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【名师点睛】 一、名词的数 1.单数和复数 可数名词有单数和复数两种形式。复数形式通常是在单数形式后加词尾―-s‖构 成,其主要变法如下: (1)一般情况在词尾加-s,例如:book→books,girl→girls,boy→boys, pen→pens,doctor→doctors, boy→bo

ys。 (2)以 s,x,ch,sh,结尾的词加-es,例如:bus→buses,class→classes box→boxes,watch→watches,brush→brushes。 (3)以 ce, se, ze,(d)ge 结尾的名词加 s,例如:orange—oranges。 (4)以辅音母加 y 结尾的词变―y‖为―i‖再加-es,例如:city→cities, factory→factories, country→countries, family→families。但要注意的是以 元音字母加 y 结尾的名词的复数形式只加 s,如:boy→boys, day→days。 (5)以 o 结尾的词多数都加-es。例如:hero→heroes,potato→potatoes, tomato→tomatoes,但词末为两个元音字母的词只加-s。例如:zoo→zoos, radio→radios,还有某些外来词也只加-s,例如:photo→photos, piano→pianos。 (6)以 f 或 fe 结尾的词, 多数变 f 为 v 再加-es, 例如: knife→knives, leaf→leaves, half→halves。 复数词尾 s(或 es)的读音方法如下表所示。 复数词尾 s(或 es)的读音方法



在[p][t][k][f]等清辅音后 在[s][z][t][d3][F]等音后

[s] cups, hats, cakes glasses, pages, oranges, [iz] buses, watches,faces


[z] beds, dogs, cities, knives

(7)少数名词有不规则的复数形式,例如:man→men,woman→women, tooth→teeth,foot→feet,child→children,mouse→mice。 【注意】与 man 和 woman 构成的合成词,其复数形式也是-men 和-women。 例如:an Englishman,two Englishmen。但 German 不是合成词,故复数形式为 Germans; man, woman 等作定语时, 它的单复数以其所修饰的名词的单复数而定, 如:men workers, women teachers。

有个别名词单复数一样,例如:Chinese,Japanese,sheep,deer,fish 等。 但当 fish 表示不同种类的鱼时,可以加复数词尾。 (8)单数形式但其意为复数的名词有:people, police 等。 (9) 数词+名词作定语时, 这个名词一般保留单数形式, 中间加连字符。 例如 an 8-year-old girl, a ten-mile walk。 (10)还有些名词仅有复数形式,如:trousers,clothes,chopsticks,glasses, goods,ashes,scissors,compasses。 (11)只用作单数的复数形式的名词有: 科学名词:physics, mathematics/maths 游戏名称:bowls 专有名词:the United States, Niagara Falls 其他名词:news, falls 2.不可数名词―量‖的表示方法 在英语中,不可数名词如果要表示―量的概念‖,可以用以下两种方法: (1)用 much, a little, a lot of/lots of, some, any 等表示多少,例如: The rich man has a lot of money. There is some milk in the bottle. Is there any water in the glass? I don't like winter because there's too much snow and ice.


(2)用 a piece of 这类定语,例如: a piece of paper a piece of wood a piece of bread a bottle of orange a glass of water(milk) a cup of tea a cup of tea a bag of rice three bags of rice 如果要表示―两杯茶‖、―四张纸‖这类概念时,在容器后加复数,例如: two cups of tea four pieces of paper three glasses of water 不可数名词也可用 a lot of, lots of, some, any, much 等来修饰。 二、名词的所有格 名词所有格,用来表示人或物的所有,以及领属关系。 1. 表示有生命的名词的所有格其单数形式是加 's,其复数形式是 s',例如:a student's room, students' rooms, father's shoes。 2. 如其结尾不是 s 的复数形式仍加 's,如:Children's Day。 3. 在表示时间、距离、长度、重量、价格、世界、国家等名词的所有格要用 's, 例如:a twenty minutes' walk,ten miles' journey,a boat's length,two pounds' weight, ten dollars' worth。 4. 无生命名词的所有格则必须用 of 结构,例如:a map of China,the end of this term,the capital of our country, the color of the flowers。 5. 双重所有格,例如:a friend of my father's。 【注意】 如果两个名词并列, 并且分别有 's, 则表示―分别有‖, 例如: John's and Mary's rooms(约翰和玛丽各有一间,共两间);Tom's and Mary's bikes(两人各自的 自行车)。 两个名词并列, 只有一个's, 则表示―共有‖, 例如: John and Mary's room (约 翰和玛丽共有一间);Tom and Mary's mother(即 Tom 与 Mary 是兄妹)。 【演练】 1.--- Where have you been, Tim? --- I’ve been to ______. A. the Henry house B. the Henry family

C. The Henry’s home

D. Henry’s

2. England, if ____ is in the middle of the day, the evening meal is called supper. In A. food B. lunch C. breakfast D. dinner

3.You looked for it twice, but you haven’t found it. Why not try ____ . A. three times B. a third time C. the third time D. once

4.--- They are thirsty. Will you please give them ______ ? --- Certainly. A. some bottles of waters C. some bottle of water B. some bottles of water D. some bottle of waters

5.Mike hurt one of his ______ in the accident yesterday. A. tooth B. feet C. hand D. ear

6.There is some _______ on the plate. A. cakes B. meat C. potato D. pears

7.In England, the last name is the _______ . A. family name B. middle C. given name D. full name

8.They are going to fly _______ to Beijing. A. Germen B. Germany C. Germanys D. Germans

9.The______ has two _______ . A. boys; watches B. boy; watch C. boy; watches D. boys; watch

10.The little baby has two _______ already. A. tooth B. tooths C. teeth D. teeths

11.What’s your _______ for being late again? A. idea B. key C. excuse D. news

12.--- It’s dangerous here. We’d better go out quickly. --- But I think we should let _______ go out first. A. woman and children C. woman and child B. women and child D. women and children

13.--- You can see Mr. Smith if there is a sign ―_______ ‖on the door of his shop. --- Thanks. A.ENTRANCE B.BUSINESS HOURS



14.Are they going to have a picnic on _______ ? A. Children’s Day C. Childrens Day B. Childrens’s Day D. Children Day

15.Where are the students? Are they in _______ ? A. the Room 406 【练习答案】 1.D 2.B 3.B 4.B 5.B 6.B 7.A 8.D 9.C 10.C 11.C 12.D 13.B 14.A 15.B B. Room 406 C. the 406 Room D. 406 Room

【名师点睛】 1. 形容词的用法 (1) 形容词在句中作定语, 表语, 宾语补足语。 例如: Our country is a beautiful country. (作定语) The fish went bad. (作表语) We keep our classroom clean and tidy. (作宾语补足语) (2) 形容词修饰something, anything, nothing, everything等不定代词时,形容词 放在名词后面。 I have something important to tell you. Is there anything interesting in the film. (3) 用 and 或 or 连接起来的两个形容词作定语时一般把它们放在被修饰的名 词后面。起进一步解释的作用。 Everybody, man and woman, old and young, should attend the meeting. You can take any box away, big or small. (4) the+形容词表示一类人或物 The rich should help the poor. 2. 副词的用法

(1) 副词在句中可作状语,表语和定语。 He studies very hard. Life here is full of joy. (作状语) (作定语)

When will you be back? (作表语) 副词按其用途和含义可分为下面五类: 1)时间副词 时 间 副 词 通 常 用 来 表示 动 作 的 时 间 。 常 见的 时 间 副 词 有 : now today, tomorrow, yesterday, before, late, early, never, seldom, sometimes, often, usually, always 等。例如: He often comes to school late. What are we going to do tomorrow? He is never been to Beijing. 2)地点副词 地点副词通常用来表示动作发生的地点。常见的地点副词有:here, there, inside, outside, home, upstairs, downstairs, anywhere, everywhere, nowhere, somewhere, down, up, off, on, in, out 等。例如: I met an old friend of mine on my way home. He went upstairs. Put down your name here. 3)方式副词 方式副词一般都是回答―怎样的?‖这类问题的, 其中绝大部分都是由一个形 容词加词尾-ly 构成的, 有少数方式副词不带词尾-ly, 它们与形容词同形。 常 见 的 方 式 副词 有 : anxiously, badly, bravely, calmly, carefully, proudly, rapidly, suddenly, successfully, angrily, happily, slowly, warmly, well, fast, slow, quick, hard, alone, high, straight, wide 等。例如: The old man walked home slowly. Please listen to the teacher carefully. The birds are flying high. He runs very fast.


4)程度副词 程度副词多数用来修饰形容词和副词, 有少数用来修饰动词或介词短语。 常 见的程度副词有:much, (a) little, a bit, very, so, too, enough, quite, rather, pretty, greatly, completely, nearly, almost, deeply, hardly, partly 等。例如: Her pronunciation is very good. She sings quite well. I can hardly agree with you. 5)疑问副词是用来引导特殊疑问句的副词。常见的疑问副词有:how, when, where, why 等。例如: How are you getting along with your studies? Where were you yesterday? Why did you do that? (2)副词在句中的位置 1)多数副词作状语时放在动词之后。如果动词带有宾语,则放在宾语之后。 例如: Mr Smith works very hard. She speaks English well. 2)频度副词作状语时,通常放在行为动词之前,情态动词,助动词和 be 动词 之后。例如: He usually gets up early. I’ve never heard him singing. She is seldom ill. 3)程度副词一般放在所修饰的形容词和副词的前面, 但 enough 作副词用时, 通常放在被修饰词的后面。例如: It is a rather difficult job. He runs very fast. He didn’t work hard enough. 4)副词作定语时,一般放在被修饰的名词之后。例如: On my way home, I met my uncle. The students there have a lot time to do their own research work.

(3)部分常用副词的用法 1) very, much 这两个副词都可表示―很‖,但用法不同。Very 用来修饰形容词和副词 的原级,而 much 用来修饰形容词和副词的比较级。例如: She is a very nice girl I’m feeling much better now. Much 可以修饰动词,而 very 则不能。例如: I don’t like the idea much. They did not talk much. 2) too, either 这两个副词都表示―也‖, too 用于肯定句, 但 either 用于否定句。 例如: She can dance, and I can dance, too. I haven’t read the book and my brother hasn’t either. 3) already, yet already 一般用于语肯定句,yet 一般用于否定句。例如: He has already left. Have you heard from him yet? He hasn’t answered yet. 4) so, neither so 和 neither 都可用于倒装句, 但 so 表示肯定,neither 表示否定。 例如: My brother likes football and so do I. My brother doesn’t like dancing and neither do I. 3. 形容词和副词的比较级和最高级 (1) 两个人或事物的比较时(不一定每一方只有一个人或一个事物),用比较级。 Our teacher is taller than we are. The boys in her class are taller than the boys in your class. (2) most 同形容词连用而不用 the,表示 "极,很,非常, 十分"。 It's most dangerous to be here.


在这儿太危险。 (3)―The+形容词比较级..., the+形容词比较级...‖表示―越... 就越...‖。 The more you study, the more you know. (4) ―形容词比较级 + and + 形容词比较级‖, 表示 ― 越来越...‖。 It's getting hotter and hotter. (5) 主语+谓语(系动词)+as+形容词原形+as+从句。表示两者对比相同。 This box is as big as mine. (6) the + 形容词,表示某种人。 He always helps the poor. (7) 形容词和副词最高级用于三个或三个以上的人和物进行比较。 Shanghai is one of the biggest cities in China. 【演练】 1.There are many young trees on A. every B. each sides of the road. C. both D. all

2.--- It’s so cold today. --- Yes, it’s A. more cold 3.Little Tom has A. more 4.She isn’t so A. well 5.Peter writes A. better 6.He is than it was yesterday. B. more colder C. much colder D. cold

friends, so he often plays alone. B. a little at maths as you are. B. good of the three. B. best C. good D. well C. better D. best C. many D. few

enough to carry the heavy box. B. much stronger exercise-books with C. strong money. B. a few; a little D. a little; a little carry. C. so; that

A. stronger 7.I bought

D. the strongest

A. a few; a few C. a little; a few 8.The box is A. too; to heavy for the girl B. to; too

D. no; to

9.The ice in the lake is about one meter A. long 10.Wu Lin ran A. so B. high

. It’s strong enough to skate on. D. wide

C. thick

faster than the other boys in the sports meeting. B. much C. very D. too

11. Jone looks so _______ today because she has got an ―A‖ in her maths test. A. happy B. happily C. angry D. angrily 12. The smile on my father’s face showed that he was ______ with me. A. sad B. pleased C. angry D. sorry

13. ---Mum, could you buy me a dress like this? ---Certainly, we can buy ______ one than this, but ______ this. A. a better; better than C. a cheaper; as good as B. a worse; as good as D. a more important; good as

14. ---This digital camera is really cheap! ---The ______ the better. I’m short of money, you see. A. cheap B. cheaper C. expensive D. more expensive

15. If you want to learn English well, you must use it as _______ as possible. A. often B. long C. hard D. soon

16. Paul has ______ friends except me, and sometimes he feels lonely. A. many B. some C. few D. more

17. English people _____ use Mr. Before a man’s first name. A. never B. usually C. often D. sometimes

18. ---One more satellite was sent up into space in China in May. ---Right. The government spoke ______ that. A. highly for C. well of B. high of D. highly of

19. ---Remember this, children. ______ careful you are, ______ mistakes you will make. ---We know, Miss Gao. A. The more; the more C. The more; the fewer B. The fewer; the more D. The less; the less
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20. I have ________ to do today. A. anything important C. important nothing 【练习答案】 1.C 2.C 3.D 4.B 5.B 6.C 7.B 8.A 9.C 10.B 11.A 12.B 13.C 14.B 15.A 16.C 17.A 18.D 19.C 20.B B. something important D. important something

1.动词的时态 英语时态用共有十六种时态,其中常用的有8种,它们是:一般现在时、一般 过去时、一般将来时、现在进行时、现在完成时、过去进行时、过去完成时和过 去将来时。 (1)一般现在时的基本用法 1) 经常性或习惯性的动作,常与表示频度的时间状语连用。 时间状语: every…, sometimes, at…, on Sunday

