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2014高一句子成分新课练习题


鸿途辅导 2014 暑期 新高一

句子成分与五种基本句型

3. He fell asleep. 4. Everything looks different.

什么叫句子成分呢?句子的组成成分叫句子成 5. He is growing tall and strong. 分。在句子中,词与词之间有一定的组合关系,按 6. The trouble is that they are short of money. 7. Our well has gone dry.

照不同的关系,可以把句子分为不同的组成成分。 8. His face turned red. 句子成分由词或词组充当。现代汉语里一般的句子 成分有六种,即主语、谓语、宾语、定语、状语和 补语。英语的基本成分有七种:主语(subject)、谓语 动词都能表达完整的意思。这类动词叫做不及物动 (predicate) 、表语 (predicative) 、宾语 (object) 、定语 词,后面可以跟副词、介词短语、状语从句等。 (attribute)、状语(adverbial) 和补语(complement)。 英语句子的基本结构可以归纳成五种基本句型 1. The sun was shining. 及其扩大、组合、省略或倒装。掌握这五种基本句 型,是掌握各种英语句子结构的基础。 2. The moon rose. 3. The universe remains. 4. We all breathe, eat, and drink. 5. Who cares?

基本句型② : S + V(vi.) 主+谓
此句型的句子有一个共同特点,即句子的谓语

基本句型① : S + V + P 主+系+表

6. What he said does not matter.

此句型的句子有一个共同的特点:句子谓语动 7. They talked for half an hour. 词都不能表达一个完整的意思,必须加上一个表明 主语身份或状态的表语构成复合谓语,才能表达完 整的意思。这类动词叫做连系动词。系动词分两类: 8. The pen writes smoothly.

基本句型③ : S + V(vt.) + O 主+谓+宾
此句型句子的共同特点是:谓语动词都具有实

be, look, keep, seem 等属一类,表示情况;get, grow, 义,都是主语产生的动作,但不能表达完整的意思, become, turn 等属另一类,表示变化。be 本身没有 必须跟有一个宾语,即动作的承受者,才能使意思 什么意义,只起连系主语和表语的作用。其它系动词 完整。这类动词叫做及物动词。宾语位于及物动词 仍保持其部分词义。 1. This is an English-Chinese dictionary. 2. The dinner smells good. 之后,一般同主语构成一样,不同的是构成宾语的 代词必须是‘代词宾格’,如:me,him,them 等 1. Who knows the answer?
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鸿途辅导 2014 暑期 新高一

2. She smiled her thanks. 3. He has refused to help them. 4. He enjoys reading. 5. They ate what was left over. 6. He said "Good morning." 7. I want to have a cup of tea. 8. He admits that he was mistaken.

6. I gave my car a wash. 7. I told him that the bus was late. 8. He showed me how to run the machine.

基本句型⑤ : S + V(vt.) + O + OC 主+谓+宾+宾补
此句型的句子的共同特点是:动词虽然是及物 动词,但是只跟一个宾语还不能表达完整的意思, 必须加上一个补充成分来补足宾语,才能使意思完

基本句型④ : S + V(vt.) + IO + DO 主+谓+间宾+直宾

有些及物动词可以有两个宾语,如:give 给, 整。 pass 递,bring 带,show 显示。这两个宾语通常一个 宾语补足语:位于宾语之后对宾语作出说明的

指人,为间接宾语;一个指物,为直接宾语。间接 成分。宾语与其补足语有逻辑上的主谓关系,它们 宾语一般位于直接宾语之前。 一般的顺序为:动词 一起构成复合宾语。 + 间接宾语 + 直接宾语。 如:Give me a cup of tea,please. 名词/代词宾格 + 名词 The war made him a soldier./战争使他成为一名战士.

强调间接宾语顺序为: 动词 + 直接宾语 +介词+ 间 名词/代词宾格 + 形容词 接宾语。 如:Show this house to Mr.Smith. New methods make the job easy./新方法使这项工作 变得轻松.

若直接宾语为人称代词:动词+ 代词直接宾语 +介 名词/代词宾格 + 介词短语 词+ 间接宾语。 如:Bring it to me,please. 1. She ordered herself a new dress. 2. She cooked her husband a delicious meal. 3. He brought you a dictionary. 4. He denies her nothing. 5. I showed him my pictures.
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I often find him at work./我经常发现他在工作. 名词/代词宾格 + 动词不定式 The teacher ask the students to close the windows./老 师让学生们关上窗户. 名词/代词宾格 + 分词 I saw a cat running across the road./我看见一只

鸿途辅导 2014 暑期 新高一

猫跑过了马路. 1. They appointed him manager. 2. They painted the door green. 3. This set them thinking. 4. They found the house deserted. 5. What makes him think so? 6. We saw him out. 7. He asked me to come back soon. 8. I saw them getting on the bus.

