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【人教版必修1】2014高考英语一轮复习课件:1.4Earthquakes


教 材 面 面 观 单词拓展 1.________n.地震 2. ________n.事件;大事 3. ________n.民族;国家 ________adj. ________n.国籍 4. ________n.污垢;灰尘 ________adj. 5. ________n.苦难;痛苦 ________vt. & vi.遭受;受苦 6.________n.&

vt. & vi .休克;打击;(使 )震惊 ________adj. 震惊的 ________adj.令人震惊的 7. ________n. & vt.援救;营救 8. ________n.电;电流;电学 ________adj.电的;用电的 ________adj.发电的



9. ________n.祝贺;(复数 )贺词 ________vt.祝贺 10.________n.骑自行车的人 ________vt.骑自行车 11. ________vt.(使)惊吓,吓唬 ________adj.受惊的;受恐吓 ________adj.令人恐惧的 12.________vt.表示;表达 ________n. 13.________adj.极度的 ________adv. 14.________adj.无用的;无效的 ________opp. 15.________adv.真诚地;真挚地 ________adj.

短语回顾 1.________away 立刻,马上 2. ________an end 结束;终结 3. dig________ 掘出;发现 4. think________of 考虑的少,满不在乎 5. ________hope 失去希望 6. ________if 仿佛;好像 7. in________ 严重受损;破败不堪 8. ________(great)number of 许多,大量的 9. tens________thousands of 数以万计的 10. be________of 以??而自豪

句型背诵 1.What________ ________ ________ will happen before an earthquake? 你认为地震前会发生什么事? 2. Then, later that afternoon, another big quake which was almost ________ ________ ________ ________ ________ ________ shook Tangshan. 接着,在下午晚些时候,又一次几乎和第一次一样的强烈的地 震震撼着唐山。 3. _______ _______ _______ _______the world was at an end! 似乎是世界末日到了! 4. ________hope was________lost. 不是所有的希望都破灭了。 5 . Workers built shelters for survivors ________ ________ ________ ________ ________. 救援人员为那些家园被毁的幸存者盖起了避难所。

自我诊断 单词拓展 1. earthquake 2.event 3.nation, national, nationality 4. dirt, dirty 5.suffering, suffer 6.shock, shocked, shocking 7. rescue 8.electricity, electric, electrical 9.congratulation, congratulate 10.cyclist , cycle 11.frighten , frightened , frightening 12.express, expression 13.extreme, extremely 14. useless, useful 15.sincerely, sincere 短语回顾 1. right 2.at 3.out 4.little 5.lose 6.as 7.ruins 8.a 9. of 10.proud 句型背诵 1. do you think 2.as strong as the first one 3.It seemed as if 4.All; not 5.whose homes had been destroyed

考 点 串 串 讲 重点单词 1.bury vt.埋葬,掩埋;隐藏;使沉浸,使专心;插入,刺入 ● 用法拓展 bury sth. in...把??埋到??里 bury one's face in hands 双手掩面 bury (oneself) in 埋头于;专心于 be buried in 朝着于;专心于 be buried alive 被活埋

① The paper was buried under a pile of books. 那份文件被埋在书堆下。 ② He had learned to bury his feelings. 他学会了掩饰内心的情感。 ③ He walked slowly, his hands a buried in his pockets. 他走得很慢,两手插在衣袋里。 ④ Since she left, he has buried himself in work. 自从她走后,他全心扑在工作上。 ⑤ She sat there, buried in thought. 她坐在那儿,陷入了沉思。

即境活用 单项填空 ________deep down in the earth, the dead forests rotted away and became coal. A. Burying B.Buried C. To bury D. Having buried

答案:B

2.everywhere 副词,作连词引导地点状语从句,意为 “??的 所有地方” 。 Everywhere I go, I find the same thing. 凡我所到之处,均发现相同的事情。 ● 用法拓展 能引导状语从句的副词和短语还有: immediately/instantly/directly 刚刚;立刻;马上 every/each time 每次 the moment/minute/instant 一??就?? the first/last/next time 第一 /最后 /下一次

① Immediately she'd gone, I remembered her name. 她刚走开我就想起了她的名字。 ② Every time I hear that song, I feel happy. 每次听到那首歌我都感到很愉快。 ③ Next time you are here, let's have lunch together. 下次你到这里来,咱们一起吃午饭。 ④ The moment I saw him, I recognized him as the famous director. 一看见他,我就认出了他是那位有名的导演。

即境活用 单项填空 —Do remember to return the book to our English teacher. —OK. I will give it to him ________ I see him. A. before B. until C. unless D. the moment

答案:D

3. ruin n. &vt.(使 )破产,毁灭,崩溃,废墟,遗迹 The storm ruined the crops. 暴风雨毁坏了庄稼。 The earthquake left the whole town in ruins. 地震毁灭了整个城镇。 Gambling was his ruin/the ruin of him. 赌博是他堕落的原因。 ● 用法拓展 in ruins 成为废墟,破败不堪 ruin oneself 毁掉自己 come/fall/go to ruin 毁灭,灭亡;崩溃;破坏掉 bring sb. to ruin 使某人失败;使倾家荡产

● 易混辨析 damage, destroy 与 ruin 三者都含“破坏、毁坏”的意思。 damage 指“价值、用途降低或外表损坏等,不一定全部破坏, 损坏了还可以修复”。如: The heavy rain damaged many houses. 大雨毁坏了许多房子。 destroy 指“彻底毁坏以至不能或很难修复”。如: That town was destroyed in a big fire. 那个城镇在一场大火中被毁了。 ruin 现在多用于借喻中,泛指一般的“弄坏了”。如: He knocked over a bottle of ink and ruined the table cloth. 他打翻了一瓶墨水把桌布弄脏了。

即境活用 翻译句子 (用 destroy; ruin 和 damage) ①吸烟毁坏了他的健康。 ②地震摧毁了整个城市。 ③那建筑物已成为断壁残垣。

答案:① Smoking damaged his health. ② The earthquake destroyed the whole city. ③ The building is in ruins.