I leave home for school at 7 every morning. 2) 客观真理,客观存在,科学事实。 The earth moves around the sun. Shanghai lies in the east of China. 3) 表示格言或警句中。 Pride goes before a fall. 【注意】此用法如果出现在宾语从句中,即使主句是过去时,从句谓语也要用一 般现在时。 例:Columbus proved that the earth is round.. 4) 现在时刻的状态、能力、性格、个性。 I don't want so much. 5) 某些动词如 come, go, move, stop, leave, arrive, be, finish, continue, start
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等,在一般现在时句中可用来表示将来肯定会发生的动作。 The train comes at 3 o'clock. 6) 在时间状语从句或条件状语从句中,一般现在时代替一般将来时。 I'll help you as soon as you have problem. Tell Xiao Li about it if you meet him. (2)一般过去时的用法: 表示过去某一时刻或某一段时间内所发生的动作或情况,通常一般过去式带 有表示动作时间状语的词, 词组或从句,如 yesterday, the day before last, last week, two days ago 等,上下文清楚时可以不带时间状语。 I worked in that factory last year. 【注意】 1) 过去经常反复发生的动作,也可用used to或would加动词原形来表达,例如: I used to go fishing on Sundays. 2) ―used to‖也可用于表示过去曾经存在过的状态。例如: This river used to be clean. (3)一般将来时的用法 1)表示将来的动作或状态。例如: I shall attend the meeting tomorrow. 2)表示将来反复发生的动作或存在的状态。例如: He will go to see his mother every Saturdays. 3)表示将来的意愿,决心,许诺, 命令等时常用will,征求对方意见,主语 是第一人称时,常用shall。 I will do my best to catch up with them. Shall I open the door? 4)be + going + 动词不定式。也是一种将来时句型,表示打算,计划,最近 或将来要作的某事。 I am going to Beijing next week. 5)be + 动词不定式。表示有职责,义务,可能,约定,意图等。 There is to be a meeting this afternoon. We are to meet the guests at the station.
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6)be about + 动词不定式,表示马上,很快作某事。 They are about to leave. (4)现在进行时的用法 1)现在进行时的用法表示说话者说话时正在发生或者进行的动作, 它注重 现在正在进行的动作,而不管动作从什么时间开始,到什么时间结束。 What are you doing now? I am looking for my key. 2)现在进行时表示目前一段时间内正在进行的动作(但说话时这个动作不一 定在进行)。 The students are preparing for the examination. 3)某些动词的现在进行时可以表示即将发生的动作,这些动词有 arrive, come, leave, start等。 They are going to Hong Kong tomorrow. 【注意】 有些动词一般不可以用于进行时态 ①表示状态的动词,尤其是静态动词,如:be, have ②表示认识、知觉和情感的动词,如:know, think, hear, find, see, like, want, wish, prefer 等。 (5)现在完成时的用法 1) 现在完成时表示在说话之前已经完成或刚完成的动作。 I have bought a ten-speed bicycle. They have cleaned the classroom. 2) 现在完成时表示动作从过去开始持续到现在,或者还有可能持续下去的动 作或状态。 现在完成时常与for 和 since 引导的短语或从句连用。 We have lived here since 1976. They have waited for more than two hours. 【注意】 一般过去时与现在完成时的区别 过去时表示过去某时发生的动作或单纯叙述过去的事情,强调动作;现在完

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成时为过去发生的,强调过去的事情对现在的影响,强调的是影响;一般过去时 常与具体的时间状语连用。 试比较: I saw this film yesterday.(强调看的动作发生过了,不涉及现在) I have seen this film. (6)过去进行时的用法 表示过去某时正在进行的状态或动作。例如: I was watching TV when she came to see me. 【注意】 过去进行时和一般过去时都是过去发生的事情,但过去进行时侧重表示过去 某一时刻正在进行的动作或所处的状态,强调动作的连续进行,而一般过去时则 表示单纯的过去事实,例如: They were building a house last month. (上个月正在建造,建造好与否不知) They built a new house last month. (上个月建造好了,动作已经完成) (7)过去完成时的用法 过去完成时表示过去某一时刻或某一动作之前完成的动作或所处的状态,过 去完成时常和 by , before 等词组成的短语和从句连用。 We had already learned two thousand words by the end of last year. When we arrived at the station, they had waited for more than twenty minutes. (8)过去将来时的用法 过去将来时表示从过去某个时间看将要发生的动作或存在地状态,过去将来 时较多地被运用在宾语从句中。例如: They were going to have a meeting. I told him that I would see him off at the station. 2.动词的语态 语态有两种:主动语态和被动语态。 主语是动作的发出者为主动语态;主语是动作的接受者为被动语态。 (1)被动语态 (强调对现在的影响,电影的内容已经知道了。)

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1) 被动语态最基本的句型结构是: be +及物动词过去分词 2) 被动语态中的谓语动词一定要是及物动词 因为被动句中的主语是动作的承受者, 某些短语动词如look after, think of, take care of, work out, laugh at等,也可用于被动语态。 The children were taken good care of by her. 【注意】 短语动词中的介词或副词变成被动语态时不可遗漏。 3) 主动语态变为被动语态要加―to‖的情况 若宾语补足语是不带 to 的不定式,变为被动语态时,该不定式前要 加―to‖。此类动词为感官动词,如:feel, hear, help, listen to, look at, make, observe, see, notice, watch 等。例如: The teacher made me go out of the classroom. I was made to go out of the classroom (by the teacher). 4) 主动形式表示被动意义 如wash, clean, look, cut, sell, read, wear, feel, draw, write, sell等动词 虽然用做主动形式却表示被动的意义。例如: The food tastes good. 3.非谓语动词 对非谓语动词的考点是:感官动词后不定式作宾语补足语和动词ing形式作宾 语补足语的用法;一些特殊动词的动词不定式作宾语补足语时不带to,但变为被 动语态时就要带to;有些动词既可接不定式也可接动词ing形式作宾语,但表达的 意思不同。这些都是历年中考的重点。 (1)非谓语动词的形式 非谓语动词指的是在句中起名词,形容词或副词作用的动词形式,而不是作 谓语的动词形式。 动词的非谓语形式分为动名词,分词,动词不定式。 (2)不定式作宾语补足语 Father will not allow us to play on the street. (3)不定式作目的状语 He ran so fast as to catch the first bus.

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(4)用不定式和分词作补足语都可以的动词 这样的动词有感官动词如:see, hear, look, notice, observe, feel等,使役 动词如:have, make, leave, keep, get等。接不定式表示动作的完整性,真实 性;+doing 表示动作的连续性,进行性。 I saw him work in the garden yesterday. 昨天我看见他在花园里干活了。(强调―我看见了‖这个事实) I saw him working in the garden yesterday.(强调―我见他正干活‖这个动作) 昨天我见他正在花园里干活。 (5)用不带to不定式的情况 使役动词如: let, have, make等和感官动词如: see, watch, hear, listen to, smell, feel, find 等后作宾补,省略to。在被动语态中则to不能省掉。 (6)接动名词与不定式意义不同 1) stop to do stop doing 2) forget to do forget doing 停止,中断做某事后去做另一件事。 停止做某事。 忘记要去做某事。 忘记做过某事。 (未做) (已做) (未做) (已做)

3) remember to do 记得去做某事。 remember doing 4) try to do try doing 5) go on to do go on doing 6) mean to do mean doing 记得做过某事。

努力,企图做某事。 试验,试着做某事。 做了一件事后,接着做另一件事。 继续做原来做的事。 打算、想 意味着

4. 容易混淆的常用动词的辨析 (1) say, speak, talk, tell 的用法。 1) say 表示讲话,作为及物动词使用,后跟宾语或宾语从句。 He said he would go there. It's time to leave. We have to say goodbye to you.

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2)speak 表示―讲话‖,一般作为不及物动词使用,而有时作为及物动词后面 跟上各种语言作为宾语。 Do you speak English? May I speak to Mr Pope, please? 3) talk 表示―谈话‖,是不及物动词,与 to , about, with 等连用,才可宾语。 What are you talking about? Mr Jackson is talking with my father in the office now. 4) tell 表示―告诉,讲述‖是及物动词,可以带双宾语或复合宾语。 She told us an interesting story yesterday. My teacher told me that we would have an English exam the next month. (2) look, see, watch 和 watch 的用法。 1) look 强调―看‖这个动作,是不及物动词,常与 at 连用,然后接宾语。 Look! The girl is swimming in the lake. Look at the picture carefully. Can you find something unusual? 2) see 指―看见‖某物,强调的是结果。 They can't see the words on the blackboard. Does Lily often go to see a film on Sunday? 3) watch 指的是―观看‖,―注视‖之意。 The twins are watching TV now. He will go to watch a volleyball match. 4) read 指―看书‖、―看报‖、―阅读‖之意。 Don't read in the sun. I like to read newspapers when I am free. (3) borrow, lend 和 keep 的区别。 1) borrow 意思为―借入‖,常常与 from 连用,是非延续性动词,表示瞬间 即能完成的动作。 Meimei borrowed a book from the library just now. May I borrow your dictionary? 2) lend 是―借出‖之意,常常与 to 连用,同 borrow 一样,是非延续性动词,

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只表示瞬间即能完成的动作。 Uncle Wany has lent his car to Mr Li. Could you lend us your radio, please? 3) keep 是―保存‖的意思,动作可以延续。 How long can the recorder be kept? The farmer kept the pat for two weeks. (4) bring, take, carry 和 get 的用法。 1) bring 意思为―拿来‖、―带来‖。指将某物或某人从别处―带来‖。 Bring me the book, please. May I bring Jim to see you next Saturday? 2) take 意思是―拿走‖,―带走‖,把某物或某人从这里―带来‖或―拿到‖某处 之意。 It looks like rain. Take a raincoat with you. Mother took the little girl to the next room. 3) carry 是―带着、搬运、携带‖的意思,指随身携带,有背着、扛着、抱着、 提着的含义,不表明来去的方向。 Do you always carry a handbag? The box is heavy. Can you carry it? 4) get 是去某处将某物拿回来。 Please go to my office to get some chalk. There is no water in the bottle. Why not get some? (5) wear, put on 和 dress 的区别 1) wear 是―穿着‖―戴着‖的意思,可以用于穿衣服、穿鞋、戴帽子、戴手套、 佩戴首饰等,强调―穿着‖的状态。 Tom always wears black shoes. He wears a raincoat even when it is fine. She doesn't like to wear a red flowers in her hair. 2) put on 是―穿上‖―戴上‖的意思,可以用于穿衣服、穿鞋、戴帽等。着重 于穿戴的动作。 It's cold. You'd better put on your coat.
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He put on his hat and went out of the room. 3) dress 可以作及物动词和不及物动词,有―穿着‖―打扮‖的意思。作―穿着‖解 时,只用于穿衣服,不用于穿鞋、戴帽、戴手套。作为及物动词用时,它的宾 语是人,不是衣服。dress sb. (给某人穿衣服) ,而 wear 作―穿着‖用时,也 是及物动词,但它的宾语是物,不是人,即 wear sth.(穿着衣物) 。 She always dresses well. Get up and dress quickly. Mary is dressing her child. (6) take, spend 和 use 的用法。 1) take 指做某事用多少时间,句型是:It takes/took/ will take + sb. +some time + to do sth. It took me three days to finish the work. It will take you a while week to travel thought the forest. It takes only one hour to fly to Shanghai. 2) spend 指某人在某事(物)上花费时间或钱。句型是: Someone spends + money/time + on something(in) doing sth. She spent more than 500 yuan on that coat. He didn't spend much time on his lessons. He spent much time (in) correcting students' exercises. Mother spent her evenings (in) washing clothes. 3) use 表示使用工具、手段等。 Do you know how to use the computer? Shall we use your car? (7)reach, get 和 arrive 的区别。 1) reach 是及物动词,后面要直接跟表示地点的名词作宾语。 After the train had left, they reached the station We reached the top of the mountain at last. 2) get 是不及动词,常与 to 连用,再接名词,后面接表示地点的副词时,不 用 to,get to 常用于口语中。 When the students got to the cinema, the film had begun.
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My sister was cooking when mother got home. 3) arrive 是不及物动词,表示到达一个小地方时,用 arrive at, 到达一个大 地方时用 arrive in。 The soldiers arrived at a small village The foreigners will arrive in Shanghai tomorrow. 【演练】 1. Listen! Some of the girls ________ about Harry Potter. Let’s join them. A. are talking C. will talk B. talk D. talked

2. Our teacher, Miss Chen, ________English on the radio the day before yesterday. A. teaches C. will teach B. taught D. had taught

3. I don’t think I _________ you in that dress before. A. have seen C. saw B. was seeing D. see

4. Susan’s parents have bought a large house with a swimming pool. It _______ be very expensive. A. must B. can C. mustn’t D. can’t

5. Coffee is ready. How nice it ________ ! Would you like some? A. looks B. smells C. sounds D. feels 6. ― Mr. Zhu, you’d better _______ too much meat. You are already over weight,‖ said the doctor. A. not to eat B. to eat C. not eat D. eat 7. ―Don’t always make Michael ________ this or that. He is already a big boy, dear,‖ Mr. Bush said to his wife. A. do B. to do C. does D. did

8. Sorry, I can’t hear you clearly. Will you please ________ your E-mail address? I’ll write it down. A. review B. recite C. report D. repeat

9. Don’t ________ your coat, Tom! It’s easy to catch cold in spring.
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A. take away B. take off

C. take down

D. take out

10. You _______ go and ask Meimei. She _______ know the answer. A. must; can B. must; may C. need; can D. can; may

11. I’m sorry you’ve missed the train. It ________ 10 minutes ago. A. left B. has left C. had left D. has been left 12. I bought a new dictionary and it ________ me 30 yuan. A. paid B. spent C. took D. cost

13. ---Mum, may I go out and play basketball? ---_______ you _______ your homework yet? A. Do; finish B. Are; finishing C. Did; finishing D. Have; finished

14. I have to go now. Please remember to ________ the lights when you leave. A. turn off B. turn down C. turn up D. turn on

15. A talk on Chinese history ________ in the school next week. A. be given B. has been given C. will be given D. will give

16. Look! How heavy the rain is! You’d better ________. A. don’t go now B. stay here when it stops

C. not leave until it stops D. not to leave at once 17. You may go fishing if your work ________. A. is done B. will be done C. has done D. have done 18. Cotton _______ nice and soft. A. is felt B. is feeling C. feel D. feels

19. ---Who cleaned the blackboard yesterday, Dick? ---John _________. A. cleaned B. does C. did D. is

