一、关于动词适当形式的解题思路★★ 时态（8 种基本时态） 谓语动词——时间状语、语境—— 语态（主动+被动） 动词 即将发生——不定式(to do) 非谓语动词——和中心词的逻辑关系 正在发生、主动——现在分词(doing) 已经完成、被动——过去分词(done) 充当名词——动名词(doing) 二、非谓语动词的分类功能表 语 法 功 能 类别 主语 宾语 宾语补足语 表语
定语 状语 不定式 √ √ √ √ √ √ 动名词 √ √ √ √ 现在分词 √ √ √ √ 过去分词 √ √ √ √ 三、做主语的非谓语动词比较 类别 注意点 例句 动名词 习惯性、经常性动作 Doing exercises regularly is good for your health. 不定式 一次性、具体性动作 To solve all the problems at once is impossible. 注： 当动名词或不定式做主语时， 更多的是用 it 做形式主语而把真正的主语转成 不定 式置于句末。 It is good for your health to do exercises regularly. It is impossible to solve all the problems at once. 某些特殊的形式主语结构，依然和动名词连用。 It is no use/good crying over the spilt milk. 四、做宾语的非谓语动词比较 类别 词例（仅限至本单元止已学过的动词，后学的请补充） admit, dislike, imagine, delay, consider, mind, understand, avoid, 只 与 动 名 词 连 enjoy, practise, miss, finish, keep, suggest, risk, overlook, advise, 用 allow, forbid, appreciate, advocate, resist, stand, put off, can’t help, feel like, be worth 只 与 不 定 式 连 agree, beg, dare, decide, expect, fail, happen, hesitate, hope, 用 intend, manage, prepare, pretend, promise, refuse, swear, wish, plan, get, help 两 者 皆 用 无 区 continue, prefer, begin, hate, start, love 别 两 者 皆 用 有 区 forget, remember, regret, mean, try, go on, like, 别 need/want/require
注：①介词短语后面只接动名词，尤其关注介词 to 后接动名词的情况，易与不 定式混淆。 如：pay attention to, look forward to, be/get used to, be related/linked to, be the key to, be on one’s way to, make contributions to, devote……to, thanks to, in addition to, object to, prefer……to(仅限至本单元止已学过的动词，后学的请补充) ②尤其关注后接不定式和动名词时，区别很大的动词。 I forgot to return the money to you. 我忘记要还钱给你了。 （钱未还） I forgot returning the money to you. 我忘记已经还过你钱了。 （钱已还） The headmaster have meant to put off the sports meeting. 校长打算推迟运动会。 The heavy rain means putting off the sports meeting. 大雨意味着运动会推迟了。 Tom tried to walk again after his leg was badly hurt.（Tom 努力地行走） If you feel too full, you can try walking after a meal. （你可以尝试着走走） The computer needs repairing. = The computer needs to be repaired. ③有些动词接动名词做宾语，但接不定式做宾补。 I consider buying a computer. I consider computers to be a useful tool of communication. We don’t allow smoking here, so you are not allowed to smoke here. Our theatre forbids taking dogs in. We forbid people to take dogs in. He advised asking our teacher for help. He advised us to ask our teacher for help. 五、做宾语补足语的非谓语动词比较（适用“解题思路”） 类别 与宾语的逻辑关系 例句 I often hear her sing next door. (唱的过程) 不定式 过程性、即将发生 We invited her to sing for her mum. (即将唱) 现在分词 主动性、正在进行 I heard her singing next door. (正在唱) 过去分词 被动性 I often hear the song sung by children. (被唱) 注：①某些动词接省 to 不定式做宾补，主要有一感(feel)，二听(hear, listen to)， 三让 (make, let, have)，六看(see, watch, look at, observe, notice, find)，半帮助(help)。 但改为被动语态时，要将省略的 to 补出。 I often hear her sing next door. She is often heard to sing next door. ②很多形容词和名词做宾补的结构可以看作 to be 不定式的省略。 Hard work has made him (to be) a great man. We consider Tom (to be) the cleverest in our class. ③一般不用 being done, having been done 做宾补。 如：I often hear the song being sung by them. (× ) 六、做表语的非谓语动词比较 类别 注意点 例句 动名词 解释说明 名 词 His habit is going to bed early and getting up 用法 early. 解释说明 My advice is to ask your teacher for help. 不定式 计划打算 动 词 They are to start for New York tomorrow
