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高中英语必修1(北师大版)Unit 3 Celebration 知识点总结


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高中英语必修 1(北师大版)Unit 3 Celebration 知识点总结
一、重点词汇 scholarship
·原文再现 winning a scholarship 获得奖学金 · 基本用法 scholarship n. 奖学金;学识,学问

He won a schol

arship to Cambridge. 他获得一份到剑桥大学读书的奖学金。 He tops the rest in scholarship. 他的学识超过其他人。
· 知识拓展--相关单词
scholar n. 学者;奖学金获得者

He is thought to be a scholar in the village. 在村里,人们把他看作是位“秀才"。 He went abroad to study as a scholar. 他作为奖学金获得者赴外学习。 A great scholar is not always a very wise man. 一位伟大的学者未必一定是极聪明的人。
occasion
·原文再现 The Mid-Autumn Festival is important because it is a special occasion. 中秋节很重要,因为这是一个全家团聚的特殊时机。 · 基本用法 occasion n. 场合;时机 On that occasion he looked a perfect fool. 在这个场合,他看起来就像一个大傻瓜。

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Please use words suitable to this occasion. 请用适合该场合的言词。 You should go there if occasion arises. 如果有机会,你应当到那里去。

· 知识拓展
相关单词 occasional adj 有时的;偶尔的 occasionally adv 偶尔地;有时 相关短语 on occasion(s)=sometimes on the occasion of ....在...之际 She visits the city on occasion. 她有时到城里去。 The flags are hung out on the occasion of the National Day. 每逢国庆节,国旗都悬持出来了。 词义辨析:chance/ opportunity/ occasion 这些名词均含“机会”之意。 chance: 侧重指偶然或意外的机会,有时也指正常或好的机会。 opportunity: 侧重指有利或适合于采取行动,以达到某一目的或实现某种愿望的最佳时机或机会。 occasion: 指特殊时机或良机,也指时节。

celebration
·原文再现 It marks the end of the Chinese New Year celebrations. 它标志着中国新年庆典的结束。 · 基本用法 celebration n. 庆祝,庆典;颂扬 A wedding is an occasion for celebration. 婚礼是欢庆的时刻。 Does she accept to hostess my birthday celebration? 她答应作我生日庆祝的女主持了吗?

· 知识拓展

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相关单词 celebrate vt. 为...庆祝;颂扬,赞美 we celebrated his birthday by going out to a restaurant. 我们出去下馆子来庆祝他的生日。 相关短语 in celebration of=for the celebration of ... 为庆祝... The party was in celebration of Mother's silver wedding. 聚会是为庆祝母亲的银婚。 They hold a party in celebration of their victory. 他们举行晚会以庆祝胜利。

power
·原文再现 In one story, lanterns were lit to celebrate the power of light over darkness. 一种传说是,点灯笼是为了庆祝光的力量盖住了黑暗。 · 基本用法 power n.控制力,权利 The aim is to give people more power of own lives. 目的是让人们更能控制自己的生活。

· 知识拓展 相关短语 beyond one’s power 超出某人的能力 come to / into power 掌权 within one’s power 在某人的能力之内 have the power to do/ of doing? 有能力做?

相关单词 powerful powerless
destroy
·原文再现 In another story, a town was almost destroyed but the light from many lanterns saved it.

adj. 有权势的,有影响力的;强有力的 adj. 无影响力的,无能力的

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另一种传说则是,一个城镇差一点被毁掉,但来自许多灯笼的光拯救了这个城镇。 · 基本用法 destroy vt. 毁坏,破坏;摧毁 The house was destroyed by bombs. 那个房子被炸弹炸毁了。 The accident destroyed his hope. 这场事故毁掉了他的希望。

· 知识拓展--词汇辨析:destroy/ damage
destroy: 多指彻底地、毁灭性地破坏,含导致无用,不能或很难再修复的意味。 damage: 多指对无生命物体的损害,造成降低价值、破坏功能等后果,常常是局部的,或可以修好的。 The storm did a lot of damage to the crops. 暴风雨使庄稼受到了很大损失。 He had to destroy the injured animal. 他只好杀死那个受伤的动物。

burn down
·原文再现 The story was about a god who wanted to burn down the town. 这个故事说的是有一个神想烧毁这座城镇。 · 基本用法 burn down =be destroyed by fire 烧毁;烧成平地;烧光 The old town was burnt down in 1970. 这个老镇在 1972 年被烧毁了。 They threatened to burn down our house. 他们威胁要烧毁我们的房子。

decorate
·原文再现 In the past, lanterns were usually lit by candles and decorated with pictures of birds.... 过去,人们常用蜡烛点灯笼,用鸟等图案装饰灯笼。 · 基本用法 decorate vt. 装饰,布置;装修,装潢 We have decorated the house.

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我们已经装饰了那个房子。 They decorated the room with flowers and balloons. 他们用花和气球装饰房间。

· 知识拓展
相关句型 decorate… with… 用…装饰 … be decorated with… 装饰着 … The room was decorated with artificial flowers. 房间用人造花装饰。

相关单词 decorations n. 装饰,布置;装饰品

The curtains do not match with the decoration. 窗帘与室内装璜不相配。
boil
·原文再现 Sweet dumplings are boiled and served in hot water. 元宵煮开后连汤水一起端上来。 · 基本用法 boil v. 煮沸;激动;蒸发 n. 沸腾,煮沸 His cruelty to his children makes my blood boil. 他残酷地对待孩子,使我非常愤怒。 Mind you! Don't let the pot boil dry. 小心,别让水壶烧干了。 Quick, turn off the gas; the milk will boil over. 快把煤气关掉,牛奶要溢了。

· 知识拓展--相关单词
boiled adj 煮沸的,煮熟的 boiling adj 沸腾的;激昂的 Do you want a boiled egg for breakfast? 你早饭要吃煮鸡蛋吗?