20. ---Linda had nothing for breakfast this morning, _______? ---No. She got up too late. A. had she B. hadn’t she C. did she D. didn’t she 【练习答案】 1.A 2.B 3.A 4.A 5.B 6.C 7.A 8.D 9.B 10.D 11.A 12.D 13.D 14.A 15.C 16.C 17.A 18.D 19.C 20.C
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一. 冠词的用法 冠词是虚词,放在名词之前,用来说明名词指的人或事物。冠词有两种。 A(an)叫不定冠词,the 叫定冠词。A 用在辅音之前,an 用在元音之前。 1. 不定冠词的用法 (1) a 和 an 均用在单数名词之前,表示某一类人或事物。例如: John is a student. Mary is an English teacher. (2) 指某一类人或事物中的任何一个。例如: A steel worker makes steel. Pass me an apple, please. (3) 指某人或某物,但不具体说明何人或和物。例如: A student wants to see you. A girl is waiting for you outside. (4) 表示―每一‖的意思,相当于 every。例如: Take the medicine three times a day. They go to see their parents once a week. 2. 定冠词用法 (1) 特指某(些)人或某(些)事物。例如: The book on the desk is an English dictionary. Beijing is the capital of China. (2) 指说话人和听话人都熟悉的人或事物。例如: Open the door, please. Jack is in the library. (3) 上文提到过的人或事物。例如: Yesterday John’s father bought him a new bike. The bike cost him 200
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yuan. (4) 表示世界上独一无二的事物。例如: The sun rises in the east and sets in the west. (5) 用在序数词和形容词最高级之前。例如: Shanghai is the biggest city in China. January is the first month of the year. (6) 用在某些形容词之前,表示某一类人或事物。例如: The nurse is kind to the sick. We should take good care of the old. (7) 用在某些专有名词之前和某些习惯用语中。例如: the Great Wall, the Summer palace, in the morning, in the open air 等。 (8) 用在姓氏复数之前,表示―某某一家人‖,―某某夫妇‖。例如: the Browns, the whites 等。 3. 不用冠词的情况 (1) 某些专有名词,抽象名词和物质名词前一般不用冠词。例如: China, Canada, Japanese, glass, water, love 等。 (2) 名词前已有作定语用的 this, that, my, your, whose, some, any, no, each, every 等代词时,不用冠词。例如: That is my cap. I have some questions. Go down this street. (3) 复数名词表示一类人或事物时,不用冠词。 They are workers. We are students. (4) 称呼语前不用冠词,表示头衔和职务的名词前也不加冠词。例如: I don’t feel well today, Mother. Bush was made president of the U.S. (5) 三餐饭的名称前,球类活动,学科和节目名词前,常不用冠词。例如: I have lunch at home. He often plays football after class.
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We have English and maths every day. (6) 在某些固定词组里,名词之前常不用冠词。例如: By air, at night, at home, go to bed, go to school, on foot, from morning till night 等。 二. 数词的用法 数词分基数词和序数词。基数词表示数目,序数词表示顺序。 1. 基数词的用法 (1) 基数词在句中主要用作主语、宾语、定语、表语、同位语,例如: Thirty of them are Party members.(主语) --- How many would you like? --- Three ,please.(作宾语) The nine boys are from Tianjing.(定语) Six plus four is ten.(表语) We four will go with you.(同位语)
(2) 表示一个具体数字时, hundred, thousand, million 一律不用复数; 在表示一

个不确定数字时则用复数。例如: Our country has a population of 1,300 million people. There are three thousand students in our school. After the war, thousands of people became homeless. Maize is the most important food crop for millions of people in the world. They arrived in twos and threes. (3) 表示―……十‖的数词的复数形式可用来表示人的岁数或年代,例如: He is in his early thirties. He died still in his forties. This took place in the1930s.
(4) 表示时刻用基数词。例如:

We get up at six. The workers begin work at eight.
(5) 表示―几点过几分‖,用介词 past,但须在半小时以内。例如:

ten past ten,
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a quarter past nine, half past twelve
(6) 表示―几点差几分‖用介词 to, 但分数须在半小时以上。例如:

twenty to nine, five to eight, a quarter to ten
(7) 表示―几点几分‖还可直接用基数词。例如:

seven fifteen, eleven thirty, nine twenty 2. 序数词的用法 (1)序数词主要用作定语,前面要加定冠词,例如: The first truck is carrying a foot baskets. John lives on the fifteenth floor. (2)序数词有时前面可加不定冠词来表示―再一‖,―又一‖这样的意思,例如: We'll have to do it a second time. Shall I ask him a third time? When I sat down,a fourth man rose to speak. (3)由几个序数词和基数词在拼写时不对应,很容易写错,应特别注意。它 们是:one---first, two---second, three---third, five---fifth, eight---eighth, nine---ninth, twelve---twelfth。 (4)表示年,月,日时, 年用基数词表示,日用序数词表示。例如: 1949 年十月一日读作: October (the) first, nineteen sixty 2004 年九月十日读作:September (the) tenth, two thousand and four (5)表示分数时,分子用基数词表示,分母用序数词表示。分子大于 1 时, 分母加-s。例如: three fourths, one second, two fifths

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(6)序数词有时用缩写形式: first→1st third→3rd twenty-second→22nd 【演练】 1. This morning I had ________ egg and a bottle of milk for my breakfast. A. an B. a C. the D./ second→2nd fourth→4th

2. ---What’s the matter with you? ---I caught ________ bad cold and had to stay in ________. A. a;/ B. a; the C. a; a D. the; the

3. ---Have you seen _______ pen? I left it here this morning. ---Is it ________ black one? I think I saw it somewhere. A. a; the B. the; the C. the; a 4. _______ sun is shining brightly. A. A B. An C. The D. / D. a; a

5. There is _______ ―h‖ in the word hour. A. a B. the C. an D./

6. Did you enjoy your stay in Xian? Yes. I had _______ wonderful time. A. a B. an C. the D. /

7. ______ sun is bigger than _______ earth. A. A; the B. A; an C. The; an D. The; the

8. There is _______ apple and some pears on the table. A. the B./ C. a D. an

9. David has _______ cat. It’s very nice. A. a B. an C. the D./

10. I’m reading _______ novel. It is _______ interesting story. A. a; an B. a; a C. the; the D. /; an

11. It is said that SARS has killed more than ________ people worldwide. A. three hundreds B. three hundreds’
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C. three hundred’s

D. three hundred

12. ---How many workers are there in your factory? ---There are two __________. A. hundreds B. hundred C. hundred of D. hundreds of

13. ---Which is the smallest number of the four? ---_______________. A. Two-thirds B. A half C. A quarter D. Three-fourths

14. ---What do you think of a war, Li Ming? ---I’ve no idea. But it’s a fact that _______ people had to leave their hometown during the War on Iraq. A. three thousands C. thousands of B. thousand of D. several thousands

15. We all think that the _______ century will bring us more hopes. A. twenty-first C. twenty-one B. twentieth-first D. twentieth-one

16. ---Can you write the number eighty-five thousand, six hundred and twenty-six? ---Yes, it is __________. A. 856620 B. 85626 C. 58662 D. 58626 17. When was the PRC founded? It was founded on _________. A. July 1, 1921 C. August 1, 1927 B. October 1, 1949 D. May 1, 1922

18. I was 8 years old when my father was 31. This year my father is twice my age. How old am I? A. 21 B. 22 C. 23 D. 24

19. _______ Chinese are looking for ways to learn English well before Beijing 2008 Olympics. A. Thousand B. Thousands C. Thousand of D. Thousands of

20. Both of the two rulers are broken. I want to buy a _______one. A. three B. third C. forth D. /
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【练习答案】 1.A 2.A 3.D 4.C 5.C 6.A 7.D 8.D 9.A 10.A11.D 12.B 13.C 14.C 15.A 16.B 17.B 18.C 19.D 20.B

【名师点睛】 代词是代替名词、形容词和数词的词。按其意义、特征及其在句中的作用 分为:人称代词、物主代词、指示代词、反身代词、相互代词、疑问代词、不定 代词和关系代词等。
一、 人称代词 1.人称代词的人称、数和格,如下表所示。

2.人称代词有主格和宾格之分。通常主格作主语,宾格作宾语。如: I like table tennis. (作主语) Do you know him?(作宾语) 3.人称代词还可作表语。作表语时用宾格。如: ---Whos is knocking at the door? ---It’s me. 4.人称代词在 than 之后与其他人或事物进行比较时,用主格和宾格都可以。如: He is older than me.

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He is older than I am. 二、物主代词 1.表示所有关系的代词叫物主代词。 物主代词分形容词性物主代词和名词性物主

代词,如下表所示。 2. 形容词性物主代词的作用相当于形容词,可在句中作定语。例如: Our teacher is coming to see us. This is her pencil-box. 3. 名词性物主代词的作用相当于名词,在句中可用作主语、宾语和表语。 Our school is here, and theirs is there.(作主语) --- Is this English-book yours? (作表语) --- No. Mine is in my bag. I've already finished my homework. Have you finished yours? (作宾语) 三、指示代词 指示代词包括:this,that,these,those。 1. this 和 these 一般用来指在时间或空间上较近的事物或人,that 和 those 则指时间和空间上较远的事物或人,例如: This is a pen and that is a pencil. We are busy these days. In those days the workers had a hard time. 2. 有时 that 和 those 指前面讲到过的事物,this 和 these 则是指下面将要讲

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到的事物,例如: I had a cold. That's why I didn't come. What I want to say is this ; pronunciation is very important in learning English. 3. 有时为了避免重复提到的名词,常可用 that 或 those 代替,例如: Television sets made in Beijing are just as good as those made in Shanghai. 4. this 在电话用语中代表自己,that 则代表对方。例如: Hello! This is Mary. Is that Jack speaking? 四、反身代词 英语中用来表示―我自己‖,―你自己‖,―他自己‖,―我们自己‖,―你们自己‖等

意义的代词称为反身代词,也有人称之为自身代名词,其形式如表所示。 反身代词可以在句中作宾语,表语,同位语。 1. 作宾语,表示动作的承受者就是动作的发出者,主语和宾语指同一个人 或一些人。 He called himself a writer. Would you please express yourself in English? 2. 作表语。 It doesn't matter.I'll be myself soon. The girl in the news is myself. 3. 作主语或宾语的同位语,表示亲自或本人。 I myself washed the clothes. washed the clothes myself.) (=I (作主语同位语) You should ask the teacher himself. (作宾语同位语) 五、 不定代词 不是指明代替任何特定名词的代词叫做不定代词,在句中可作主语、表 语、宾语和定语。现将几个常用的不定代词举例说明如下: 1. some 与 any 的区别

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1)some 多用于肯定句,表示―一些,几个‖作形容词时,后面可以接①不可 数名词+单数动词;②可数名词+复数动词。 Look! Some of the students are cleaning the library. Some rice in the bag has been sold out. 2) any 多用于疑问句、 条件句和否定句中, 表示―一些, 任何‖用作形容词时, 后面可以接①不可数名词+单数动词;②可数名词+复数动词。 If you have any questions, please ask me. There isn't any orange in the bottle. Have you got any tea? 3)any 和 some 也可以作代词用,表示―一些‖。any 多用于疑问句或否定句 中,some 多用于肯定句中。 How many people can you see in the picture? I can't see any. If you have no money, I'll lend you some. 【注意】 some, any 结合的词如 something, somebody, someone, anything, anyone, 与 anybody 在肯定句、否定句、疑问句、条件句中的用法,大致和 some, any 的用法 相同。 2. few, a few, little, a little 在用法上的区别 1)用作形容词: 含义 用法 用于可数名词 用于不可数名词 a few 虽少,但有几个 a little,虽少,但有一点 few 不多,几乎没有 little 不多,没有什么 表示肯定 表示否定

I'm going to buy a few apples. He can speak only a little Chinese. There is only a little milk in the glass. He has few friends. They had little money with them. 2)a little 和 little 也可以用作副词,a little 表示―有点,稍微‖,little 表示―很少‖。

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I'm a little hungry. (修饰形容词 hungry) Let him sleep a little. (修饰动词 sleep) Mary, go a little faster, please. (修饰副词比较级) She slept very little last night. 3. other, the other, another, others, the others 的区别。 用 法 单数 代名词 复数 单数 形容词 复数


another 另一个


another (boy)

other (boys)

别人, 其他人 另一个(男孩) 其他男孩 the other (boy) the other (boys) 其余那些男孩


the other the others 另一个

其余那些人、 另一个男孩 物

1) other 可以作形容词用, 后面可以跟单数或复数名词, 意思是―其他的、 别的‖。 Where are his other books? I haven't any other books except this one. 2)other 也可以用作代词,与冠词 the 连用构成―the other‖,表示两个人或物中 的―另一个‖。常与 one 搭配构成―one ..., the other ...‖句型。 He has two brothers. One is 10 years old , the other is 5 years old. She held a ruler in one hand and an exercise-book in the other. 3)other 作代词用时,可以有复数―others‖,泛指―另外的人或物‖。常与 some 搭配构成―some ...., others ...‖句型。 Some went to the cinema, others went swimming. This coat is too large. Show me some others, please. 4)―the others‖表示特指某范围内的―其他的人或物‖。 We got home by 4 o'clock, but the others didn't get back until 8 o'clock. In our class only Tom is English, the others are Chinese. 5)another 可以作形容词用,修饰后面的名词,意为―另一个‖,还可以跟代词 one. You can see another ship in the sea, can't you?

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Mary doesn't want to buy this skirt. Would you please show her another one? 6)another 也可以作代词用,表示―另一个‖。 I'm still hungry after I've had this cake. Please give me another. 4. every 与 each 的区别。 each 1)可单独使用 2)可做代名词、形容词 3)着重―个别‖ every 1)不可单独使用 2)仅作形容词 3)着重―全体‖,毫无例外

4)用于两者或两者以上中 4)用于三者或三者以上每 的每一个人或物 一个人或物

The teacher gave a toy to each child. Each ball has a different colour. 当我们说 each child, each student 或 each teacher 时,我们想到的是一个人 的情况。 而当我们说 every child 和 every student 时, 我们想到的是全体的情况, every 的意思与 all 接近,表示他们都如此。 Every student loves the English teacher. = All students love the English teacher. Every child likes playing. = All children like playing. 5. all 和 both 的用法。 1) 指三者以上, all 或不可数的东西。 谓语动词既可以用单数, 也可以用作复数。 在句中作主语、表语、宾语、同位语和定语。 All of us like Mr Pope. 我们都喜欢 Pope 先生。 (作主语) = We all like Mr Pope. (作同位语) All the water has been used up. (作主语) That's all for today. (作表语) Why not eat all (of) the fish? (作宾语) All the leaders are here. (作定语) 2)both 作代词。 ①与其他名词或代词并列出现,表示―两个都‖。 Lucy and Lily both agree with us.