blue 修饰名词 pen.)/小男孩需要一支兰色的钢笔。 Tom is a handsome boy./Tom 是个英俊的男孩。 There is a good boy./有个乖男孩。 数词作定语相当于形容词: Two boys need two pens./两个男孩需要两支钢笔。 The two boys are students./这两个男孩是学生。 There are two boys in the room./房间里有两个男孩。 代词或名词所有格作定语:

但常用的英语句子并不都象基本句型这样简 His boy needs Tom\'s pen./他的男孩需要 Tom 的钢笔。 短,这些句子除了基本句型的成分不变外,通常是 His name is Tom./他的名字是汤姆。 在这些成分的前面或后面增加一些修饰语 (modifier) There are two boys of Toms there./那儿有 Tom 家的两 而加以扩大。 这些修饰语可以是单词(主要是形容词、 个男孩。 副词和数词), 也可以是各种类型的短语(主要是介词 介词短语作定语: 短语、不定式短语和分词短语)。我们称之为:定语、 The boy in the classroom needs a pen of yours./教室里 状语 的男孩需要你的一支钢笔。 The boy in blue is Tom./穿兰色衣服的孩子是汤姆。 There are two boys of 9,and three of 10./有两个 9 岁 的,三个 10 岁的男孩。 或句子,汉语中常用‘……的’表示。定语通常位于被 名词作定语: 修饰的成分前。 若修饰 some, any, every, no 构成的复 The boy needs a ball pen./男孩需要一支圆珠笔。 合不定代词时,(如:something,nothing);或不定式、 It is a ball pen./这是一支圆珠笔。 分词短语作定语、从句作定语时,则定语通常置后。 There is only one ball pen in the pencil box./这铅笔盒 副词用作定语时须放在名词之后。 里只有一支圆珠笔。 形容词作定语: 副词作定语: The little boy needs a blue pen.(little 修饰名词 boy;
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一、定语:
定语是对名词或代词起修饰、限定作用的词、短语

鸿途辅导 2014 暑期 新高一

The boy there needs a pen./那儿的男孩需要一支钢 因果、条件、时间、地点、让步、方向、程度、目 笔。 The best boy here is Tom./这里最棒的男孩是 Tom。 不定式作定语: 的等。 状语在句子中的位置很灵活,常见情况为:通 常在句子基本结构之后,强调时放在句首;修饰形

The boy to write this letter needs a pen./写这封信的男 容词或副词时,通常位于被修饰的词之前;表示时 孩需要一支钢笔。 间、地点、目的的状语一般位于句子两头,强调时

The boy to write this letter is Tom./将要写这封信的男 放在句首,地点状语一般须在时间状语之前;一些 孩是汤姆。 There is nothing to do today./今天无事要做。 分词(短语)作定语: The smiling boy needs a pen bought by his mother./那 个微笑的男孩需要一支他妈妈买的钢笔。 表示不确定时间(如:often)或程度(如:almost) 的副词状语通常位于 be 动词、助动词、情态动词之 后,动词之前。 有时状语在句中的某个位置会引起歧义,应注 意,如:The boy calls the girl in the classroom.一般理

The pen bought by her is made in China./她买的笔是 解成‘男孩喊教室里的女孩( ‘ 此时 in the classroom 为 中国产的。 There are five boys left./有五个留下的男孩。 定语从句: The boy who is reading needs the pen which you girl 的定语) ,也可以理解为 ‘男孩在教室里喊女孩’ (此时 in the classroom 为地点状语) ,最好写作‘In the classroom,the boy calls the girl.\' 副词(短语)作状语:

bought yesterday./那个在阅读的男孩需要你昨天买的 The boy needs a pen very much./男孩非常需要一支钢 钢笔。 The boy you will know is Tom./你将认识的男孩叫汤 姆。 长则状语前置) There are five boys who will play the game./参加游戏 The boy really needs a pen./男孩真的需要一支钢笔。 的男孩有五个。 笔。 (程度状语) The boy needs very much the pen bought by his mother./男孩非常需要他母亲买的那支钢笔。 (宾语较

二、状语:

(程度状语) The boy needs a pen now./Now,the boy needs a

状语修饰动词、形容词、副词或全句,说明方式、 pen./The boy,now,needs a pen./男孩现在需要一支钢
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鸿途辅导 2014 暑期 新高一

笔。 (时间状语) 介词短语作状语:In the classroom,the boy needs a pen./在教室里,男孩需要一支钢笔。 (地点状语)

、比较状语从句、让步状语从句、条件状语从句

三、同位语:
同位语是在名词或代词之后并列名词或代词对前者

Before his mother,Tom is always a boy./在母亲面前,汤 加以说明的成分,近乎于后置定语。如: 姆总是一个男孩子.(条件状语) We students should study hard. / (students 是 we 的同

On Sundays,there is no student in the classroom./星期 位语,都是指同一批‘学生’) 天,教室里没有学生.(时间状语) 分词(短语)作状语: He sits there,asking for a pen./他坐在那儿要一支笔。 (表示伴随状态) We all are students. / (all 是 we 的同位语, 都指同样的 ‘我们’)

Exercises
A. 指出下列句中主语的中心词

Having to finish his homework,the boy needs a pen./因 ① The teacher with two of his students is walking into 为不得不完成作业,男孩需要一支笔。 (原因状语) the classroom. ②There is an old man coming here.