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Let the tea leaves steep in boiling water for five minutes. 让茶叶在滚开的水中浸泡五分钟。

serve
·原文再现 Sweet dumplings are boiled and served in hot water. 元宵煮开后连汤水一起端上来。 · 基本用法 serve v. 招待,供应;为…服务;对…有用;可作…用 He prefers to go where he can serve the people. 他宁愿到能为人民服务的地方去。 The large box in his room can serve as a desk too. 他房间里的那只大箱子也可以当桌子用。 He is only too willing to serve friends. 他极愿为朋友效劳。 That restaurant used to serve whites only. 那家餐厅过去只接待白人。 The waiter served a cup of tea. 服务员端上一杯茶。

· 知识拓展
相关单词 service n. 服务,服侍;服役;仪式 A 10% service charge is added on to the bill. 帐单上包括了百分之十的服务费。 The typewriter is at your service. 这台打字机随便你使用。 Its slow service gave the restaurant a bad name. 这家餐馆因缺乏效率的服务搞得名声很坏。

相关短语 Serve sb.sth.= serve sth. to sb. 给某人端上

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You can't serve drinks to minors. 你不能把酒卖给未成年人。

take part in
·原文再现 ...people from other cultures have also taken part in the races and enjoyed the fun. ...外国人也来参加赛龙舟,共享其中乐趣。 · 基本用法 take part in 参加,参与 Are you going to take part in the first experiment? 你们会参与首次实验吗? Are you going to take part in any of the events? 你打算参加什么项目? He will take part in this contest. 他将参加这次比赛。

· 知识拓展--词义辨析:attend/join/join in/ take part in
这些动词或词组均含“参加,加入”之意。 attend: 侧重参加或出席会议或学术活动等。 join :普通用词,指加入党派、团体或游戏活动等。 join in:参加(某些活动) participate: 正式用词,特指参加团体活动,暗示以一个积极的角色参加。 take part in: 侧重参加某项群众性、集体性的事业、工作或活动,突出参加者在其中发挥一定的作用。 His brother joined the army two years ago. 两年前他哥哥参军。 May I join in your discussion? 我可以参加你们的讨论吗? Many people join in the game every year. 每年许多人参加这个游戏活动。 A lot of college students took part in the movement last year. 去年很多大学生参加了那个运动。

reception
·原文再现

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At the wedding reception, we had a sit-down meal in a big restaurant---there were twenty people at each table. 在婚礼招待会上,我们在一家大饭店吃了酒席---每桌大约有 20 人。 · 基本用法 reception n. 接待;接收;招待会;感受,反应 You may leave your key at the reception desk. 你可以把钥匙留在服务台。 They gave the Prime Minister a cool reception. 他们很冷淡地接待了这位首相。 A reception was held in honor of the new director. 举行酒会来欢迎新主任。 Our school gave a reception to our new principal. 我们学校为新校长举行了欢迎会。

· 知识拓展--相关单词
receptionist n 接待员;传达员 receive v. 接收,收到;接待;接纳

retire
· 基本用法 retire vi. 退休;撤退;vt. 退休;离开;收回

If I had the choice, I would retire at thirty. 假如我有选择的余地,我三十岁就退休。 He didn't want to retire and lead an empty life. 他不想退休过空虚的生活。 She retired to her own room after supper. 她吃完晚饭后就回到了自己的房间。

· 知识拓展--相关单词
retirement n. 退休;退役 John lived in the shadow after his retirement. 约翰退休后,过着隐居的生活。 After retirement, I'll be master of my time.

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退休后,我可以自由支配我的时间了。

salary
· 基本用法 salary vt. 给...加薪;给...薪水 n. 薪水

How does she get by on such a small salary? 她靠那麽一点儿薪水怎么过活? His money comes mainly from salary. 他的钱主要来自工资。

· 知识拓展--词义辨析:income/fee/salary/pay
这些名词都可表示“工资、收入”之意。 income 强调总收入。 salary 指按年定下,按月或星期平均给予的报酬,指脑力劳动者的薪水。 pay 是个通用词,可取代 salary 与 wage。 fee 指提供某种服务收取的固定费用。

apply
· 基本用法 apply v 申请;使用,应用;适用,有效 To apply for a job, you must fill out a form. 申请工作要填表。 In this way they can better apply theory to practice. 这样他们就能更好地把理论运用到实践中去。 This rule cannot be applied to every case. 这项规则不是所有情况都使用。

· 知识拓展
相关短语 apply (to sb.) for sth. (向某人) 请求;申请 apply...to... 把...应用于...

He has applied for a post in England. 他已申请在英国任职。 The new technology was applied to farming. 这项新技术已应用于农业。

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相关单词 application n. 应用;申请 Letters of application must be handwritten. 申请信必须手写。 Biology has practical applications. 生物学有实用性。

depend on
·原文再现 Well, of course it depends on what kind of party it is! 嗯,当然要取决于它是哪种聚会。 · 基本用法 depend on/upon 依靠;依赖;指望 The map is a thing to be depended on when you are in a strange place. 在陌生的地方你就得依靠地图。 You can't depend on them to do it. 你不能依靠他们做这件事。

· 知识拓展
相关短语 depend on it that ...指望... It /That depends. 那得视情况而定 You may depend on it that they will be there in time. 你可以指望他们能及时到达那里。 I may help you, but that/it depends. 我也许会帮你,但得视情况而定。 词义辨析:depend/rely 这两个动词后跟 on(upon),均有“依赖、依靠”之意。 depend 侧重指因自身能力不足或缺乏自信心而依靠他人或物给予帮助或支持。 rely 通常包含着以前的经验证明对方是能依赖的意思。 We depend on their work. 我们依赖于他们的工作。