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They both passed on their sticks at the same time. How are your parents? They're both fine. ②与―of +代词(或名词)‖连用,表示―两者都‖。 Both of them came to see Mary. Both of the books are very interesting. ③单独使用,表示―两者(都)‖。 Michael has two sons. Both are clever. I don't know which book is the better, I shall read both. 3)both 用作形容词,放在名词之前,修饰该名词,表示―两者都‖。 Both his younger sisters are our classmates. There are tall trees on both sides of the street. 六、相互代词 表示相互关系的代词叫做相互代词。相互代词有 each other 和 one another 两种形 式。在当代英语中,each other 和 one another 没有什么区别。相互代词可 在句中作宾语,定语。作定语用时,相互代词用所有格形式。 We should learn from each other / one another. (作宾语) Do you often write to each other / one another? (作宾语) We often borrow each other's / one another's books. (作定语) The students corrected each other's / one another's mistakes in their homework. (作定语) 七、 疑问代词 疑问代词有 who,whom,whose,what 和 which 等。疑问代词用于特殊疑 问句中,一般都放在句首,并在句子中作为某一句子成分。例如: Who is going to come here tomorrow? (作主语) What is that? (作表语) Whose umbrella is this? (作定语)

Whom are you waiting for? (作宾语) 八.关系代词 关系代词是一种引导从句并起连接主句和从句作用的代词。 关系代词有 who,

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whose, whom, that, which. 它们在句中可用作主语,表语,宾语,定语. 在主句中,它 们还代表着从句所修饰的那个名词或代词。例如: I hate people who talk much but do little. I’m looking at the photograph which you sent me with your letter. With the money that he had saved, he went on with his studies. Do you know the lady who is interviewing our headmaster? 【演练】 1. Tom, Please pass ________ the glasses. I want to read the newspapers. A. you B. me C. him D. her

2. The English novel is quite easy for you. There are ______ new words in it. A. a little B. little C. a few D. few

3. ---You want ________ sandwich? ---Yes, I usually eat a lot when I’m hungry. A. other B. another C. others D. the other

4. The doctors and nurses are doing their best to fight SARS. They think more of others than _______. A. they B. them C. themselves D. theirs

5. ---Which do you prefer, a bottle of orange or a bottle of milk? ---______________, thanks. I’d like a cup of tea. A. Either B. Neither C. Both D. None

6. ---Oh! I came in a hurry and forgot to bring food. ---Never mind. You can have ________. A. us B. ours C. you D. yours

7. ---Can I come this evening or tomorrow morning? ---_______ is OK. I’m free today and tomorrow. A. Either B. Neither C. Both D. None

8. ---How are you going to improve _______ this term? ---Work harder than last term. A. ourselves B. myself C. himself D. yourself

9. ---Could you tell me _______ she is looking for?
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---Her cousin, Susan. A. that B. whose 10. ---Is _______ here? ---No. Li Lei and Han Mei have asked for leave. A. everybody B. somebody C. anybody D. nobody 11. Paul has _______ friends except me, and sometimes he feels lonely. A. many B. some C. few D. more C. who D. which

12. If you want to book a round-trip ticket, you’ll have to pay ______ $ 30. A. more B. other C. the other D. another 13. ---Do you live by yourself, Mr Wang? ---Yes. I have two sons. But ______ of them lives with me. They are now studying in America? A. neither B. both C. none D. either

14. ---Have you sent your parents an E-mail telling them you arrived safe? ---No. _______ of them can use a computer. A. None B. Both C. Neither D. All

15. Who taught _______ English last term? Was _____ Mr. Smith? A. you; it B. you; he C. your; it D. your; that

16. ---That woman has a bag in her right hand. What’s in her _____ hand? A. another B. other C. one D. the other

17. We decided to go for a field trip with some friends of _______. A. us B. our C. ours D. ourselves

18. ---Is there a bus to the zoo? ---I’m afraid there’s _______ bus to the zoo. A. no B. any C. some D. none

19. You forgot your dictionary? You may have _______. A. me B. my C. mine D. myself

20. This is ______ classroom. Where is _______? A. our; them B. us; they C. our; theirs D. ours; theirs

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【练习答案】 1.B 2.D 3.B 4.C 5.B 6.B 7.A 8.D 9.C 10.A 11.C 12.D 13.A 14.C 15.A 16.B 17.C 18.A 19.C 20.C

1. 介词的功能 介词是一种虚词, 用来表示名词或相当于名词的其它词语句中其它词的关系, 不能单独使用。介词可与名词或相当于名词的其它词构成介词短语。介词短语可 在句中作定语,状语,表语和宾语补足语。例如: The boy over there is John’s brother. (定语) The girl will be back in two hours. (状语) Our English teacher is from Australia. (表语) Help yourself to some fish. 2. 常用介词的用法辨析 (1)表时间的介词 1)at, in on 表示时间点用 at。例如:at six o’clock, at noon, at midnight。表示在某个 世纪,某年,某月,某个季节以及早晨,上午,下午,晚上时,用 in。例如: in the ninettenth century, in 2002, in may, in winter, in the morning, in the afternoon 等。表示具体的某一天和某一天的上午,下午,晚上时,用 on。例 如:on Monday, on July 1st, on Sunday morning 等。 2) since, after 由 since 和 after 引导的词组都可表示从过去某一点开始的时段,但 since 词组表示的时段一直延续到说话的时刻,因而往往要与现在完成时连用。而 after 词组所表示的时段纯系过去,因而要与一般过去时连用。例如: I haven’t heard from him since last summer. After five days the boy came back.
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3) in, after in 与将来时态连用时,表示―过多长时间以后‖的意思,后面跟表示一段 时间的词语。After 与将来时态连用时,后面只能跟表示时间点的词语。After 与过去时态连用时,后面才能跟表示一段时间的词语。例如: He will be back in two months. He will arrive after four o’clock. He returned after a month. (2)表示地点的介词 1)at, in, on at 一般指小地方; 一般指大地方或某个范围之内;on 往往表示―在某个 in 物体的表面‖。例如: He arrived in Shanghai yesterday. They arrived at a small village before dark. There is a big hole in the wall. The teacher put up a picture on the wall. 2) over, above, on over, on 和 above 都可表示―在……上面‖,但具体含义不同。Over 表示 位置高于某物,在某物的正上方,其反义词是 under。 above 也表示位置高于 某物,但不一定在正上方,其反义词是 below。On 指两个物体表面接触,一 个在另一的上面。例如: There is a bridge over the river. We flew above the clouds. They put some flowers on the teacher’s desk. 3) across, through across 和 through 均可表示―从这一边到另一边‖,但用法不同。Across 的 含义与 on 有关,表示动作在某一物体的表面进行。Throgh 的含义与 in 有关, 表示动作是在三维空间进行。例如: The dog ran across the grass. The boy swam across the river. They walked through the forest.
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I pushed through the crowds. 4) in front of, in the front of in front of 表示―在某人或某物的前面‖, 在某个范围以外; the front of in 表示―在……的前部‖,在某个范围以内。例如: There are some tall trees in front of the building. The teacher is sitting in the front of the classroom. 3. 介词的固定搭配 介词往往同其他词类形成了固定搭配关系。记住这种固定搭配关系,才能正 确使用介词。 (1)介词与动词的搭配 listen to , laugh at, get to, look for wait for, hear from, turn on, turn off, worry about, think of, look after, spend…on…, 等。 (2)介词与名词的搭配 on time, in time, by bus, on foot, with pleasure, on one’s way to, in trouble, at breakfast, at the end of, in the end 等。 (3)介词与形容词的搭配 be late for, be afraid of, be good at, be interested in, be angry with, be full of, be sorry for 等。 4. 连词的功能 用来连接词,短语,从句或句子的词叫连词。连词是一种虚词,在句中不能 单独使用。连词可分为两类:并列连词和从属连词。 5. 并列连词 并列连词用来连接具有并列关系的词,短语或句子。常见的并列连词有: (1)表并列关系的 and, both…and, not only…but also, neither…nor 等。 (2)表选择关系的 or, either…or 等。 (3)表转折关系的 but, while 等。 (4)表因果关系的 for, so 等。 6. 从属连词 从属连词用来引导从句。常见的从属连词有:

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(1)引导时间状语从句的 after, before, when, while, as, until, till, since, as soon as 等。 (2)引导条件状语从句的 if, unless 等。 (3)引导原因状语从句的 because, as, since 等。 (4)引导目的状语从句的 so that, in order that 等。 (5)引导让步状语从句的 though, although, even if 等。 (6)引导结果状语从句的 so that, so…that, such…that 等。 (7)引导比较状语从句的 than, as…as 等。 (8)引导名词从句的 that, if , whether 等。 7. 常用连词的用法辨析 (1) while, when, as 这三个连词都可引导时间状语从句,但用法有所不同。 1) 当某事正在进行的时候,又发生了另一件事。While, when, as 都可用来引 导表示―背景‖的时间状语从句。例如: As/When/While I was walking down the street I noticed a police car. 2) 当两个长动作同时进行的时候,最常用的是 while。例如: While mother was cooking lunch, I was doing my homework. 3) 当两个动作都表示发展变化的情况时,最常用的是 as。例如: As children get older, they become more and more interested in things around them. 4) 当两个短动作同时发生时,或表示―一边…一边…‖时,最常用 as。例如: Just as he caught the fly, he gave a loud cry. She looked behind from time to time as she went 5) 当从句的动作先于主句的动作时,通常用 when。例如: When he finished his work, he took a short rest. 6) 当从句是瞬间动作,主句是延续性动作时,通常用 when。例如: When John arrived I was cooking lunch. (2)as, because, since , for 这四个词都可表原因,但用法有区别。 1) 如果原因构成句子的最主要部分,一般用 because。因此,because 引导的

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从句往往放在句末。例如: I stayed at home because it rained. ---Why aren’t you going? ---Because I don’t want to. 2) 如果原因已被人们所知,或不如句子的其它部分重要,就用 as 或 since。 Since 比 as 稍微正式一点。As 和 since 引导的从句一般放在句子的开头。 例如: As he wasn’t ready, we left without him. Since I have no money, I can’t buy any food. 3) for 用来补充说明一种理由,因此,for 引导的从句几乎可以放在括号里。 For 引导的句子不放在句子的开头。例如: I decided to stop and have lunch----for I was feeling quite hungry. (3)if, whether if 和 whether 都可作―是否‖讲,在引导宾与从句是一般可互换。例如: I wonder whether (if) you still study in that school. I don’t know whether (if) he likes that film. 在下列情况下,只能用 whether,不能用 if: 1) 引导主语从句时。例如: Whether he will come to the party is unknown. 2) 引导表语从句时。例如: The question is whether I can pass the exam. 3) 在不定式前。例如: I haven’t made up my mind whether to go there or not. (4)so…that, such...that 1) so…that 中的 so 是个副词,其后只能跟形容词或副词,而 such...that 中的 such 是个形容词,后接名词或名词短语。例如: I’m so tired that I can’t walk any farther. It was such a warm day that he went swimming. 2) 如果在名词之前有 many, much, little, few 时,用 so,不用 such。例如: He has so little education that he is unable to get a job.
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I have had so many falls that I am black and blue all over. (5)either…or…, neither…nor, not only…but also… 这三个连词词组都可连接两个并列成分。当它们连接两个并列主语时, 谓语动词要随相邻的主语变化。例如: Either you or he is wrong. Neither he nor his children like fish. Not only the teacher but also the students want to buy the book. (6)although, but 这两个连词不能用在同一个句子中。例如:我们不能说―Although he is over sixty, but he works as hard as others.‖这个句子应改为:Although he is over sixty, he works as hard as others.或 He is over sixty, but he works as hard as others. (7)because, so 这两个连词同样不能用在同一个句子中。例如:我们不能说―Because John was ill, so I took him to the doctor.‖ 这个句子应改为 Because John was ill, I took him to the doctor.或 John was ill, so I took him to the doctor. 【演练】 1. We traveled overnight to Paris and arrived _______ 5 o’clock ______ the morning. A. on; in B. at; in C. at; on D. in; on

2. Where’s Lily? We are all here _______ her. A. beside B. about C. except D. with

3. She sent her friend a postcard _______ a birthday present. A. on B. as C. for D. of

4. Jack has studied Chinese in this school _______ the year of 2000. A. since B. in C. on D. by

5. ---What is a writing brush, do you know? ---It’s _______ writing and drawing. A. with B. to C. for D. by

6. English is widely used ______ travellers and business people all over the
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world. A. to B. for C. as D. by

7. ______ the help of my teacher, I caught up with the other students. A. Under B. In C. With D. On

8. Hong Kong is ______ the south of China, and Macao is ______ the west of Hong Kong. A. in; to B. to; to C. to; in D. in; in

9. ---You’d better not go out now. It’s raining. ---It doesn’t matter. My new coat can keep ______ rain. A. in B. of C. with D. off

10. Japan lies ______ the east of China. A. to B. in C. about D. at

11. ---Will the foreigners have any problems talking with Chinese in 2008? ---I don’t think so. Now ______ the young ______ the old can speak some English. A. either…or C. neither…nor B. not only… but also D. both…or

12. We didn’t catch the train _______ we left late. A. so B. because C. but D. though

13. Tom failed in the exam again _______ he wanted to pass it very much. A. if B. so C. though D. as

14. I won’t believe that the five-year-old boy can read five thousand words ______ I have tested him myself. A. after B. when C. if D. until

15. The book was so interesting that he had read it for three hours ______ he realized it. A. when B. until C. after D. before

16. ---This dress was last year’s style. ---I think it still looks perfect ______ it has gone out this year. A. so that B. even though C. as if D. ever since

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17. Hurry up, _______ you will miss the train. A. and B. so C. however D. or

18. The mountain was ______ steep _____ few people in our city reached the top. A. so…as B. so…that C. as…as D. too…to 19. ---Do you remember our pleasant journey to Xi’an? ---Of course. I remember everything ______ it happened yesterday. A. as soon as C. rather than B. even though D. as if

20. ______ you can’t answer this question, we have to ask someone else for help. A. Although 【练习答案】 1.B 2.C 3.B 4.A 5.C 6.D 7.C 8.A 9.D 10.A11.B 12.B 13.C 14.D 15.D 16.B 17.D 18.B 19.D 20.D B. While C. Whether D. Since

【名师点睛】 一. 陈述句的构成形式及基本用法 1. 陈述句: 陈述句是用来陈述一个事实或表达说话人看法 (包括肯定和否定) 的句子。 通常用降调,句末用句号―.‖。 Tom has a new car. The flower isn’t beautiful. 2. 陈述句否定式的构成 (1) 如果肯定陈述句的谓语部分含有助动词、情态动词或连系动词 be,则只 需在这些动词后加 not 即可构成否定式。 He is playing the guitar.(肯定)

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He is not playing the guitar.(否定) We can get there before dark.(肯定) We can’t get thee before dark.(否定) (2) 如果陈述句的谓语动词是实义动词,而其中又没有情态动词或助动词时, 则需根据人称和时态在该实义动词前加 don’t, doesn’t 或 didn’t。 同时把该 实义动词变为原形。 He plays the violin well.(肯定) He doesn’t play the violin well.(否定) She won the game.(肯定) She didn’t win the game.(否定) (3) 如果句子是 there be 结构或谓语动词是 have(有) ,除了 be 和 have 之后 加 not 之外,句中如果有 some 要变为 any。例如: There is some water in the cup. →There is not any water in the cup. He has some books. →He has not any books. (4) 除 not 以外,否定词 no, never, nothing, nobody, few 等也可构成否定句。 例如: There is something wrong with his bike. →There is nothing wrong with his bike. I have seen the film. →I have never seen the film. 二. 祈使句的构成形式及基本用法 祈使句是用来表示命令、请求、建议、号召等的句子,谓语动词用原形,句 末用感叹号―!‖或句号―.‖。朗读时一般用降调。 1. 肯定的祈使句: (1)祈使句主语是 you 时,you 常省略,但如果要特别强调对方或表达某种 强烈的情绪时可以有主语或称呼语。 Be quiet. You be quiet! (2)―Do+祈使句‖表示一种强烈的感情或请求,do 起强调作用。 Do come back at once! Do be careful.
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(3)please 用在祈使句中可以表示一种客气的语气,但 please 用在句末时, 必须用逗号与其余部分分开。 Open the window, please. (4)Let 引导祈使句时,后面需跟上人称代词或称呼语,人称代词一般只用第 一、第三人称。 Let Jack wait a minute. Let’s go to school. (5)在祈使句中,Let’s 和 Let us 是有区别的。Let’s 包括说话者,而 Let us 不包括听话者在内。这点从反意疑问句时可明显看出。 Let’s go skating, shall we?(表示内部的建议) Let us try again, will you?(表示向别人发出请求) 2. 否定祈使句通常以 Don’t 或 Never 开头。其结构通常是:―Don’t(Never)+动 词原形+其他成分‖ 例如: Don’t do that again! Never leave today’s work for tomorrow! Don’t be late next time! 三. 一般疑问句、特殊疑问句、选择疑问句、反意疑问句的构成形式及基本用法 1. 一般疑问句: (1)一般疑问句的肯定形式 一般疑问句一般是指以助动词、 情态动词、 动词或 have be (有) 开始, 通常要求以 yes,或 no 来回答的疑问句,一般疑问句读时通常用升调。 Do you know Mr. Smith? Can you swim? (2)一般疑问句的否定结构 ① 在一般疑问句的否定结构中,把副词 not 放在一般疑问句的主语之后。 但如果用 not 的简略形式-n’t, 则须将-n’t 与一般疑问句句首的 be, have, 助动词或情态动词写在一起。在实际运用中,一般都采用简略式。 Are you not a football fan? Aren’t you a football fan? Will she not like it?
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Won’t she like it? ② 与汉语不同的是, 英语一般疑问句否定结构的答语是否定还是肯定, 全 由答语的否定或肯定来决定。若答语是肯定的,则用 yes 加肯定结构; 若答语是否定的,则用 no 加否定结构。 Aren’t you a football fan? 你不是足球迷吗? Yes, I am. No, I am not. Won’t she like it? Yes, she will. No, she won’t. 2. 特殊疑问句 特殊疑问句由―疑问代词或疑问副词+一般疑问句‖构成,句子一般用倒装 语序,但如果主语是疑问代词或由疑问代词修饰时,用陈述句的语序。特殊疑 问句不能用 yes 或 no 回答,读时用降调。例如: Who is on duty today? How long have you been in Beijing? What time do you get up every morning? What must I do now? 常用的特殊疑问句 询问内容 疑问词或句型 职业, 身份 what 姓名或关 系 who Who is that boy? He is my brother What is she like? 相貌特征 what…like? What does she look like? 目的 原因 what…for? why What did they come To attend a here for? Why did they come meeting. Because they have a She is beautiful. 例 句 回 答

What is your father? He is a doctor. He is Jack.