morning. 现在分词 现在进行时 Tom was doing his homework when I came in. 过去分词 被动语态 Much homework is given to us every day. 注：①区分动名词还是现在分词做表语的一个简单方法——“主表颠倒法”。 ②动名词和不定式都可以做表语，解释说明主语的具体内容，但动名词更强调动 作的 经常性和习惯性，不定式则侧重于一次具体的行为。 My job is looking after the twins. 我的工作是照顾这对双胞胎。(此人是保姆) Today my job is to look after the twins. 今天我的任务是照看这对双胞胎。 （临时帮 忙） ③不定式、现在分词、过去分词做表语的动词用法，适用“解题思路”。 ④表达正在进行的被动时，用现在分词的被动形式“being done”做表语。 Many sea creatures are being wiped out by fishing boats. 七、做定语的非谓语动词比较（适用“解题思路”） 类别 逻辑关系 例句 不定式 即将发生 the scientist to visit our school 现在分词 主动性、正在进行 the visiting scientist at our school 过去分词 被动性、已经完成 the visited school by the scientist 动名词 用途、属性、特征 a swimming pool, a guessing game 注：①动名词和现在分词做定语的区别：前者强调用途属性，后者强调动作正在 进行。 a swimming boy= a boy who is swimming a swimming pool= a pool which is used for swimming ②非谓语动词做定语可以转化为定语从句，从句中谓语动词与关系词的逻辑关 系 和非谓语动词与中心词的逻辑关系完全一致。 a scientist to visit our school = a scientist who will visit our school (即将访问) a visiting scientist at our school = a scientist who is visiting our school (正在访问) the visited school by the scientist = the school which is visited by the scientist (被访 问) ③当中心词被 only, last, next, 序数词和形容词最高级修饰时，只用不定式做定 语。 Who is the first person to discover that the earth circles the sun? ( 此 处 不 用 discovering) ④当不定式做定语时，主被动形式皆可；但如果出现了不定式的逻辑主语时，用 主动形式，不用被动形式。 There is much work to do/ to be done. There is much work for me to do. I have much work to do. (此两句不用 to be done) ⑤及物动词的过去分词体现被动关系，不及物动词的过去分词体现动作已完成。 the broken bike= the bike which is broken the beaten boy= the boy who was beaten the retired worker= the worker who has retired the fallen leaves= the leaves which have fallen
⑥选择分词做定语关键看逻辑关系 —— 主动还是被动？正在发生还是完 成？ a developing country (发展中国家) a falling leave (空中的落叶) a developed country (发达国家) a fallen leave (地上的落叶) boiling water (沸水) the escaping prisoner (正在越狱的囚犯) boiled water (凉开水) the escaped prisoner (已经逃跑的囚犯) ⑦当逻辑关系是正在进行的被动时，用“being done”的形式做后置定语。 The waste being put back into the river has been increasing. The airport being expanded will be stocked with the most advanced equipment. I wonder who the computer being repaired belongs to. ⑧有些分词形式的形容词不体现动作，只体现感受。这种情况下，过去分词往往 表达中心 语的感受，译成“感到……的”；现在分词往往表达中心语所引起的别人的感受， 译成 “令人……的”。 We are pleased to hear about the pleasing news. He felt very tired after so many hours’ tiring work. An excited look came to his face when he saw the exciting result. We are surprised to know the surprising boy who could write many poems at the age of six. 八、做状语的非谓语动词比较（适用“解题思路”） 与句子主语的逻辑 类别 功能 例句 关系 To catch up with others, he decided to 目的状语 work harder. 不定式 即将发生 He worked very hard, only to find he was 结果状语 still last. He asked what had happened, pointing at 伴随状语 the cut. Not having enough time, he had to start 原因状语 very early. 现在分词 主动性、正在进行 The waste is put into the 结果状语 river, killingmany fish. Preparing fully, we can achieve great 条件状语 things. Encouraged by his words, I decided to 伴随状语 work harder. Lost in my studies, I didn’t notice him 过去分词 被动性、已经完成 原因状语 come in at all. Given more time, we will surely do much 条件状语 better. 注：①在真正的实战练习中，我们无须过多地考虑功能，只要分析所要填的非谓 语动词和
句子主语的逻辑关系即可。 ②要特别关注不定式做结果状语的用法，此时不定式前往往有 only, never，表示 出人 意料或令人失望惋惜的结果。 She woke up, only to find herself locked in a dark house. They left the hometown many years ago, never to return. ③现在分词做伴随状语时， 为了强调非谓语动词发生在谓语动词前而不是同时发 生， 我们采用 having done 的形式做伴随状语；但过去分词做伴随状语时，因为过去 分 词本身可以体现动作的完成，所以可以不采用 having been done 的形式。 Having finished all the homework, Tom went out to play football happily. 上句不可用 finishing，因为 finish the homework 和 went out 不可能同时发生。 (Having been) beaten by his father, the boy rushed out of the house. ④少数非谓语动词短语，作为固定的独立结构使用，不考虑与主语的逻辑关系。 To tell you the truth, you have made a big mistake. To speak frankly, I see it slightly differently. Generally speaking, every one of you has tried your best. Judging from his appearance, he can’t be a thief. Taken as a whole, there is nothing interesting in the book. He was lost in the forest. To make it worse, his food ran out.
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