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They rely on her principles and ethical standards. 他们依赖于她的原则和伦理标准。

on time
·原文再现 You should be on time! 你应该准时! · 基本用法 on time 准时;按时 He will come on time even though it rains. 即使下雨,他还是会准时来的。 The lazy student never do his homework on time. 这个懒惰的学生从没有按时做他的家庭作业。 You can't depend on the train arriving on time. 千万不要认为这列火车能正点到达。

· 知识拓展--相关短语
in time 迟早,及时 from time to time=at times=occasionally 有时候 in no time 立刻,马上 for the time being=at the moment 眼下,暂时;现在 at one time 曾经;一度

bunch
·原文再现 You should take a bunch of flowers. 你应该带去一束花。 · 基本用法 bunch n. 群;串;突出物 vi. 隆起;打褶;形成一串 vt. 使成一串;使打褶 He cut off a bunch of grapes to entertain us. 他剪下一串葡萄招待我们。 Your friends are all just a bunch of nobodies. 你的朋友都不过是无名之辈。 I received a bunch of red roses on my birthday.

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生日那天,我收到一束红玫瑰。

congratulation
· 基本用法 congratulation n. 祝贺;庆祝 Congratulations on a superb performance! 对这场精彩的演出表示祝贺!

· 知识拓展--相关单词
congratulate v. 祝贺;庆祝 congratulate sb. on/upon sth 因某事祝贺某人 I congratulate you on your great discovery. 我祝贺你的伟大发现。

ceremony
·原文再现 The times of the wedding ceremony and reception are both on the invitation. 请柬上写着婚礼庆典及婚宴的时间。 · 基本用法 ceremony n. 典礼,仪式;礼节,礼仪;客套,虚礼 Not father but mother was present at the ceremony. 不是父亲而是母亲出席此一仪式。 The closing ceremony is going to be held on March 25th. 闭幕式将于三月二十五日举行。

entrance
·原文再现 There is a box at the entrance to the reception and you ought to put money into it! 在招待会门口有一个盒子,你要往里边放钱。 · 基本用法 entrance n. 入口,进入(后常与介词 to 搭配) They were refused entrance to the club. 他们被拒於俱乐部门外。 I'll meet you at the entrance to the theater. 我在剧院门口和你见面。

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Where's the entrance to the cave? 这个洞穴的入口在哪里?

· 知识拓展--相关单词
enter v. 进入 The windows permit light and air to enter. 这些窗户采光及通风性能良好。

attend
·原文再现 Everyone can attend the reception afterwards. 每个人都可以参加典礼后的婚宴。 · 基本用法 attend vt. 出席;参加,陪同; Vi 照顾 He had to attend a lecture. 他要参加一个讲座。 I suggested that my parents should attend the evening school. 我建议我的父母去上夜校。

· 知识拓展
相关短语 attend to 处理;注意;接待(to 为介词) He is really too busy to attend to anything else. 他实在太忙,无法分身。 词义辨析:attend/join/join in/ take part in 这些动词或词组均含“参加,加入”之意。 1. attend: 侧重参加或出席会议或学术活动等。 2. join :普通用词,指加入党派、团体或游戏活动等。 His brother joined the army two years ago. 两年前他哥哥参军。 3. join in:参加(某些活动) May I join in your discussion? 我可以参加你们的讨论吗?

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4. take part in: 侧重参加某项群众性、集体性的事业、工作或活动,突出参加者在其中发挥一定的作用。

A lot of college students took part in the movement last year. 去年很多大学生参加了那个运动。
contribute
·原文再现 But don't worry, you don't have to contribute a lot of money. 但别担心,你不用放很多钱。 · 基本用法 contribute v. 贡献,出力;投稿;捐献

It was generous of her to contribute such a large sum. 她很大方,捐助了这么一大笔钱。 I just can contribute 100 dollar. 我充其量只能捐助 100 美元

· 知识拓展
相关短语 contribute to 为...做贡献;投入到....; 有助于,导致;为...撰稿 Does smoking contribute to lung cancer? 吸烟会导致肺癌吗? Honesty and hard work contribute to success and happiness. 诚实加苦干有助于成功和幸福。 He contributed an article to the China Daily. 他为《中国日报》撰写一篇文章。 He contributed generously to the Red Cross. 他对红十字会慷慨捐助。

相关单词 contribution n. 贡献;捐款;投稿 为...做贡献

make a contribution to...

He has made an important contribution to the company's success. 他对公司的成功作出了重要的贡献。
link
·原文再现

-- 中国首家承诺学习效果的在线教育公司
A long silk ribbon that links the crowns is a symbol of a long and happy life for the couple. 连接花冠的长长的丝带,代表着新人幸福长久的生活。 · 基本用法 link n. 环节;联系,关系 v. 连接,连结;联合,结合;联系在一起

Is there a link between smoking and lung disease? 吸烟与肺部疾病之间有关系吗? We must link theory with practice. 我们必须理论联系实际。 The children linked hands to make a circle. 孩子们挽起手来围成一个圈。 These rivers were linked by a new canal. 这些河流由一条新运河连接起来。

· 知识拓展--相关短语
link...to/with.... 与...有关;与...相连接 Railway lines link country towns with the capital. 铁路把各个城镇与首都连接起来。 This bridge links the village to the city. 这座桥将这个村庄和城市连起来了。

pole
·原文再现 We seriously wrote"Father Christmas, the North Pole "on the envelope. 我们在信封上认真地写上“北极圣诞老人”。 · 基本用法 pole n. 极点;电极;柱;竿;电线杆;旗杆;(撑船用的)篙;桅杆 He flew to Europe via the North Pole. 他经由北极飞到欧洲。 A red flag slowly went up the pole. 一面红旗徐徐升起。 We used a branch as a fishing pole. 我们用树枝做钓竿。