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here? How is the weather 天气 how what…like? today? What is the weather like today? 颜色 what color…? What dolor is her skirt? 服装尺寸 what size 几点钟 what time 星期几 what day 几号, 日期 年龄(多 大) 持续多长 时间(多 how long 久) 长度(多 长) 距离(多 远) 频度 how often (多经常) 时间经过 (多快) 数量 (多少) how soon arrive? how many(可 How many jackets do 数名词) how far here to the zoo? How often do you how long bridge? How far is it from How long have you how old How old is he? what is the date…? What size does he

meeting to attend.

It’s fine.

It’s red.

He wars 40. wear? What time is it? What day is today? What is the date today? He is 38. It’s 7:30. It’s Tuesday. It’s May 2.

For five months. been here? How long is the

It’s 500 metres.

It’s 6 kilometres.

Once a week. come back? How soon will she In an week.

Three. you have? Two cups.

how much(不 How much coffee do
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you want? How much is it?


how much

How much does it cost?

Five dollars.

how tall(人, How tall is she? 高度 树) How high is the

She’s 1.73 metres. It’s 450 metres.

(多高) how high(山, tower? 建筑物) 3. 选择疑问句: 选择疑问句是说话者提出两种或两种以上的不同情况,让对方选择回答的 疑问句。其结构是―疑问句+选择部分‖。选择部分由 or 连接,or 前面的部分读 升调,or 后面的部分读降调。 选择疑问句不能用 yes 或 no 回答,而必须具体的选择答复。 Is your bag yellow or black? It’s black. Would you like some tea or coffee? Either will do. Which do you like better, singing or dancing? 4. 反意疑问句: 反意疑问句是指在陈述句之后附加一个意思与之相反的简短问句, 问对方 是否赞同的疑问句。附加问句的否定式必须缩写。 (1)肯定的陈述句后跟否定的附加问句,否定的陈述句后跟肯定的附加问句。 I am your teacher, aren’t I? He didn’t study hard, did he? (2)如果陈述句中含有否定副词 never(从不,决不),hardly(几乎不)或 其他表示否定代词或形容词, nothing, none no one, nobody, neither, few, 如 little 等,则附加问句只能用肯定式。如: They hardly write to each other, do they? He has found nothing, has he? Few people knew the secret, did they? I like dancing better.

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(3)当反意疑问句是―否定陈述句+肯定附加问句‖时,英语与汉语的回答习惯 存在差异。英语回答时只看实际情况,若答语的具体内容是肯定的就用 ―Yes+肯定结构‖,答语的具体内容是否定的就用―No+否定结构‖,而译成 汉语时,则必须把 yes 译―不是‖,把 no 译成―是的‖。 ---You won’t be away for long, will you? 你不会离开太久,是吗? ---Yes, I will.不,我会离开很久。 ---No, I won’t.是的,我不会离开很久。 ---I don’t think she’ll come by bike, will she? 我认为她不会骑自行车,会 吗? ---Yes, she will.不,她会骑自行车来。 ---No, she won’t.是的,她不会骑自行车来。 四. 由 what, how 引导的感叹句的构成形式、用法及区别 感叹句是表示喜、怒、哀、乐以及惊异等感情的句子。句末用感叹号―!‖, 读时用降调,感叹句往往由 what 或 how 引导,what 修饰名词,how 修饰形容词, 副词或动词。 1. what 引导的感叹句: (1)what + a/an +形容词+单数可数名词+陈述句(主语+谓语) What a beautiful city it is! What an interesting story she told! (2)what+形容词+复数可数名词/不可数名词+陈述句(主语+谓语) What expensive watches they are! What terrible weather it is! 2.How 引导的感叹句: (1)How+形容词/副词+陈述句(主语+谓语) How cold it is! How hard he works! (2)How+陈述句(主语+谓语) How he loves his son! How I miss you!

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(3)How+形容词+a/an+单数可数名词+陈述句(主语+谓语) How tall a tree it is! (4)上述两种感叹句可以互相转换。例如: What a clever boy he is!→How clever the boy is! What a cold day it is!→How cold it is! 【演练】 1. ---Excuse me, _______ is the nearest bookshop? ---Go down the street and turn left at the second corner. A. how B. what C. where D. who

2. ---______ is it from our school to the Bell Tower? ---About half an hour’s bus ride. Shall we go and visit it? A. How long B. How often C. How far D. How much

3. ---Linda had nothing for breakfast this morning, _______? ---No. She got up too late. A. had she B. hadn’t she C. did she D. didn’t she 4. ---The room is so dirty. ______ we clean it? ---Of course. A. Will B. Would C. Do D. Shall

5. ---__________, sir? ---Size 41, I think A. What size do you need B. What can I do for you

C. How do you like this shirt D. What’s the matter with you 6. ---_______ good weather! Why not go out for a walk? A. What B. How C. What a D. How a

7. ---It’s a nice car. ______ have you been in it? ---Just to Shanghai. A. How much B. How long C. How soon D. How far

8. ---_______ to the United States? ---No, never, but I went to Canada a few years ago. A. Have you been B. Have you gone
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C. Did you go

D. Will you go

9. ---_______ were you away from school last year? ---About two weeks. A. How often B. How soon C. How long D. When

10. ---______ do you want? ---I want a CD of popular songs. A. Which CD C. What CD B. How many CDs D. How much

11. _______ is your mother, a teacher or a doctor? A. What B. Which C. Who D. whose

12. ---______ is your mother today, Jim? ---She is much better. A. How B. What C. Where D. How old

13. ---______he ______ at this school last term? ---Yes, I think so. A. Did…study C. Was…study B. Does…study D. Did…studied

14. ---_______ did you begin to learn English? ---Three years ago. A. When B. Why C. Where D. What

15. ---________ do you write to your pen-friend? ---Once a week. A. How long B. How soon C. How far D. How often

16. _______ nice flowers! Where did you pick them? A. How B. What C. What a D. How a

17. The sick man’s allowed to take a walk in the garden every day, _______? A. is he B. isn’t he C. has he D. hasn’t he 18. ______ cross the road before the traffic lights turn green. A. Not B. Won’t C. Don’t D. Doesn’t

19. He found nothing in the room, _________?
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A. doesn’t he C. didn’t he

B. does he D. did he

20. You haven’t changed your mind, ________? A. do you C. have you 【练习答案】 1.C 2.C 3.C 4.D 5.A 6.A 7.D 8.A 9.C 10.C 11.A 12.A 13.A 14.A 15.D 16.B 17.B 18.C 19.D 20.C B. are you D. did you

一. 宾语从句的种类 宾语从句是一种名词性从句,在句中作及物动词的宾语,或介词的宾语,或 形容词的宾语。根据引导宾语从句的不同连词,宾语从句可分为三类。 1. 由 that 引导的宾语从句。That 只有语法作用,没有实在的意义,在口语 和非正式文体中可以省略。例如: He said (that) he wanted to stay at home. She doesn’t know (that) she is seriously ill. I am sure (that) he will succeed. 2. 由连接代词 who, whom, whose, what, which 和连接副词 when, where, why, how 引导的宾语从句。这些连接代词和连接副词在宾语从句中充当某个成 分。例如: Do you know who (whom) they are waiting foe? He asked whose handwriting was the best. Can you tell me where the No.3 bus stop is? I don’t know why the train is late. 3. 由 if 或 whether 引导的宾语从句。If 和 whether 在句中的意思是―是否‖。 例如: I want to know if (whether) he lives there.
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He asked me whether (if) I could help him. 二. 宾语从句的语序 宾语从句的语序应为陈述句的语序。例如: I hear (that) physics isn’t easy. I think (that) you will like this school soon. Can you tell me how I can get to zoo? Please tell me when we’ll have the meeting. 三. 宾语从句的时态 1. 如果主句的时态是一般现在时, 宾语从句该用什麽时态就用什麽时态。 例如: I don’t think (that) you are right. Please tell us where he is. Can you tell me how I can get to the railway station? 2. 如果主句的时态是一般过去时,宾语从句只能用相应的过去时态(一般过 去时, 过去进行时, 过去将来时,过去完成时) 。例如: He asked what time it was. He told me that he was preparing for the sports meet. He asked if you had written to Peter. He said that he would go back to the U.S. soon. 3. 如果宾语从句所陈述的是客观真理,其时态常用一般现在时。例如: Our teacher said that January is the first month of the year. Scientists have proved that the earth turns around the sun. 【演练】 1. Do you know _______ during the coming summer holiday? A. what will Tom do C. what Tom will do B. what did Tom do D. what Tom did

2. I want to know_________. A. what is his name C. that his name is B. what’s his name D. what his name is

3. Do you know ________ I could pass the exam? A. that B. whether C. what D. which
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4. Jim doesn’t understand ____________. A. which is the way to the museum B. why his wife always goes shopping C. what is the way to the museum D. why does she always go shopping 5. ---Could you tell me ______ she is looking for? A. that B. whose C. who D. which

6. Mr. King didn’t know _______ yesterday evening. A. when does his son come home B. when his son comes home C. when did his son come home D. when his son came home 7. Could you tell me _______ the bike this morning? A. how does he mend C. how he mended B. how he mends D. how did he mend

8. ---I’m waiting for the mail. Do you know ________ it will arrive? ---Usually it comes by 4: 00. A. how B. where C. when D. what

9. ---Excuse me, would you please tell me ________? ---Certainly. Go straight along here. It’s next to a hospital. A. how we can get to the post office B. how can we get to the post office C. how get to the post office D. how could we get to the post office 10. ---Can I help you? ---Yes. I’d like a ticket to Mount Emei. Can you tell me ______ take to get there? A. how soon will it C. how long it will B. how soon it will D. how long will it

11. He wanted to know ___________.
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A. whether he speaks at the meeting B. when the meeting would start C. what he’s going to do at the meeting D. where would the meeting be held 12. ---Could you tell me _________ the Bamboo Garden? ---The day after tomorrow, I think. A. when will you visit C. when would you visit B. when you will visit D. when you would visit

13. Would you please tell me _________ next, Mr Wang? A. what should we do C. what we should do B. we should do what D. should we do what

14. You can’t imagine _________ when they received these nice Christmas presents. A. how they were excited C. how excited were they B. how excited they were D. they were how excited

15. I want to know ________ you will come back at 8:00 tomorrow. A. that B. when C. where D. whether

16. ---Could you tell me ____________? ---Sorry, I don’t know. I was not at the meeting. A. what does he say at the meeting B. what did he say at the meeting C. what he says at the meeting D. what he said at the meeting 17. ---Could you tell me _________ last night? ---Er, I was watching Euro 2004 at home. A. what you were doing C. what you are doing B. what were you doing D. what are you doing

18. The teacher asked the students __________. A. if they were interested in dinosaurs B. when was Albert Einstein born
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C. what they will do with the computers D. how many trees they have planted 19. Every morning the patients are asked if ________ their temperature taken. A. they had had C. they have had B. have they had D. had they had

20. It’s up to you to decide _______ you’ll go there, by air or by road. A. how B. why C. that D. when

【练习答案】 1.C 2.D 3.B 4.B 5.C 6.D 7.C 8.C 9.A 10.C 11.B 12.B 13.C 14.B 15.D 16.D 17.A 18.A 19.C 20.A

【名师点睛】 用来修饰主句中的动词,副词和形容词的从句叫状语从句。根据其含义状语 从句可分为时间状语从句,地点状语从句,条件状语从句, 原因状语从句,结果 状语从句,比较状语从句,目的状语从句,让步状语从句。 1. 时间状语从句 (1)时间状语从句常用 when, as, while, before, after, since, till, until, as soon as 等连词来引导。例如: It was raining hard when got to school yesterday. While he was doing his homework, the telephone rang. As he walked along the lake, he sang happily. He had learned a little Chinese before he came to China. After he finished middle school, he went to work in a factory. (2)在时间状语从句里, 通常不用将来时态, 用现在时态表示将来的动作或状态。 例如: I’ll ring you up as soon as I get to New York.
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I will tell him everything when he comes back. He won’t believe it until he sees it with his own eyes. (3)在带有 till 或 until 引导的时间状语从句的主从复合句里,如果主句用肯定 式,其含义是―一直到……时‖,谓语动词只能用延续性动词。如果主句用否 定式, 其含义是―直到……才……‖, ―在……以前不……‖, 谓语动词可用瞬间 动词。例如: The young man read till the light went out. Let’s wait until the rain stops. We won’t start until Bob comes. Don’t get off until the bus stops. 2. 条件状语从句 (1)条件状语从句通常由 if, unless 引导。例如: What shall we do if it snows tomorrow? Don’t leave the building unless I tell you to. (2)在条件状语从句里,谓语动词通常用现在时态表示将来的动作或状态。例 如: I’ll help you with your English if am free tomorrow. He won’t be late unless he is ill. (3)―祈使句 + and (or)+ 陈述句‖ 在意思上相当于一个带有条件状语从句的复 合句。例如: Hurry up, or you’ll be late. =If you don’t hurry up, you’ll be late. Study hard and you will pass the exam. =If you study hard, you will pass the exam. 3. 原因状语从句 (1)原因状语从句通常由 because, since, as 引导。例如: He didn’t come to school because he was ill. As it is raining, we shall not go the zoo. Since you can’t answer the question, I’ll ask someone else.