Frightened,he sits there soundlessly./ (因为) 受了惊吓, ③ The useful dictionary was given by my mother last 他无声地坐在那儿。 (原因状语) 不定式作状语: The boy needs a pen to do his homework./男孩需要一 支笔写家庭作业。 (目的状语) year. ④ To do today's homework without the teacher's help is very difficult. B. 选出句中谓语的中心词 ① I don't like the picture on the wall.

To make his dream come true,Tom becomes very ②The days get longer and longer when summer comes. interested in business./为实现梦想,汤姆变得对商业很 ③ Do you usually go to school by bus? 有兴趣. 名词作状语: Come this way!/走这条路! (方向状语) 状语从句: 时间状语从句、地点状语从句、原因状语从句、结 果状语从句、目的状语从句
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④There will be a meeting at the library this afternoon. ⑤ Did the twins have porridge for their breakfast? ⑥Tom didn't do his homework yesterday. ⑦What I want to tell you is this. ⑧We had better send for a doctor. ⑨ He is interested in music. ⑩Whom did you give my book to?

鸿途辅导 2014 暑期 新高一

C. 挑出下列句中的表语 ①The old man was feeling very tired. ②Why is he worried about Jim? ③The leaves have turned yellow. ④Soon They all became interested in the subject. ⑤She was the first to learn about it. D. 挑出下列句中的宾语 ①My brother hasn't done his homework. ②People all over the world speak English. ③You must pay good attention to your pronunciation. ④How many new words did you learn last class?

⑤ I saw Mr Wang get on the bus. ⑥ Did you see Li Ming playing football on the playground just now? G. 挑出下列句中的定语 ①They use Mr, Mrs with the family name. ②What is your given name? ③ On the third lap are Class 1 and Class 3. ④ I am afraid some people forgot to sweep the floor. ⑤The man downstairs was trying to sleep. ⑥ I am waiting for the sound of the other shoe! H. 挑出下列句中的状语

⑤ Some of the students in the school want to go ①There was a big smile on her face. swimming, how about you? ⑥The old man sitting at the gate said he was ill. ⑦They made him monitor of the class. ② Every night he heard the noise upstairs. ③ He began to learn English when he was eleven. ④The man on the motorbike was travelling too fast.

⑧ Go across the bridge and you will find the museum ⑤ With the medicine box under her arm, Miss Li on the left. ⑨You will find it useful after you leave school. ⑩They didn't know who "Father Christmas" really is. E. 划出句中的直接宾语和间接宾语 ①Please tell us a story. ②My father bought a new bike for me last week. ③Mr Li is going to teach us history next term. ④Here is a pen.Give it to Tom. ⑤Did he leave any message for me? F. 挑出下列句中的宾语补足语 hurried off. ⑥ She loves the library because she loves books. ⑦ I am afraid that if you've lost it, you must pay for it. ⑧ The students followed Uncle Wang to see the other machine.

Homework
指出下列句子中划线部分的句子成分,并写出所属基

① She likes the children to read newspapers and books 本句型。 in the reading-room. ②He asked her to take the boy out of school. ③She found it difficult to do the work. ④They call me Lily sometimes. 1.Whether we’ll go depend on the weather . 2. People’s standards of living are going up steadily . 3. That was how they were defeated. 4.The nursery takes good care of our children.
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鸿途辅导 2014 暑期 新高一

5.I’ll return the book to you tomorrow . 6.We are sure that we shall succeed. 7.The woman with a baby in her arms is his other . 8.There are many film that I’d like to see. 9.Have you met the person about whom he was speaking? 10.I have a lot of work to do. 11. Anyway I won’t stop you from doing it . 12. I said it in fun. 13. We can send a car over to fetch you. 14. She had to work standing up. 15. Seeing this, some comrades became very worried . 16. Much interested, he agreed to give it a try . 17. The bus arrived ten minutes late. 18. We should serve the people heart and soul. 19. Spring coming on, the tree turned green . 20. Some farmers saw something strange in the sky . 21. We think it necessary that everyone should attend the meeting. 22. It’s strange that she doesn’t come today. 23. It was in the library that I come today . 24. He likes drawing at times when he isn’t working . 25. We left in such a hurry that we forgot to lock the door.

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