-- 中国首家承诺学习效果的在线教育公司 put up
·原文再现 On Christmas Eve, the whole family helped to decorate the house, put up the Christmas tree, the decorations and the balloons. 圣诞节前夕,全家人都来装饰房屋,竖起圣诞树,挂上各种装饰品和气球。 · 基本用法 put up 竖起;建造;举起,抬起;张贴;在(某地)投宿 A big building has been put up in my hometown. 一座大楼已在我的家乡建造起来。 I put up my hand and asked to leave the room. 我举手要求离开房间。 She put up her umbrella and walked off. 她打起雨伞,离开了。 He put up a poster on the wall. 他在墙上贴了一张海报。 Will you put me up for the night? 今晚能留我住下吗?

· 知识拓展--词义辨析:put 词组 decoration
·原文再现 On Christmas Eve, the whole family helped to decorate the house, put up the Christmas tree, the decorations and the balloons. 圣诞节前夕,全家人都来装饰房屋,竖起圣诞树,挂上各种装饰品和气球。 · 基本用法 decorations n. 装饰,布置;装饰品

The curtains do not match with the decoration. 窗帘与室内装璜不相配。

· 知识拓展
相关单词 decorate vt. 装饰,布置;装修,装潢 We have decorated the house.

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我们已经装饰了那个房子。 They decorated the room with flowers and balloons. 他们用花和气球装饰房间。

swallow
·原文再现 I put so much food in my mouth sometimes that it was hard to swallow. 我往嘴里塞满食物,有时都难以下咽。 · 基本用法 swallow v. 忍受;吞没;吞下;咽下 n. 燕子;一次吞咽的量 You must chew your food well before you swallow it. 食物吞下去之前先要细细咀嚼。 He couldn't swallow because of a sore throat. 他因嗓子疼而不能吞咽。 The swallow is showing its young how to fly. 老燕正在教雏燕学飞。 He downed the medicine at one swallow. 他一口便把药全吞下了。 One swallow does not make a summer. 一花独放不是春。

carry on
·原文再现 It didn't seem possible, but we carried on eating. 蛋糕大得好像吃不了,但我们还是不停地吃着。 · 基本用法 carry on 继续;坚持 They decided to carry on in spite of the weather. 他们决定继续进行,不管天气的好坏。 In any event, we should carry on with our research. 无论如何,我们必须坚持研究。

· 知识拓展--相关短语
carry on doing sth = carry on with sth 继续/坚持做某事

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Carry on working while I'm away. 我不在的时候,要继续工作。 I'll carry on with my writing till the bell rings. 我要继续写下去直到钟响。

merry
·原文再现 We said:"Merry Christmas!" to each other. 我们对彼此说“圣诞节快乐!”。 · 基本用法 merry adj. 欢乐的,愉快的,高兴的;(音乐)悦耳的;优美的 Eat, drink, and be merry -- that's his philosophy. 吃喝玩乐,那就是他的人生哲学。 He is in a very merry mood today. 他今天心情极为愉快。 Thank you. And a merry Christmas to you! 谢谢你。祝你圣诞快乐! There is a merry smile on her face. 她脸上露出愉快的微笑。

production
·原文再现 I'm a production manager at a factory. 我是一家工厂的生产经理。 · 基本用法 production n. 生产,制造;成果,产品;作品 Soon the car will go into mass production. 这种小汽车不久即可投入批量生产。 We must increase production levels. 我们必须提高生产水平。

· 知识拓展
相关单词 produce v. 生产;生长;创作;引起,导致

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The medicine produced a violent reaction. 这药物引起了剧烈的反应。 The man produced a ticket from his pocket. 那人从衣袋里掏出一张票。 词义辨析:manufacture/produce/product/production 这些名词均含有“产品,制品”之意。 manufacture 一般指机器大量制造的产品。 produce 多指农产品(尤指蔬菜水果等)。 product 一般指工业产品,也可泛指各种各样的产品。 production 含义广泛,不同场合有不同的意思,可表示“产品,产物”,尤指人类智力或艺术劳动的产品。

as well
·原文再现 A few of my good friends came as well. 我的一些好朋友也来了。 · 基本用法 as well 也;又 Tom is very unfriendly to me as well. 汤姆对我也很不友善。 I'm going to London and my sister is going as well.(=going,too). 我要到伦敦去,我妹妹也要去。

· 知识拓展--词义辨析 as well/as well as
as well as “也”“不仅…而且”意同:not only … but also 具有连词性,但 as well as 强调的是前者。 as well “也”具有副词性。大致相当于 also 或 too ,常位于句末,无须用逗号与句子分开。如: He can speak Chinese as well. 他中文也说得很好。 She is my friend as well as my doctor. 他不仅是我的医生,也是我的朋友。

fry
·原文再现 I started frying some food and my cousin started serving the food. 我开始油炸一些食物,我的表妹开始上菜。

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· 基本用法 fry v. 油炸;煎,炒 Shall I fry the fish for dinner? 晚饭要不要我炸鱼? There was fried chicken for dinner. 有炸鸡肉作晚餐。 Fried potatoes are cooked in deep fat. 炸的马铃薯是用很多油炸的。 I'm not going with you, I have other fish to fry. 我不和你一起去,我还有别的事。

unfortunately
·原文再现 Unfortunately, when I was talking to a friend I burnt the sausages! 不幸地是,当我跟朋友说话的时候,我把香肠烧着了! · 基本用法 Unfortunately adv 不幸地;倒霉地=unluckily Unfortunately he won't be here tomorrow evening. 可惜的是他明晚不在这儿。 Unfortunately, I missed the last train. 我不幸错过了末班火车。 He was unfortunately killed in action. 他不幸阵亡了。

· 知识拓展--相关单词
unfortunate adj. 不幸的;倒霉的 I was unfortunate to lose my keys. 我很倒霉,丢了钥匙。 His unfortunate death was a great loss to the country. 他的不幸去世对这个国家来说是个重大损失。

mess
·原文再现 The house was a bit of a mess...