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(2)because 表示直接原因,语气最强。Because 引导的原因状语从句多放在主 句之后。回答由 why 提出的问题,只能用 because。As 和 since 语气较弱, 一般用来表示明显的原因。由 as 和 since 引导的原因状语从居多放在句首。 例如: ------Why aren’t going there? ------Because I don’t want to. As he has no car, he can’t get there easily. Since we have no money, we can’t buy it. (3)because 和 so 不能同用在一个句子里。 4. 结果状语从句 (1)结果状语从句由 so…that, such…that, so that 引导。例如: He is so poor that he can’t buy a bike for his son. She is such a good teacher that everybody likes her. My pencil fell under the desk, so that I couldn’t see it. (2)so…that 语 such...that 可以互换。例如: 在由 so...that 引导的结果状语从句中,so 是副词,与形容词连用。其结 构是: ―...so + 形容词(副词)+ that + 从句‖。例如: He was so glad that he couldn’t say a word. The hall is so big that it can hold 2,000 people. Mother lives so far away that we hardly ever see her. 在由 such…that 引导的结果状语从句中,such 是形容词,它修饰的可 以是单数或复数可数名词,也可以是不可数名词;名词前面可以带形容词, 也可不带。如果是单数可数名词,前面需加不定冠词 a 或 an。例如: It was such a hot day that nobody wanted to do anything. He had such long arms that he could almost touch the ceiling. He made such rapid progress that he did very well in the mid-term. 有时上述两种结构是可以互换的。例如: It was such a wonderful film that all of us wanted to see it again. =The film was so wonderful that all of us wanted to see it again. It is such an important match that nobody wants to miss it.
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=The match is so important that nobody wants to miss it. (3)如果名词前由 many, much, little, few 等词修饰时,只能用 so, 不用 such。 例如: Soon there were so many deer that they ate up all the wild roses. He has so little time that he can’t go to the cinema with you. 5. 比较状语从句 比较状语从句通常由 as…as, 比较级 + than…等连词引导。例如: Tom runs faster than John does. This classroom is as big as that one. 6. 目的状语从句 (1)目的状语从句通常由 so that, in order that 引导。例如: We started early so that we could catch the first train. He studies hard so that he could work better in the future. We used the computer in order that we might save time. (2)so that 既可引导目的状语从句,又可引导结果状语从句。区别这两种从句 的办法有两个:1)目的状语从句里往往带有情态动词 can, could, may, might 等。2)从意思上看,目的状语从句往往表示的目的很明确。例如: Speak clearly so that they may understand you. (目的状语从句) Jack is badly ill so that he has to rest. 7. 让步状语从句 (1)让步状语从句通常由 although, though 等连词引导。例如: Though he is young, he knows a lot. Although I am tired, I must go on working. (2)although(though)不能用在同一个句子中。例如: 我们不能说:Though it was raining hard, but he still went out. 应该说: Though it was raining hard, he still went out.或 It was raining hard, but he still went out. 8. 地点状语从句 地点状语从句常常由 where 来引导。例如: Go where you like.
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Where there is a will, there is a way. 【演练】 一. 单项填空 1. _______ he’s old, he can still carry this heavy bag. A. Though B. Since C. For D. So

2. ---Do you know if he _______ to play basket ball with us? ---I think he will come if he ______ free tomorrow. A. comes; is B. comes; will be C. will come; is D. will come; will be 3. In the zoo if a child _____ into the water and can’t swim, the dolphins may come up ______ him. A. will fall; to help C. will fall; help B. falls; to help D. falls; helping

4. I don’t remember ________ he worked in that city when he was young. A. what B. which C. where D. who 5. We will stay at home if my aunt ________ to visit us tomorrow. A. comes B. come C. will come D. is coming

6. The police asked the children _______ cross the street ________ the traffic lights turned green. A. not; before B. don’t; when C. not to; until D. not; after

7. I was late for class yesterday _______ there was something wrong with my bike. A. when B. that C. until D. because

8. I’ll go swimming with you if I ________ free tomorrow. A. will be B. shall be C. am D. was 9. In the exam, the ________ you are, ______ the _______ mistakes you will make. A. careful; little B. more careful; fewest

C. more careful; fewer D. more careful; less 10. You should finish your lessons _______ you go out to paly. A. before B. after C. when D. while
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11. I hurried _____ I wouldn’t be late for class. A. since B. so that C. as if D. unless

12. When you read the book, you’d better make a mark _______ you have any questions. A. which B. that C. where D. though

13. The teacher raised his voice _______ all the students could hear him. A. for B. so that C. because D. in order

14. He took off his coat _______ he felt hot. A. because B. as C. if D. since

15. It is ______ that we’d like to go out for a walk. A. a lovely day C. so lovely a day B. too lovely a day D. such lovely a day

16. Mary had ______ much work to do that she stayed at her office all day. A. such B. so C. too D. very

17. _______ I felt very tired, I tried to finish the work. A. Although B. Because C. As D. As if

18. ______ the day went on, the weather got worse. A. With B. Since C. While D. As

19. ______ well you can drive, you must drive carefully. A. So long as C. No matter how B. In order that D. The moment

20. Write to me as soon as you ________ to Beijing. A. will get B. get 【练习答案】 1.A 2.C 3.B 4.C 5.A 6.C 7.D 8.C 9.C 10.A 11.B 12.C 13.B 14.A 15.C 16.B 17.A 18.D 19.C 20.B C. getting D. got

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一. 定语从句的功用和结构 在复合句中,修饰某一名词或代词的从句叫做定语从句。被定从句修饰的词 叫做先行词。定语从句必须放在先行词之后。引导定语从句的关联词有关系代词 和关系副词。例如: This is the present that he gave me for my birthday. Do you know everybody who came to the party? I still remember the night when I first came to the village? This is the place where Chairman Mao once lived. 二. 关系代词和关系副词的功用 关系代词和关系副词用来引导定于从句,在先行词和定语从句之间起纽带作 用,使二者联系起来。关系代词和关系副词又在定语从句中充当一个成分。关系 待客做主语,宾语,定语,关系副词可作状语。 1. 作主语: 关系代词在定语从句中作主语时, 从句的谓语动词的人称和数须和 先行词一致。例如: I don’t like people who talk much but do little. The cars which are produced in Hubei Province sell very well. 2. 作宾语: She is the person that I met at the school gate yesterday. The book that my grandmother gave me is called ―The Great Escape‖. 3. 作定语 关系代词 whose 在定语从句中作定语用。例如: What’s the name of the young man whose sister is a doctor? The girl whose father is a teacher studies very hard. 4. 作状语 I’ll never forget the day when I first came to Beijing. This is the house where I was born. 三. 各个关系代词和关系副词的具体用法 1. who 指人,在定语从句中作主语。例如:

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The person who broke the window must pay for it. The boy who is wearing the black jacket is very clever. 2. whom 指人,在定语从句中作宾语。例如: Do you know the young man (whom) we met at the gate? Mr Lee (whom) you want to see has come. 3. whose 指人,在定语从句中作定语。例如: The girl whose mother is ill is staying at home today. I know the boy whose father is a professor. 4. which 指物,在定语从中作主语或宾语。例如: A dictionary is a book which gives the meaning of words. Here is the book (which) the teacher mentioned yesterday. 5. that 多指物,有时也指人,在定语从句中作主语或宾语。例如: I’ve read the newspaper that(which) carries the important news. Who is the person that is reading the newspaper over there? 6. when 指时间,在定语从句中作状语。例如: I’ll never forget the time when we worked on the farm. He arrived in Beijing on the day when I left. 7. where 指地点,在定语从句中作状语。例如: This is the house where we lived last year. The factory where his father works is in the east of the city. 四. 关系代词 whom, which 在定语从句中作介词宾语时,可以和介词一起放于 先行词与定语从句之间,有时为了关系紧凑也可以将 whom 与 which 与先 行词紧挨着书写,而将介词置于定语从句的后面,如: That was the room in which we had lived for ten years. = That was the room which we had lived in for ten years. 五. 具体使用时还要注意下列问题: 1. 只能使用 that,不用 which 的情况: (1) 先行词是 all, few, little, nothing, everything, anything 等不定代词时。 例如: All that he said is true.
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(2) 先行词被 only, no, any, all,等词修饰时。例如: He is the only foreigner that has been to that place. (3) 先行词是序数词或被序数词修饰的词。例如: He was the second (person) that told me the secret. (4) 先行词是形容词最高级或被形容词最高级修饰的词。 This is the best book (that) I have read this year. (5) 先行词既包括人又包括物时。例如: He talked about the people and the things he remembered. 2. 只能用 which,不用 that 的情况: (1) 在非限制性定语从中。例如: The meeting was put off, which was exactly what we wanted. (2) 定语从句由介词+关系代词引导,先行词是物时。例如: The thing about which he is talking is of great importance. 【演练】 1. ---Who is the man _______ was talking to our English teacher? ---Oh! It’s Mr Baker, our maths teacher. A. he B. that C. whom D. which

2. I hate the people ________ don’t help others when they are in trouble. A. who B. which C. they D. where

3. The foreigner _________ visited our school is from Canada. A. which B. when C. who D. whom

4. George Mallory was an English school teacher _______ loved climbing. A. who B. whom C. he D. which 5. This is the place A. there _____I have ever visited. C. where D. which

B. when

6. Nobody knows the reason ______ she didn’t come to the meeting. A. that B. which C. why D. when

7. The moon is a world ______ there is no life. A. that B. which C. where D. why

8. He has forgotten the day _______ he arrived.
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A. when

B. where C. that D. which

9. He still remembers the days ______ he spent with your family. A. when B. where C. that D. on which

10. Mr. White, ______ car had been stolen, came to the policeman. A. who B. that C. whose D. which 11. He got to the village _______ his family once lived before liberation. A. that B. which C. when D. where

12. This is the house _______ I want to buy. A. in which B. that C. whose D. where

13. This is the house _______ our beloved Premier Zhou once lived and worked. A. which B. that C. when D. where

14. He didn’t tell me the place _______ he was born. A. that B. which C. when D. where

15. He lived in a small village, ______ was a long way from the railway station. A. that B. which 【练习答案】 1.B 2.A 3.C 4.A 5.D 6.C 7.C 8.A 9.C 10.C 11.D 12.B 13.D 14.D 15.B C. where D. when

【名师点睛】 谓语受主语支配,须和主语在人称和数上保持一致,这叫做主谓一致。主谓 一致一般遵循三条原则:语法一致原则,意义一致原则和就近一致原则。 1. 语法一致的原则 (1)以单数名词或代词,动词不定式短语作主语时,谓语动词要用单数;主语 为复数时,谓语用复数,例如: He goes to school early every morning. The children are playing outside. To work hard is necessary for a student.
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(2)由 and 或 both……and 连接的并列成分作主语时,谓语动词用复数。 例如: Both he and I are right. Mr Black and Mrs Black have a son called Tom. 但并列主语如果指的是同一人,同一事物或同一概念,谓语动词用 单数。例如: His teacher and friend is a beautiful girl. The poet and writer has come. (3)由 and 连接的并列单数主语之前如果分别由 each, every 修饰时,其谓 语动词要用单数形式。例如: In our country every boy and every girl has the right to receive education. Each man and each woman is asked to help. (4)主语是单数时,尽管后面跟有 but ,except, besides, with 等介词短语, 谓语动词仍用单数。例如: The teacher with his students is going to visit the museum. Nobody but two boys was late for class. Bread and butter is a daily food in the west. (5) 一些只有复数形式的名词, people, police, cattle, clothes 等作主语时, 如 谓语动词要用复数。例如: A lot of people are dancing outside. The police are looking for lost boy. (6)由 each, some, any, no, every 构成的复合代词作主语时,谓语动词都用 单数。例如: Is everybody ready? Somebody is using the phone. (7)有两部分构成的物体的名词,如 glasses, shoes, trousers, chopsticks, scissors 等作主语时,谓语动词用复数。例如: Where are my shoes? I can’t find them. Your trousers are dirty. You’d better change them.
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如果这类名词前用了 a pair of 等,则往往用作单数,谓语动词的单复 数形式往往取决于 pair 的单复数形式。例如: Here are some new pairs of shoes. My new pair of socks is on the bed. 2. 意义一致的原则 (1)表时间、距离、价格、度量衡等的名词作主语时,谓语动词通常用单数。 例如: Twenty years is not a long time. Ten dollars is too dear. (2)有些集合名词,如 family, team 等作主语时,如作为一个整体看待,谓 语动词用单数;如指其中每个成员,则用复数。例如: My family is big one. My family are watching TV. (3)不定代词由 all, most, more, some, any, none 作主语时,也要依这些代词 表示的意义来决定谓语动词的单复数形式。如果代词代表复数可数名词, 谓语动词用复数;如果代词代表单数可数名词或不可数名词,谓语动词 用单数。例如: All of the work has been finished. All of the people have gone. (4)疑问代词作主语时,其谓语动词也有两种情况:主语表示复数意义,谓 语动词用复数;主语表示单数意义,则谓语动词用单数。例如: Who is your brother? Who are League members? (5) ―分数或百分数+of+名词‖构成的词组作主语时, 其谓语动词要以 of 后面 的名词而定。名词是复数,谓语动词用复数:名词是单数,谓语动词用 单数。例如: It is said that 35 per cent of the doctors are women. Three –fourths of the surface of the earth is sea. (6)half, the rest 等表示不定数量的名词作主语时,如果所指为复数意义,

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动词用复数;如果所指为单数意义,动词用单数。例如: I have read a large part of the book, the rest is more difficult. Only ten students attended the class because all the rest were off sick. (7)由 what 引导地主于从句作主语时,通常谓语动词用单数形式。但如果 所指内容为复数意义时,谓语动词用复数形式。例如: What she said is correct. What she left me are a few old books. (8)凡是以―定冠词+形容词(或分词)‖作主语,往往根据意义一致的原则 决定谓语动词的单复数形式。如果这种主语指的是一类人,谓语动词用 复数;如果指的是一个人或抽象概念,谓语动词用单数形式。例如: The sick have been cured and the lost have been found. The dead is a famous person. 3. 邻近一致的原则 (1) 由连词 or, either……or, neither……nor, not only…but also,等连接的并

列主语,如果一个是单数,一个是复数,则谓语动词按就近一致原则, 与最靠近它的主语一致。例如: Either you or I am right. Neither the children nor the teacher knows anything about it. (2)在―There be‖ 句型中,谓语动词和靠近的主语一致。 There are two apples and one egg in it. (3)as well as 和名词连用时,谓语动词和第一个名词相一致。 He as well as I is responsible for it. 不但是我,他对这件事也有责任。 (4)以here开头的句子,其谓语动词和靠近的主语一致。 Here is a letter and some books for you. 【演练】 1. They said the eighteenth and last lesson _______ quite easy. A. is B. was C. are D. were 2. ---When are you going to Kumming for your holidays? ---I haven’t decided. ______ this Sunday ______ next Sunday is OK.
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A. Both; and

