

★ 动词 insist 如不表示“要求” 而表示“坚持己见”时,宾语从句用陈述语气,同 , 样当 suggest 所表示的意思为“表明”或“暗示”时, 也不需要采用 should do 型虚 拟语气。

⑴He insists that doing morning exercises does good to people’s health.____ ⑴The surprised look on his face suggested that he did not believe the fact._____

B. wish 后的宾语从句根据其表意功能不同,即表示将来的愿望、表示现在的愿 望和表示过去的愿望,分别有不同的谓语动词形式。 功能 表示将来不可能实现的愿望 表示目前不可能实现的愿望 表示过去不可能实现的愿望 ⑴I wish it would stop raining tomorrow. ⑵He wishes he were as tall as Yao Ming. ⑶I wish I knew as much as you do. ⑷Monica wished she had not seen us. ⑸I wish I could have been at the club yesterday. 动词形式 would(could/might)+ do were/did were/did had done would(could/might)+ have done

3.表语从句 A.当主语是表示命令、建议、劝告等含义的名词时,表语从句的谓语 动词用 should do 型虚拟语气, should 可以省略。这些名词常见的有 advice、
decision、 demand、 desire、 idea、 necessity、 order、 plan、 proposal、 recommendation、 requirement、suggestion 等. ⑴His proposal is that we (should) turn off TV for half an hour every day. ⑵My suggestion is that we (should) go and help him without delay. ⑶Our only request is that this (should) be settled as soon as possible.

B.在由 as if 或 as though 引导的表语从句中,用 were/did 型虚拟语气
表示所陈述的内容与现在事实或情况相反,用 had done 型虚拟语气表示与过去 事实或情况相反。 ⑴It seems as if it were spring already. ⑵The village looks as though it had been deserted for years.

4.同位语从句 在表达计划、建议、命令或想法的同位语从句中,常用 should do 型虚
拟语气, should 可以省略。 ⑴The doctor has given advice that the patient (should) give up smoking. ⑵I make a proposal that we (should) hold a meeting next week. ⑶Have you met the teacher’s demand that the composition (should) be written on one side only? ⑷The suggestion came from the manager that the new rule (should) be adopted.

★状语从句中的虚拟语气 1.方式状语从句 在由 as if 或 as though 引导的方式状语从句中, would/could do 型 用 虚拟语气表示与将来事实相反,用 were/did 型虚拟语气表示与现在事实相
反,用 had done 型虚拟语气表示与过去事实相反。 ⑴They talked and talked as if they would never meet again. ⑵She spoke as though she were sick. ⑶Fancy you just sitting here as if nothing had happened.

2.让步状语从句 A Be 型虚拟语气(无论主语是什么人称,谓语使用的都是 be 动词 原形)可用于 of 、whether 、although 等词引导的让步状语从句中,以 加强推测或让步的语气。
⑴If that be so, we shall take action at once. ⑵Every nation, whether it be large or small, has its strong points. ⑶Whichever be the case, my situation remained the same.

B. 在 even if , even though 引导的让步状语从句中,也经常使用虚 拟语气来表示主观假设。

⑴Even if he were here, I should say the same thing. ⑵Even though I had known his address, I might not have emailed him.

2.目的状语从句 由 so that , in order that, in case, lest, for fear that 等引导的目的状语从句中, 动词用“should +动词原形”结构(should 可省略) ,表示忧虑或目的。
⑴She turned back in order that I should not see her face. ⑵I will not make any noise, lest I should disturb you. ⑶Let’s hide the chocolate for fear that Jim (should) eat too much.

★其他结构中的虚拟语气 1. would rather 在 would rather, had rather, would prefer, would sooner(宁愿,宁可)等结构后,
从句动词用 were/did 型虚拟语气或 should do 型虚拟语气表示与现在事实或将来 事实相反的主观愿望,用 had done 型虚拟语气表示对过去所发生的事感到后悔。 ⑴To be frank, I’d rather you were not involved in the case. ⑵I would sooner you didn’t make any comments on the issue for the time being. ⑶I would prefer that you should not stay there too long. ⑷I’d rather I hadn’t remembered leaving something in the toilet and gone back to find it, or I wouldn’t have got lost. ■ would rather 主要有两种句型 ﹠would rather + 不带 to 的不定式 ⑴I would rather stay here than go home. ⑵I would rather not tell you. ﹠would rather + 不用连词 that 的从句 ⑴I’d rather you told me the truth. ⑵Would you rather I did it?

2. 表示祝愿
在一些感叹句中,用 be 型虚拟语气,表示祝愿。 ⑴Be it so. 但愿如此 ⑵Long live the People’s Republic of China.中华人民共和国万岁

3. if only
if only 位于句首引起的感叹句用 were/did 型虚拟语气表示现在不可能实现的主 观愿望, had done 型虚拟语气表示对过去所发生的事感到后悔, 用 常译成“要是….. 就好了” ⑴If only the engineer were here. ⑵If only I knew several foreign languages. ⑶If only I had taken my head teacher’s advice.

3. it’s time that….
在 it is (high) time that… 结构中,定语从句的谓语动词用用 were/did 型虚拟语气 或 should do 型虚拟语气,表示“现在该是某人做某事的时间了” 。 ⑴It is high time that the students went to bed. ⑵Don’t you think it’s time you had a haircut. ⑶Now it is about time you should take the place of me.

★强调句句型

It is / was + 被强调部分+ who/that + 句子其他部分


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