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房子乱得一团糟... · 基本用法 mess n. 混乱;食堂,伙食团;困境;脏乱的东西 Don't mess up my hair: I've just combed it. 别把我的头发弄乱,我刚梳好。 The heavy rain made a great mess of the garden. 这场大雨把花园搞得一团糟。 Who's responsible for the terrible mess? 谁应该对这种混乱负责? v. 弄乱,弄脏;毁坏;使就餐

· 知识拓展--相关短语
in a mess 脏乱不堪 make a mess of... 搞得...一塌糊涂

Her hair was in a terrible mess. 她的头发乱极了。 This illness has made a mess of my holiday plans. 这场病把我的度假计划破坏了。

二、重点句型 On this day, the moon is said to be its biggest and brightest. 据说那天的月亮是一年中最大最亮的。
· 基本用法 sb./sth. is said to do....=It is said that..... 据说.......

He is said to be one of the top ten rich persons in the world. =It is said that he is one of the top ten rich persons in the world. 据说他是世界上最有钱的十个人之一。 注意:若动作已经完成,后面的不定式可用其完成式 to have done。若动作正在发生,后面的不定式用 其进行式 to be doing,如: This book is said to have been translated into several languages. 据说这本书已经被翻译成几种外语版本。 He is said to be writing his new novel. 据说他正在写他的新小说。

-- 中国首家承诺学习效果的在线教育公司 · 知识拓展--相关句型
It is thought/believed/hoped/reported/...that... =sb be thought/believed/hoped/reported to ... 人们认为/相信/希望... It is reported/considered that... =sb be reported/considered to.... 据报道/考虑... He was reported to have caught that early flight. 据报道他已经赶上了那趟早班飞机。 It is thought that no one survived the air crash. 人们觉得没人幸免于那场空难。

Traditional moon cakes are usually made with bean paste, but nowadays, there are many different kinds of moon cakes including fruit, coffee, chocolate and even ice-cream moon cakes. 传统的月饼通常是用豆陷做的,但如今,月饼的种类很多,有水果的,咖啡的,巧克力 的,甚至还有冰激凌月饼。
· 基本用法 1. nowadays adv. 现今,现在 Nowadays most kids prefer watching TV to reading. 现在大多数孩子都喜欢看电视而不喜欢读书。 2. including prep. 包括,包含....(用于名词代词前); included adj. 包括在内的(一般用于名词,代词后) We all went to the Great Wall, Tom included/ including Tom. 包括汤姆,我们都去了长城。 There are fifty students in Class Two, including twenty girls. =There are fifty students in Class Two, twenty girls included. 二班共有 50 名学生,包括 20 名女生。

· 知识拓展
相关单词 include v 包括,包含 The orders included paper, pencils, ink, etc. 订单中包括了纸张、铅笔、墨水等。 My job doesn't include making coffee for the boss!

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为老板煮咖啡不是我份内的事!

词义辨析:include/contain include 强调部分,“由某些成员构成”。主语和宾语常相关,成“总--分”关系;算入,包含于...里面; The list included his name. 名单里包括他的名字。 My family includes my father, my mother and me. 我的家人包括我的爸爸、妈妈和我。 This plan included some of your suggestions. 这个计划里包括了你的一些建议。 The price includes both house and furniture. 价钱包括房子和家具在内。 contain 指容器空间里所有东西。“里面有东西”。有封闭于一个整体的感觉;盛有;里面含有..成分。 The bottle contains water. 这个瓶子里有水。 Sea water contains salt. 海水里面含盐。

There are many stories about how the Lantern Festivals started. 关于元宵节的起源有多钟传说。
· 基本用法 此句为主从复合句,how 引导的是一个介词宾语从句,在从句中充当方式状语。how 除了引导宾语从句 外,还可以引导主语从句,同位语从句及表语从句。如: How the temple was built was unknown. 这座寺庙如何建成的没有人知道。(主语从句) The problem is how we can solve the problem without her help. 问题是我们如何在没有她帮忙的情况下解决问题。 He put forward a question how we could solve the problem without her help. 他提出了一个问题,那就是我们如何在每天他帮助的情况下解决问题。

As it is in early summer, it marks the beginning of the hottest season of the year.

-- 中国首家承诺学习效果的在线教育公司 由于端午节是在初夏,它标志着一年最热季节的开始。
· 基本用法 1. 此句为主从复合句,as 引导的是原因状语从句。as 引导原因状语从句时表示附带说明的“双方已知 的原因”, 语气比 since 弱, 较为正式, 位置较为灵活(常放于主句之前)。如: As it is raining, you’d better take a taxi. 既然在下雨, 你最好乘出租汽车。 As you are tired, you had better rest. 既然累了, 你最好休息一下。 I went to bed early, as I was exhausted. 我睡得早,因为我筋疲力尽了。 2. mark vt. 做记号;标志 n.标志;符号;分数;记号

He marked his name on the stone. 他把名字刻在石头上。 War has left its mark on the country. 战争给该国留下了不可磨灭的痕迹。 He rubbed out the mark on his book. 他把他书上的记号擦掉了。

It is called zongzi, which is sticky rice in fresh bamboo leaves. 它叫粽子,是把糯米包裹在新鲜的竹叶里做成的。
· 基本用法 此句为主从复合句,which 引导的是一个非限制性定语从句,修饰先行词 zongzi,在从句中作主语。 非限制性定语从句不可以用关系代词 that 引导。