B. Either; or C. Neither; nor D. Not only; but also

3. ______ Helen ______ Joan speaks beautiful Chinese after they came to China. A. Neither; nor B. Not only; but also C. Both; and 4. _______ of them has his own opinion. A. Both B. Some C. Every D. Each D. A and B

5. Are there any _______ on the farm? A. horse B. duck C. chicken D. sheep

6. My shirt _____ white and my trousers _____ blue. A. are; are C. is; is B. are; is D. is; are

7. ------Two months _______ quite a long time. ------Yes. I’m afraid that he will miss a lot of lessons. A. is B. are C. was D. were 8. The old man has two children but _____ of them lives with him. A. both B. none C. neither D. all 9. Our knowledge of computer _____ growing all the time. A. be B. is C. are D. were 10. Everyone except Tom and John _____ there when the meeting began. A. is B. was C. are D. were 11. Most of the houses _______ this year. A. has built B. have built

C. has been built D. have been built 12. I think maths _____ very difficult to learn. A. is B. are C. has D. have 13. A large number of students _____ to work in Xingjiang. A. have gone B. has gone C. goes D. is going 14. The number of the students in the class ______ small. A. are B. is C. have D. were 15. There _____ a lot of good news in today’s newspaper. A. is B. are C. was D. were
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【练习答案】 1. B 2.B 3.D 4.D 5.D 6.D 7.A 8.C 9.B 10.B11.D 12.A 13.A 14.B 15.A

1. 短语动词的分类 (1)动词+介词 常见的有 look for, look after, ask for, laugh at, hear of 等。这类短语动 词的宾语只能放在介词后。如: Don’t laugh at others. Tom asked his parents for a bike. (2)动词+副词 常见的有 give up, pick up, think over, find out, hand in,等。这类短语动 词的宾语如果是名词,既可放在副词前边,又可放在副词后边;宾语如果是 人称代词或反身代词,则要放在副词前边。如: You’ll hand in your homework tomorrow. Please don’t forget to hand it in. (3)动词+副词+介词 常见的有 go on with, catch up with 等。这类短语动词的宾语只能放在 介词后边。如: Go on and I’ll catch up with you in five minutes. After a short rest, he went on with his research work. (4)动词+名词+介词 常见的有 take care of, make use of, pay attention to, make fun of 等。 这类短语动词的宾语只能放在介词后边。如: You should pay attention to your handwriting. We should make full use of our time. (5)动词+形容词 常见的有 leave open, set free, cut open 等。这类短语动词的宾语如果是

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名词,则宾语可放在形容词的前边,也可放在后边;宾语如果是人称代词或 反身代词,则必须放在形容词前边。如: The prisoners were set free. He cut it open. (6)动词+名词 常见的有 take place, make friends 等。这类短语动词用作不及物动词。 如: This story took place three years ago. I make friends with a lot of people. 2. 短语动词的辨析 (1)be made in(在……生产或制造) ,be made of(由……组成或构成) (2)come down(下来;落),come along(来;随同),come to oneself(苏醒),come true(实现),come out(花开;发芽;出现;出来),come over(过来;顺便 来访) ,come in(进来),come on(来吧;跟着来;赶快), come up with(找到; 提出) (3)do one’s best(尽最大努力), do well in(在……干得好), do one’s homework(做作业),do some reading(阅读) (4)fall asleep(入睡),fall behind(落在…..后面),fall off(从……掉下),fall down(到下;跌倒) (5)get down(下来; 落下), on(上车), to(到达), up(起床), back(回 get get get get 来; 取回), off(下来), on well with(与……相处融洽), married(结 get get get 婚),get together(相聚) (6)give up(放弃),give…a hand(给与……帮助),give a concert(开音乐会) (7)go back(回去),go on(继续),go home(回家),go to bed(睡觉),go over(过 一遍; 仔细检查), out(外出; go 到外面), wrong(走错路), on doing(继 go go 续做某事), shopping(买东西), boating(去划船), go fishing(去钓鱼), go go go hiking(去徒步旅行), skating(去滑冰), straight along(沿着……一 go go 直往前走) (8)have a look(看一看), have a seat 坐下) have supper 吃晚餐) have a rest ( , ( ,

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(休息), have sports(进行体育活动), have a cold(感冒), have a cough (咳嗽), have a good time(过得愉快), have a headache(头痛) ,have a try(尝试;努力) (9)look for(寻找),look out(留神; 注意),look over(仔细检查),look up(向上 看;抬头看),look after(照顾; 照看),look at(看; 观看),look like(看起 来像),look the same(看起来像), (10)make friends(交朋友),make phone calls(打电话),make money(赚钱), make the bed(整理床铺), make a noise(吵闹), make a face(做鬼脸), make one’s way to(往……走去),make room for(给……腾出地方),make a decision(做出决定),make a mistake(犯错误),make up one’s mind(下决 心) (11)put on(上演;穿上;戴上),put up(挂起;举起),put down(把某物放 来),put away(把某物收起来), put off(推迟) (12)take off(脱掉衣服),take photos(照相),take time(花费时间),take out( 出),take a seat(坐下),take an active part in(积极参加),take care of(照 顾;照料;注意),take exercise(做运动),take one’s place(坐某人的位置; 代替某人的职务),take turn(轮流) (13)talk about(谈话;交谈),talk with(和……交谈) (14)turn on(打开电灯,收音机,煤气,自来水等),turn off(关上电灯,收机, 煤气,自来水等),turn down(关小;调低),turn…over(把…..翻过来) (15)think of(认为;想起),think about(考虑) 3.句子的基本句型结构 根据句子所用动词的不同,句子可归纳为五个基本句型。 (1)主语+连系动词+表语。例如: My mother is a doctor. Her voice sounds nice. (2)主语+不及物动词。例如: He runs fast. We study hard.

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(3)主语+及物动词+宾语。例如: Children often sing this song. He studies English. 1)常用-ing 形式, 而不用不定式作宾语的动词有:enjoy, finish, feel like, consider, practise, keep, suggest, mind 等。例如: She enjoys reading novels and swimming. I finished reading the book last night. 2)常用不定式,而不用-ing 形式作宾语的动词有:wish, hope, agree, plan, decide, refuse 等。例如: Where do wish to sit? Tom agreed to lend some money. 3)有些及物动词既可用不定式,由可用-ing 形式作宾语,但意义不同。这 类动词常见的有:remember, forget 等。例如: Please remember to post the letter for me. 请记住替我发了这封信。 I remember posting the letter. 我记得那封信寄过了。 Stop 的用法同上面的词相仿,不过 stop 后面跟不定式不是作宾语, 而是作状语。试比较下列句子: He stopped to smoke. 他停下来吸烟。 He stopped smoking. 他停止吸烟了。 4)有些及物动词的宾语,既可用不定式,又可用-ing 形式,意义基本相同。 这类动词常见的有:like, love, hate, begin, start, continue 等。例如: I like to swim in summer. I like swimming in summer. (4)主语+及物动词+ 间接宾语+直接宾语。例如: My father bought me a new bike. He gave me an apple. 1)及物动词之后跟有双宾语,往往一个指人,一个指物。指人的为间接宾语,

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指物的为直接宾语。一般情况下,间接宾语在前,直接宾语在后。如果要 把间接宾语放在直接宾语之后,间接宾语前需加介词。例如: Please pass me a cup of tea.= Please pass a cup of tea to me. Show me your new book, please. =Please show your new book to me. 2)把间接宾语放在直接宾语之后,间接宾前有时加介词 to, 有时加介词 for,这 主要取决于谓语动词。一般在动词 give, tell, sell, lend, show 之后加 to。在 动词 buy, make, get 等之后加 for。例如: Would you lend me your dictionary, please? =Would you lend your dictionary to me, please? Tom’s mother bought him a pair of new shoes. =Tom’s mother bought a pair of new shoes for him. (5)主语+及物动词+宾语+宾语补足语。例如: We keep our classroom clean and tidy. I hear someone singing in the next room. 1)及物动词指后跟有复合宾语,一个是宾语,一个是宾语补足语。宾语和宾 语补足语之间有逻辑上的主谓关系。例如: We call him Jack. Don’t get your hands dirty. 2)在及物动词之后,用不定式作宾语补足语和用-ing 形式作宾语补足语表示 的意思往往不同。用不定式作宾语补足语指事情的全过程;用-ing 形式作 宾语补足语指正在进行的动作的一部分。例如: I heard him sing that song. (我听他唱过那首歌。) When I came back, I heard him singing in the room. (我回来时,听见他正在房间里唱歌。) 3)在感官动词 see, hear, feel, watch, listen to, look at 使役动词 let, make, have 等的复合宾语种,不定式须省去 to。但变为被动句时,省去的 to 要加上。例如: I saw him go into the room. He was seen to go into the room.

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【演练】 1. Would you please drive faster ? My flight is _________. A. taking off B. getting off C. turning off D. putting off

2. On October 15, 2003 China _______ its first man-made spaceship, which made Yang Liwei a hero to many kids. A. set out B. Set off C. sent up D. sent out

3. ---How is the play going ? ---We are going to _______ the day after tomorrow. A. put on it B. put it off C. put it on D. put it off

4. Mr Green is busy _______ the newspaper while his wife is busy ______ the housework. A. reading ; with B. to read ; with C. to read ; doing D. with ; to do

5. We have to _______ our things if we travel on a train or a bus. A. look at B. look up C.look like D. look after

6. ---If you ______ a new idea, please call me as soon as possible. --- Sure, I will. A. keep up with B. catch up with C. feed up with D. come up with

7. ---Zhou Jielun is so cool. I’m his fan. ---____________. A. So do I B. So I do C. So am I D. So I am 8. ---Your new sweater looks beautiful. Is it _______ pure wool ? ---Yes, and it’s _______ Inner Mongolia. A. made by ; made for C. made of ; made in B. made of ; made by D. Made by ; made from

9. Please _______ the box carefully. It is filled with glasses A. put down B. put on C. put off D. put together

10. ---________ ! There’s a car coming ! ---Oh. Thanks. A. Look over B. Look up 11. ---Look! The bus is coming.
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C. Look on

D. Look out

---But it’s full of people. We can’t ______ . A.get off B. get down C. get on with D. get on

12. ---Excuse me. Where’s the Science Museum? ---Take No.3 bus and ______ at the fourth stop. A. get on B. get off C. get up D. get to

13. It’s very cold today. You’d better put _____ your coat when you go out. A. away B. down C. on D. up

14. Miss Li told the children to walk one after another. She didn’t want them to ______ in the park A. get wrong B. get away C. get lost D. get ready 15. The flowers start to _____ in spring. A. come in B. come out C. come from D. come to

16. Lucy, could you please help me _____ the map on the blackboard? A. put into B. put up C. put out D. put on

17. ―Get a ladder, please. I can’t _____ .‖ Jim said in a tall tree. A. come back B. come out C. come down D. come over

18. I have ____ my parents, and now I’m answering it. A. heard of B. heard from C. heard D. heard about

19. I can’t see the words clearly. Can I _____ the light? A. turn on B. put off C. hold on D. take off

20. As soon as the man walked into the warm room, he _____ his heavy coat and sat down. A. took away B. took down 【练习答案】 1.A 2.C 3.C 4.A 5.D 6.D 7.C 8.C 9.A 10.D 11.D1 2.B 13.C14.C 15.B 16.B 17.C 18.B 19.A 20.C C. took off D. took up

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阅读下面短文,掌握其大意,然后从每小题所给的四个选项中选出一个最 佳答案。

These days computer games have become more and more popular in many cities and towns. A lot of small shops along busy __1__ have changed into computer game houses to get more __2__. These places are always crowded with people. In the computer game houses, people__3__ a lot of money matching on the machines. It’s __4__ for one to beat a computer, but one can do well after trying again and again. People want to __5__ when they play computer games. The more they __6__, the more they want to win, and at last they even can’t __7__ without it. The result is that some people don’t want to __8__ and they play in computer game houses for hours and hours. For school boys, things are __9_. They don’t want to have __10__. When school is over, they rush to the computer game houses near their __11__. Some of them can get enough money from their __12__. Some of them are not __13__ enough to get the money. So they have to steal or rob others’

and become __14__. Computer game addiction( 上 瘾 ) is a __15__ problem in our life. Something has to be done to stop it. 1. A. streets 2. A. boys 3. A. take 4. A. possible 5. A. read B. schools B. money B. spend B. easy B. learn C. towns C. computers C. cost C. good C. win
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D. cities D. students D. pay D. hard D. download

6. A. lose 7. A. come 8. A. watch TV 9. A. better 10. A. lessons 11. A. classes 12. A. classmates 13. A. lucky 14. A. good 15. A. important

B. try B. live B. go out B. exciting B. games B. rooms B. teachers B. unlucky B. bad B. wonderful

C. waste C. study C. stay there C. even worse C. families C. schools C. sisters C. careful C. rich C. unusual

D. watch D. eat D. work D. interesting D. sports D. shops D. parents D. polite D. poor D. serious

B Concorde’s Birthday CONCORDE, the world’s fastest traveler plane, will soon be over 33 years old. It first __1__ on 2 March, 1969 in France. Concorde was developed __2__ both France and Britain. From 1956 these two countries had a __3__ of a supersonic(超声速的)traveler plane. In 1962 they started to __4__

together on the plan. The plane __5__ over 1.5 billion pounds to develop. It is the most tested plane in the history. It __6__over 5,000 hours of testing. Concorde flies at twice the speed of __7__. This means that it __8__ only 3 hours 25 minutes to fly between London and New York, compare with 7-8 hours in other traveler planes. __9__ the five-hour time difference between the USA and Britain, it is __10__ to travel west on Concorde and arrive in New York before you leave London! You can catch the 10:30a.m. __11__ from London, Heathrow and start work in New York an hour __12__! Concorde is much used by business people and film stars. Each Concorde is built __13__ a cost of 55 million pounds. Twenty have been built __14__. Air France and British Airway __15__ the most. They each have seven planes. 1. A. invented 2. A. for B. produced B. by C. flew C. from
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D. took off D. with

3. A. talk 4. A. work 5. A. paid 6. A. gave 7. A. sound 8. A. spends 9. A. Because of 10. A. possible 11. A. plane 12. A. later 13. A. with 14. A. so well 15. A. build

B.fight B. do B. wanted B. was giving B. voice B. takes B. Thanks to B. impossible B. passenger B. late B. at B. so soon B. own

C. meeting C. carry C. needed C. was given C. noise C. costs C. Give up C. real C. flight C. earlier C. for C. so expensive C. sell

D. dream D. finish D. cost D. had given D. shout D. travels D. Think of D. unreal D. airline D. early D. on D. so far D. make