If a friend gets an invitation to a wedding, you can go with him/her, even if you don't receive an invitation yourself. 如果一个朋友收到结婚请柬,即使你没有收到,你也可以跟他/她一起去。
· 基本用法 1. invitation n. 请柬;邀请 (后面常跟介词 to 连用),an invitation to... 参加...的请柬 an invitation to the party/wedding 参加宴会/婚礼的请帖 send out invitations 发请帖 2. even if/even though 意为“即使;就算” 。 连词短语,引导让步状语从句。

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I wouldn't lose courage even if i should fail ten times. 即使要失败十次,我也绝不灰心。 He will come on time even if it rains. 即使下雨,他还是会准时来的。

· 知识拓展--含义辨析 even if/even though 与 as if/as though
even if/though 意为“虽然,即使”,引导让步状语从句。表示假设,后面跟的情况不一定真的发生,也可 能不是这样。 as if/tough 意为“好像;仿佛”,引导表语从句,方式状语从句等。用陈述语气说明事实或可能发生的事, 也可以用虚拟语气说明与事实相反的情况或不可能成为事实的情况。如: She looks as if she were ten years younger. 她看起来好像年轻了十岁。 He began to support his family even though he was just a little boy. 即使还是个小孩子,他开始养家了。

During the church ceremony, the best man should help put crowns made of flowers on the heads of the bride and bridegroom. 在教堂婚礼上,伴郎要帮助牧师把花冠戴在新郎,新娘头上。
· 基本用法 1. help (to)do sth. 帮助做某事 2. made of flowers 是过去分词短语作定语,修饰 crowns,并与 crowns 有逻辑上的动宾关系。 be made of 意为“由...做成的,制成的”,如 The desk is made of wood. 这张桌子是有木头制成的。 注意 be made of 与 be made from 的区别: be made of 是可以看出由什么材料制成,be made from 是不能直接看出由什么材料做成的。如: This book is made of paper and the paper is made from wood. 这本书是由纸做成的而纸是由木头制成的。

A long silk ribbon that links the crowns is a symbol of a long and happy life for the couple. 连接花冠的长丝带,代表着一堆新人幸福长久的生活。
· 基本用法 1. 此句为主从复合句,that 引导的是一个定语从句,修饰先行词 ribbon. that 在从句中作主语。此从句也

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可以用关系代词 which 来引导。 2. link n. 环节;联系,关系 v. 连接,连结;联合,结合;联系在一起

Strong family ties still linked them together. 强烈的家族关系仍然把他们连在一起。 3. a symbol of.....意为”...的象征,代表“, 如: Dragon is regarded as a symbol of power. 龙被看作是权力的象征。 The letter "V" is a symbol of victory. 字母“V”是胜利的象征。

After the ceremony, the guests can attend a wedding reception, which is usually a huge party and can last through the night. 婚礼仪式结束后,客人可以参加婚宴,宴会的规模通常很大,持续通宵。
· 基本用法 1. 此句为主从复合句,which 引导的是一个非限制性定语从句,修饰名词 a wedding reception,并代替 它在从句中作主语。非限制性定语从句不可以用关系代替 that 引导。 2. last 在句中作动词,意为”持续“,如: The storm lasted for a week. 暴风雨持续了一周的时间。

My sister, Alison, and I sat down in front of the fire and wrote a letter to Father Christmas telling him about all the presents we wanted. 我姐姐艾莉森和我在炉火前坐下来,给圣诞老人写一封信,告诉他我们希望得到的 所有礼物。
· 基本用法 1. telling him....是现在分词在句中作伴随状语,说明写信过程中表达出的具体内容。现在分词或分词短 语作状语时,可以表示时间,原因,结果,伴随状况等。如: In the old days, he went from door to door, begging for food. 在旧社会,他挨家挨户要饭。 (伴随状语) It rained heavily, causing severe flooding in the country. 大雨滂沱,造成了那个国家洪水泛滥。(结果状语)

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Hearing their teacher's voice, the pupils stopped talking at once. 一听到他们老师的声音,学生们立即停止了讲话。(时间) Not knowing how to work out the difficult physics problem, he asked the teacher for help. 因为不知道如何解这道物理难题,他求助于老师。 2. we wanted 是定语从句,从句中缺宾语,省略了关系代词 that, 修饰 all the presents。

We tried to stay awake as long as possible to see Father Christmas but the next thing we knew it was morning. 我们尽量不让自己入睡,想亲眼看看圣诞老人,但当我们醒来时,已经是第二天 清晨了。
· 基本用法 1. 此句为 but 连接的并列复合句。在第一个分句中不定式短语 to see Father Christmas 做目的状语。第 二个分句中,it was morning 是省略了 that 的宾语从句。 2. stay 在句中是系动词, 意为“保持, 仍然是” , stay awake 是系表结构, 意为“保持清醒; 保持醒着的”。 类似的短语还有: stay warm 保持温暖 stay still 静止不动 stay single 保持单身

3. as...as possible =as...as sb can 意为”尽可能....“ We will set off as early as possible tomorrow morning. =We will set off as early as we can tomorrow morning. 我们明天会尽早出发。

At the bottom of the bed was the stocking, now full of all kinds of small presents and sweets. 床尾的袜子里已经装满了各种各样的小礼物和糖果。
· 基本用法 1. 此句为倒装句, 句子主语为 the stocking,表示地点的副词或介词短语位于句首时(此句为 at the bottom of the bed),句子需要用全部倒装,动词 was 放在主语的前面。如: At the foot of the mountain flows a river. 山脚下流淌着一条河。 In front the house sat an old woman, recalling old days. 房前坐着一位老人,在回忆旧时光。 2. 形容词短语 full of all kinds....作定语修饰名词 the stocking。如:

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The basket full of fruits belongs to the beautiful girl. 装满水果的这个篮子是属于这个漂亮女孩的。 There was nothing big enough to weigh the elephant. 没有任何称足够大,可以称这头大象。

I put so much food in my mouth sometimes that it was hard to swallow. 我往嘴里塞满食物,有时都难以下咽。
· 基本用法 1. 此句为 so....that....结构,意为”如此...以至于....“, 引导的是结果状语从句。 2. swallow 在此句中意为"吞咽,下咽"。

· 知识拓展--词义辨析: so...that/such...that
such…that…与 so…that…都可以用来引导结果状语从句,意为“如此……以至于……”。 1. such 是形容词,它所修饰的名词可以是可数名词,也可以是不可数名词;名词前面可以带形容词, 也可以不带。如果其后是单数可数名词,前面需加不定冠词 a 或 an。因此,such…that…的句型结构可 分为以下三种: (1) such+a(n)(+adj.)+单数可数名词+that 从句。如: She is such a good teacher that all of us love and respect her. 她是一位很好的老师,我们都敬爱她。 (2)such(+adj.)+复数可数名词+that 从句。如: They are such interesting books that I want to read them once more. 这些书非常有趣,我想再读一遍。 (3)such(adj.)+不可数名词+that 从句。如: It was such bad weather that I had to stay at home. 天气太坏,以致我不得不呆在家里。

2. so 是副词,与形容词或副词连用,其结构是:so+adj.(adv.)+that 从句。 如: He ran so fast that I couldn’t catch up with him. 他跑得那么快,我赶不上他。 I am so sleepy that I can hardly keep my eyes open. 我太瞌睡了,眼睛几乎睁不开了。 注意:当名词前面有 many,much,few,little 等表示数量多少的限定词时, 应该用 so,而不能用 such。

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There were so many people in the street watching the fire that firefighters could not get close to the building. 街上围观大火的人太多了,消防队员无法靠近大楼。 3. 当单数名词前有形容词时,既可用 so,也可用 such,但不定冠词的位置却 有所不同。如: This is such an important meeting that you should attend it. =This is so important a meeting that you should attend it. 这是一次很重要的会议,你一定要参加。
After lunch, the adults slept on the sofas in front of the Queen's speech on television while we all played cards. 午饭后,我们打牌,大人们则躺在沙发上,聆听女王的电视讲话。
· 基本用法 while 作并列连词,表示两个动作的对比,译为“而”“然而”。这样用时, while 引出的句子通常位于末,但 有 时也可位于句首,如: While most children learn to read easily, some need extra help. 大多数儿童学会阅读很容易,有一些儿童却需要特别帮助。 While his mother was cooking in the kitchen, the boy fell asleep in the chair. 妈妈在厨房做饭,那个男孩则在椅子上睡着了。 I went swimming while the others played tennis. 我去游泳,而其余的人则去打网球了。 Some people waste food while others haven’t enough. 一些人糟踏食物而另一些人却食不果腹。

A big turkey with all the vegetables followed by Christmas pudding. 配有各种蔬菜的大火鸡,然后是圣诞布丁。 Then we had tea, with a huge Christmas cake covered with snowman. 然后我们喝茶,吃上面带有雪人的圣诞大蛋糕。
· 基本用法 1. 句中的 with all the vegetables followed...和 with a huge Christmas cake covered with snowman 是 ”with+名词+过去分词“的复合结构,过去分词和 with 后面的名词有逻辑上的动宾关系,with 复合结构

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在句中作伴随状语。 The boy rushed into the room,with his face covered with sweat. 那小孩满脸是汗冲进屋来。(伴随状语) With the work done, he went home. 工作做完后,他回家了。(时间状语)

· 知识拓展
with 复合结构的几种情况: with +宾语(名词/代词)+ doing 表示进行或已完成 with +宾语(名词/代词)+ done 表示被动或完成

with +宾语(名词/代词)+ to do 表示还未发生 with +宾语(名词/代词)+ 介词短语 表示位置或状态 with +宾语(名词/代词)+ 形容词 表示状态 with +宾语(名词/代词)+ 副词 表示状态

Don't sleep with the door and windows open. 不要开着门窗睡觉。 She saw a small river with green grass and red flowers on both sides. 她看到一条小河,两岸都是红花绿草。 With all the work finished, they hurried back home for lunch. 所有的工作都已经完成了,他们匆忙回家吃饭。 With the boy leading the way, we had no trouble in getting to the station. 有这个男孩带路,我们毫无困难地到达了车站。 With many things to deal with, I have to stop listening to music. 有许多事情要处理,我只好不听音乐了。 (注:复合结构中,若含有将来的含义,不定式用主动表被动意义)

三、重点语法 被动语态(I)

· 基本用法 1. 被动语态的概念

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语态也是动词的一种形式,表示主语与谓语之间的关系。英语有两种语态:主 动语态和被动语态。主动 语态表示主语是谓语动作的执行者,如: People grew rice in this area some years ago. 被动语态表示主语是谓语动作的承受者,如: A new swimming pool will be built on our school.