C One afternoon just before Christmas, an old man was walking __1__ the city center. The shops were all full of good things and they __2__ with cheerful shoppers. Suddenly he saw a dirty boy sitting on the ground crying sadly. When the __3__ old man asked him why he __4__, the little boy told him that he had __5__ a ten penny piece that his uncle__6__ him. At once the old man pulled out a handful of coins. He__7__ out a shining new ten penny piece and handed it to the child. ―Thank you very much,‖ said the little boy, drying his __8___. He cheered up at once. An hour or so later, the old man was making his way __9__ home by the same road. To his __10__he saw the dirty little boy in the same place, crying sadly as 11__. He went up to the boy and asked him 12 he had lost the

ten penny piece he had __13__given him as well. The boy told him that he had not lost the second coin 14 he still couldn’t find the first one. ―__15__

I could find my own piece,‖ he cried, ―I would have twenty pence now.‖ 1. A. by B. between
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C. through

D. over

2. A .were crowded 3. A. angry 4. A. cried 5. A. spent 6. A. had taken 7. A. picked 8. A. mouth 9. A. on 10. A. surprise 11. A. usually 12. A. where 13. A. just 14. A. and 15. A. When

B. were crowding B. sad B. had cried B. left B. had brought B. made B. eyes B. back B. joy B. usual B. when B. just now B. but B. Since

C. crowded C. happy C. was crying C. paid C. had given C. gave C. feet C. to C. sadness C. before C. why C. right now C. while C. If

D. had crowded D. kind D. would cry D. lost D. had borrowed D. left D. ears D. for D. excitement D. well D. if D. now D. as D. As

D The world itself is becoming much smaller by using modern traffic and modern communication means 通讯设备) ( . 1 today is much easier than 2 .One of the

it was hundreds of years ago,but it has brought new

biggest is pollution. pollute means to make things dirty. To Pollution comes in many ways.We see it, 3 it,drink it and even hear it. 4 people , the more 5 there were

Man has been polluting the earth . The

pollution. Many years ago, pollution was not so serious the

not so many people.When the land was used up or the river was dirty in one place,man 6 to another place.But this is no longer true.Man is now

slowly polluting the whole world. Air pollution is now the most serious.It’s 7 for all living things in

the world , but it is not the only one kind of pollution . Water pollution 8 our fish and pollutes our drinking water.Noise pollution

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makes us become

9 more easily. 10

Many countries are making rules to fight pollution. They

people from burning coal(煤)in houses and factories in the city,and from putting dirty 11 into the air. 12 kind of air pollution.It is 13 ,there

Pollution by SO2 is now the most

caused by heavy traffic.It is true that if there are fewer people will be less air pollution.

The earth is our home.We must take care of it.That means land,water and air clean.And we must take care of the at the same time. 1.A.Flight 2.A.difficulties 3.A.smell 4.A.better 5.A.if 6.A.flew 7.A.bad 8.A.helps 9.A.hungry 10.A.continue 11.A.fire 12.A.dangerous 13.A.driving 14.A.increasing 15.A.rise B.Sleeping B.business B.touch B.more B.because B.ran B.safe B.treats B.angry B.finish B.litter B.important B.playing B.producing B.information C.Life C.jobs C.dream C.fewer C.until C.moved C.hard C.frightens C.excited C.stop C.wind C.interesting C.swimming C.keeping C.price 15



in pollution

D.Meeting D.problems D.want D.stranger D.when D.arrived D.possible D.kills D.sad D.start D.smoke D.popular D.dancing D.making D.progress

完形填空参考答案 A篇 1.A 2.B 3.B 4.D 5.C 15.D 6.A 7.B 8.D 9.C 10.A

11.C 12.D

13.A 14.B

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11.C 12.C 13.B C篇 1.C 2.A 3.D

14.D 15.B 4.C 5.D 15.C 5.B 6.C 7.A 8.D 9.B 10.C 6.C 7.A 8.B 9.B 10.A

11.C 12.D D篇 1.C 11.D 2.D 12.A

13.A 14.B 3.A 4.B

13.A 14.C 15.B

阅读下列短文,从每小题所给的四个选项中,选出一个能回答所提问题或 完成所给句子的最佳答案。 A Mr. Read was born in a small village with high mountains all around it.He has few fields and he can’t get enough food for his family.He’s often worried about it.So he works harder and harder and tries his best to get more money. One afternoon, Read went out to look for some grass for his cows. Mr. It was very hot and he had to have a swim. Suddenly he saw a big tortoise in the water. swam there and caught it. next morning he went to the town to He The sell it in the markets.When he was walking in the street, a car hit him down and he was hurt.He was sent to hospital at once.The doctors looked him over and had an operation on him.Two weeks later he felt much better.The doctors were satisfied with the operation and said,―You’ll be fully recovered in a week.We’re sure you can write when you leave hospital.‖ ―It’s really a miracle(奇迹) !‖shouted Mr. Read,―I could neither read nor write before!‖ 1.The Reads have little food because A.they live in a small village C.they’re too lazy to work B.they have few fields D.nobody would help them to getmoney

2.Mr. Read jumped into the river because

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A.he wanted to get some grass in the water B.he wanted to look for a tortoise in the water C.he wanted to have a good rest in the water D.he wanted to have a swim 3.Mr. Read’s A.head was hurt in the traffic accident. B.leg C.right hand D.left hand

4.In Chinese the phrase―be fully recovered‖means A.完全覆盖 B.全部找回 C.恢复疲劳 D.恢复健康

5. What the doctor said meant that ______________ . A. he did a very successful operation B. the farmer was lucky enough to write after the operation C. the accident helped the farmer to write D. he taught the farmer to write while he was staying in hospital

B Happiness is for everyone. You don’t need to care about those people who have beautiful houses with large gardens and swimming pools or those who have nice cars and a lot of money and so on. Why? Because those who have big houses may often feel lonely and those who have cars may want to walk on the country roads at their free time. In fact, happiness is always around you if you put your heart into it. When you are in trouble at school, your friends will help you; when you study hard at your lessons, your parents are always taking good care of your life and your health; when you get success, your friends will say congratulations to you; when you do something wrong, people around you will help you to correct it. And when you do something good to others, you will feel happy, too. All these are your happiness. If you notice them, you can see that happiness is always around you. Happiness is not the same as money. It is a feeling of your heart. When you are poor, you can also say you are very happy, because you have
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something else that can’t be bought with money. When you meet with difficulties, you can say loudly you are very happy, because you have more chances to challenge yourself. So you cannot always say you are poor and you have bad luck. As the saying goes, life is like a revolving(旋转 ) door. When it closes, it also opens. If you take every chance you get, you can be a happy and lucky person. 1. Happiness is for_________. A. those who have large and beautiful houses C. those who have a lot of money B. those who have cars D. all people

2. When you do something wrong, _______________. A. you may correct it C. anybody will laugh at you B. you will have no chance to challenge yourself D. you will be happy

3. Which is TRUE according to the passage? A. When you get success, your friends will be very proud of you. B. You can get help from others when you make mistakes. C. You can still be a happy person even if you have little money. D. All the above. 4. Why do we say ―Happiness is not the same as money‖? Because ___________. A. money always brings happiness B. money doesn’t always bring happiness D. only rich people have happiness

C. everything can be bought with money 5. Which is the title of the passage? A. Do Something Good to Others C. Happiness

B. Happy and Lucky D. Life and Success

C One night, a little before nine o’clock, Dr Johnson was answering a telephone call. He was asked to go and give an operation to a very sick boy at once. The boy was in a small hospital in Glens Falls, sixty miles away from Dr Johnson’s city – Albany. The boy had hurt himself in a traffic accident. His wife was in danger, but his family was so poor that they could not pay the
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doctor anything. After he heard all this, Dr Johnson was driving carefully. He thought that he could get to the hospital before 12 o’clock. A few minutes later, the doctor’s car had to stop for a red light at a crossing. Suddenly a man in an old black coat opened the door of the car and got in. ―Drive on‖, he said. ―I’ve got a gun (枪).‖ ―I’m a doctor,‖ said Johnson, ―I’m on my way to a hospital to operate on a very sick…‖ ―Don’t talk,‖ said the man in the old black coat, ―Just drive.‖ A mile out of the town he ordered the doctor to stop the car and get out. Then the man drove on down the road. The doctor stood for a moment in the snow. After half an hour, Dr Johnson found a telephone and called a taxi. At the railway station he learned that the next train to Glens Falls would not leave until 12 o’clock. It was after two o’clock in the morning when the doctor arrived at the hospital in Glens Falls. Miss Clarke, a nurse, was waiting for him. ―I did my best,‖ said Dr Johnson. Miss Clarke said, ―The boy died an hour ago.‖ They walked into the waiting room. There sat the man in the old black coat, with his head in his hands. ―Mr. Shute,‖ said Miss Clarke to the man, ―this is Dr Johnson. He had come all the way from Albany to try to save your boy.‖ 1. From the story we know it took Dr Johnson _________ to get to the hospital. A. 12 hours B. 7 hours C. only 1 hour D. about 5 hours

2. Dr Johnson was late because __________. A. there was something wrong with his car B. a strange man made it hard to drive C. a strange man drove his car away D. the train to Glens Falls was late 3. From the story we know Dr Johnson _________. A. was a good man, he didn’t care for the money
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B. hurt himself on the way to Glens Falls C. did the operation and boy was saved D. wouldn’t do the operation until the boy’s family paid the money 4. The man in a black coat __________. A. hit the boy and ran away C. was the boy’s father B. took the boy to the hospital D. was the real doctor

5. The man in black would feel __________ in the end. A. happy and pleased C. worried and angry B. regretful(悔恨) and sad D. tired and hungry

D. The Singing Doctor Nick Petrella is a doctor in Montreal. He works 60 hours a week. He has to take care of 159 patients a week in the hospital and at his office. He’s been a doctor for ten years. Dr. Petrella gives his patients good medical advice. But he doesn’t just tell his patients what to do. He also sings to them on television! Dr. Petrella has his own TV show. The doctor starts the show with a song and then gives medical advice. He explains a medical problem or disease in simple language. After that, he sings another song. Dr. Petrella produces and performs in his own show every week. The program is very popular with his patients and with people who enjoy his singing. His dream is to perform(表演) in Las Vegas. His favorite songs are love songs, and he has a small disk of love songs that he wrote. Dr. Petrella says, ―I always loved to sing. All my problems are gone when I sing.‖ But when Dr. Petrella was young, his father didn’t want him to be a singer, so he went to medical school. Some people tell Dr. Petrella he can help people more as a doctor. But Dr. Petrella says he helps people when he sings, too. ―I like to make people smile. Sometimes it’s difficult to make a sick person smile. Medicine and

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entertainment 娱乐) both try to do the same thing. They try to make people ( feel good.‖ 1. Dr. Petrella works 60 hours a week, because he ____________________. A. gives his patients medical advice C. sings on television B. takes care of 159 patients a week D. has his own TV show

2. Dr. Petrella _____________________, so he is called a singing doctor. A. has been a doctor for ten years C. is popular with his patients B. always loved to sing D. also sings to his patients on TV

3. In his TV show, Dr. Petrella ___________________. A. sings and gives medical advice B. sings about different diseases

C. starts to explain diseases with a song D. sings love songs he wrote 4. Dr. Petrella’s show is popular ________________. A. in Las Vegas. C. with people who like his singing B. at medical school D. with patients in Montreal

5. Dr. Petrella says he likes to __________________. A. help people sing C. do the same thing B. make people feel better D. make difficult people smile

E. 66 Days at Sea A couple from Miami, Bill and Simone Bultler, spent sixty-six days in a life-raft(救生艇) in the seas of Central America after their boat sank. Twenty-one days after they left Panama in their boat, Siboney, they met some whales. ―They started to hit the side of the boat,‖ said Bill, ―and then suddenly we heard water.‖ Two minutes later, the boat was sinking. They jumped into the life-raft and watched the boat go under the water. For twenty days they had tins of food, biscuits, and bottles of water. They also had a fishing-line and a machine to make salt water into drinking water – two things which saved their lives. They caught eight to ten fish a day and ate them raw(生的). Then the line broke. ―So we had no more fish until something very strange happened. Some sharks came to feed, and the fish
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under the raft were afraid and came to the surface. I caught them with my hands.‖ About twenty ships passed them, but no one saw them. After fifty days at sea their life-raft was beginning to break up. Then suddenly it was all over. A fishing boat saw them and picked them up. They couldn’t stand up. So the captain(船长) carried them onto his boat and took them to Costa Rica. Their two months at sea was over. 1. Bill and Simone were travelling _____________ when they met some whales. A. in a life-raft B. in Miami C. in Siboney D. in Panama

2. The whales hit the side of the boat, and then ____________. A. they broke the side of the boat C. they pulled the boat B. they brought in a lot of water D. they went under the water

3. After their boat sank , the couple ______________. A. jumped into the life-raft B. heard water

C. watched the boat go under water D. stayed in the life-raft 4. During their days at sea, ___________ saved their lives. A. tins of food and bottles of water C. whales and sharks B. a fishing-line and a machine D. twenty passing ships

5. When they saw the fishing boat which later picked them up, ____________. A. they were too excited to stand up B. they couldn’t wait to climb onto the boat C. their life-raft was beginning to break up D. they knew their two months at sea would be over

F From a plane we can see the fields, cities, mountains or seas below. If we go into space, we see more and more of the earth. People and man-made satellites have been sent out into space to look at the earth carefully and people have learnt more about the earth in the last few years. The sea looks very beautiful when the sun is shining on it. But it can be
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very terrible when there is a strong wind. The sea is very big. It nearly covers three quarters of the earth. The sea is also very deep in some places. There is one place and at that place the sea is about 11 kilometers deep. The highest mountain in the world is about 9 kilometers high. If that mountain was put into the sea at that place, there would be still 2 kilometers of water above it! In most parts of the sea, there are many kinds of fishes and plants. Some live near the top of the sea. Others live deep down. There are also a lot of small living things, and lots of fishes live by eating them. The sea can be very cold. When people go down, the sea becomes colder and colder. Only some men can go down into the deep sea. But, in 1970, five women scientists (科学家) lived in the deep sea for fourteen days. 1. This passage is_________. A. a short story B. for science reading C. a piece of news D.a report

2. The sea covers about _______of the earth. A One third B. One fourth C. Two quarters D.Three fourths

3. _______are not mentioned (提及) in this passage. A. Islands B. Fishes C. Plants D. Living things

4. Which of the following is NOT true? A. The sea is usually beautiful when the sun is shining. B. The sea is always very terrible when the wind blows hard. C. The highest mountain is in the deepest place of the sea. D. The deeper the people go into the sea, the colder they will feel. 5. The last sentence ―But, in 1970, five women scientists lived in the deep sea for fourteen days.‖ means that________. A. women wanted to live in the deep sea for a long time B. women could go deeper into the sea than men C. women liked living in the deep sea better than men D. women could do the same work as men

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阅读理解参考答案 A篇 B篇 C篇 D篇 E篇 F篇 1.B 2.D 3.C 3.D 3.A 3.A 3.D 3.A 4.D 4.B 4.C 4.C 4.B 4.C 5.A 5.C 5.B 5.B 5.D 5.D

1.D 2.A 1.D 2.C 1.B 2.D

1.C 2.A 1.B 2.D

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