2. 被动语态的使用时机 被动语态的使用往往不是任意的,而是按照表达思想,描述事物的需要,通常 在下列情况下使用被动语态。 1. 不知道或不必说出动作的执行者。 This book has been translated into many languages. 这本书已被翻译成许多种语言。 2. 动作的对象是谈话的中心。 A new railway will be built in our hometown. 我们家乡将建一条新铁路。 3. 修辞的需要,为了使句子更加简练匀称。 He appeared on the stage and was warmly applauded by the audience. 他出现在舞台上受到了观众的热烈欢迎。 注:被动语态便于论述客观事实,故常用于科技文章,新闻报道,书刊介绍及 景物描写。
3. 被动语态的构成

被动语态的形式是由“助动词 be+动词的过去分词”构成。助动词 be 随着主 语的人称、数、时态和语气的 不同而变化。各种时态的被动语态形式如下: 1. 一般现在时 am/is/are+V(p.p) Electricity is used to run machines. 人们利用电能运转机器。 2. 一般过去时 was/were + V(p.p) Many trees were planted on the hill yesterday. 昨天我们在山坡上种了许多树。

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3. 一般将来时 will/shall +be+V(p.p) A sports meeting will be held next week. 下星期我们将举行一场运动会。 4. 过去将来时 should/would +be+V(p.p) We were told that a big reservoir would be built in his hometown. 他告诉我们人们将在他家乡建一个大水坝。 5. 现在进行时 am/is/are +being+V(p.p) A house is being painted. 他正在油漆房子。 6. 过去进行时 was/were +being+V(p.p) A cake was being made when I came into the kitchen. 当我进厨房时,她正在做蛋糕。 7. 现在完成时 have/has +been+V(p.p) His work has been finished. 他的工作已经结束了。 8. 过去完成时 had +been+V(p.p) The book had been translated into English by the end of last month. 到上个月为止,这本书已经被翻译成了英语。 9. 将来完成时 will have +been+V(p.p) 2,000 words will have been learned by the end of next year. 到明年年底的时候,将有 1000 个单词被学习。 注:含有情态动词的谓语变成被动语态时,用“情态动词+be+V(p.p)”构成。 如: The machine must be operated with care. 这台机器必须小心操作。
情态动词:have to,should,can 及 ought to
· 基本用法 have to have to 是一个比较特殊的情态习语,虽然也具有情态动词的功能,但却与其他的情态动词 不同。它有人称、数和时态的变化,其否定式和疑问式的构成方式也与情态动词不一样。在使用 have to 时必须弄清它的真面目,否则容易出错。

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1. have to 与其他情态动词一样也是后接动词原形,表示外界的强制作用,强调被迫性。含有不情愿的色 彩,常译为 “必须,不得不”。 2. have to 可用于多种时态,而且不同时态使用不同的形式:一般现在时中,主语为第三人称单数时用 has to ;一般过去时中,用 had to。 have to 还可以用在其他的情态动词之后。例如: I have to do some washing. 我必须洗洗衣服。 She has to look after her little sister. 她不得不照顾她的小妹妹。 I had to do my homework last night. 昨晚我不得不做作业。 3. have to 的否定式和疑问式一般要借用助动词 do 的适当形式构成。have to 的否定式是 don’t have to; has to 的否定式是 doesn’t have to; had to 的否定式是 didn’t have to。have to 的疑问式 同样也借用助动词 do 的相应形式构成。例如: He doesn’t have to do the homework now. 他没有必要现在做作业。 —Do I have to go there now? 我现在就得去那儿吗? —Yes, you do. /No, you don’t have to. 是的,你必须去。/不,你不必。 We didn’t have to answer the question yesterday. 昨天我们没有必要回答这个问题。

can 1. 表示能力(如体力和脑力方面),意为“能;会”等。例如: Can you speak English? 你会讲英语吗? Can you play the piano? 你会弹钢琴吗? 2. 表示请求或允许,多用在口语中,意为“可以;能”等。用于疑问句中用 来提出要求,用于否定句 表示不允许。例如:

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Can I help you? 我能帮助你吗? You can’t play basketball. 你不能玩篮球。 Can you...?“请你??好吗?”表示说话人的请求;Can I...?“我可 以??吗?”用来征求对方是否允许 自己做某事。如在句末加上 please 一词就显得更有礼貌了。例如: Can you help me, please? 请你帮助我好吗? 3. 表示可能。例如: He can be at home now. 他现在可能在家。 The moon can’t always be full. 月亮不可能常圆。 4. 表示怀疑。 在表达此意时, 只能用于一般疑问句中, 带有感情色彩。 例如: Can it be true? 那会是真的吗? 注意:can 的句式变化如下: 1. 在变否定句时,直接在我后加上“not”,可缩写成 can’t 或 cannot, 但 不能写成 cann’t。例如: He can swim. → He can’t swim. Emma can see the pen on the desk.→ Emma cannot see the pen on the desk. 2. 在变一般疑问句时,把我直接移到主语前(原主语的首字母改成小写,第 一人称应变为第二人称) 即可。例如: I can see an orange on the table. → Can you see an orange on the table? 其回答可用 Yes, OK 或 Certainly 等作肯定回答;用 No 或 Sorry 等作否定回 答。例如: —Can you look after my books, please? 你能照看一下我的书吗? —OK.

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可以。

ought to 1. ought 没有人称或时态的变化, 后跟带 to 的不定式。 常译作“应该”, “应 当”等,和 should 同义,只是 口气稍重一些。其否定式为 ought not to (oughtn't to ),疑问式为 Ought I /you to?? You ought to start at once. 你应该立刻出发。 Such things ought not to be done. 这种事不应该干。 --Ought he to go? 他应该走了? --Yes, he ought to. 是的,应该走了。 2. 表可能性 Mary ought to be home by now. 玛丽这会儿该是到家了。 There is a fine sunset. It ought to be a fine day tomorrow. 今天有晚霞,明天应该是个好天。 It ought to be a fine day tomorrow morning. 明天旱晨大概是个好天气。 3. 表示没有履行过去的义务时,用“ought to +完成时。 You ought to have told me about this earlier.(But you didn't) 你本来应该早一点把此事告诉我。(但没有) I ought to have written that letter yesterday.(But I didn't) 我本应该昨天写那封信。(但我没写) It ought to have been done long ago.这事早该做完的。

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