4. injure vt.伤害,损害 He was/got slightly injured in the accident. 他在意外事故中受了轻伤。 Smoking will injure your health. 吸烟会损害你的健康。

● 易混辨析 injure, hurt 和 wound injure 伤害,特指意外伤害。 hurt 是受伤的一般用词,既可以指肉体上的伤害,也可以指精 神上的伤害。 (vi.“感到疼痛”。) wound 通常是指武器的伤害,如刀、枪等的伤害,尤其是指战 场上的伤害。 There were two people injured in the car accident. 有两个人在车祸中受了伤。 What really hurt was that he never answered my letter. 真正让我伤心的是他从不给我回信。 About 50 people were seriously wounded in the attack. 在这次攻击中,约有 50 人受重伤。

即境活用 单项填空 So seriously________in the accident that she was sent to hospital at once. A. she was wounded B. was she hurt C. she was injured D. did she hurt

答案:B

5. damage n.损坏,毁坏; (pl.)赔偿金 v.损害,毁坏 The manufacturers disclaim all responsibility for the damage caused by misuse. 因使用不当造成的损坏,生产厂家不负任何责任。 He was ordered to pay damage totalling £ 30,000. 他被责令支付总额为 3 万英镑的损害赔偿金。 The flood did a lot of damage to the crops. 洪水毁坏了大量农作物。 Several vehicles were damaged in the crash. 好几辆汽车在撞车事故中损坏了。

● 用法拓展 do/cause damage to sth.损害,伤害 This could cause serious damage to the country's economy. 这可能对国家的经济造成了严重破坏。 ● 易混辨析 damage, ruin 和 destroy ① damage 一般指对物体或生命的局部损伤, 使整体的价值或作 用降低或变得无价值、无作用。这种操作可以是暴力的或一次性破 坏的结果。也可以是非暴力的长期损害的结果。 ② ruin 一般指对物体或生命彻底的破坏,但往往是非暴力的。 也往往不是一次的打击结果, 常指对美好的或希望中的事物的破坏。 ③ destroy 表示在肉体上、精神上或道义上彻底摧毁,使之无法 复原,也可以表示对物体进行完全的毁坏。

The fire badly damaged the town hall. 火灾使市政厅遭到严重破坏。 He ruined his prospects by carelessness. 他因疏忽大意而断送了前途。 If the tree falls that way, it will destroy the house. 这棵树向那边倒下了就会把那所房子压坏。

即境活用 单项填空 ① Teenagers ________ their health because they play computer games too much. A. have damaged B . are damaging C. damaged D. will damage ② He didn't take part in the sports meet yesterday because he had ________ his leg. A. damaged B . hurt C. hit D. struck

答案: ①B

②B

6. congratulation n.祝贺; (复数)贺词 Please give him my congratulations when you see him. 请见到他时转达我的祝贺。 Congratulations on your marriage. 恭贺你喜结良缘。

● 用法拓展 congratulation to sb. on sth.意为“因某事向某人祝贺”。 congratulate vt .可用于短语 congratulate sb. on doing sth.意为 “因某事向某人祝贺”。 congratulate yourself on( 为成就或成功 )感到高兴;感到自豪。 We congratulated him on his birthday. 我们向他祝贺生日。 The authors are to be congratulated on producing such a clear and authoritative work. 向创作出这么一部具有权威性又清晰易懂的作品的作者们祝贺。 I congratulated myself on my narrow escape. 我庆贺自己死里逃生。 You can congratulate yourself on having done an excellent job. 你应该为你出色的工作感到自豪。

● 易混辨析 congratulate 与 celebrate ① congratulate 意为“祝贺; 道贺”, 其宾语常常是接受祝贺的人; ② celebrate 意为“庆祝”,其宾语只能是生日、节日等表示事件 的名词,不能是人, 名词为 celebration,可构成短语 in celebration of... 意为“为了庆祝??”。 I congratulated them all on their results. 我为他们取得的成就向他们所有人表示祝贺。 All the teachers and students have got everything ready to celebrate the 50 th anniversary of our school. 全校师生为我校的 50 年庆典做好了一切准备。 The old couple held a party in celebration of their fiftieth wedding anniversary. 这对老夫妻为了庆祝他们金婚纪念而举办了一个晚会。

即境活用 单项填空 —Guess what! I have passed my driving test last week. —________! A. Congratulations B . Celebrations C. Good luck D. All right

答案:A

7. event n.事件;大事;(运动会的 )项目;一场比赛;一场胜负 ● 用法拓展 course of events 事件发展的过程 at all events 不管怎样;无论如何 in any event 不管怎样;无论如何 in the event 结果;到头来 in the event of/that 倘若发生??的情况 an athletic event 运动竞赛项目 ● 特别提醒 event 通常指重要、有意思或不寻常的事件。

● 易混辨析 event, matter 与 affair ① event 指“大事”。 the chief events of the year 一年中的大事 a historical event 历史事件 ② matter 事件; (pl.)事态; matter 还可用作不及物动词,意为 “有关系,要紧”。 It doesn't matter.没关系。 the matter 麻烦 It's a matter of importance. 那是一件重要的事情。 Unfortunately, there is nothing we can do to improve the matters. 很遗憾,我们无力改善目前的状况。

③ affair(小 )事; (pl.)事务,要事;恋事 a very small affair 极琐碎的小事 a private(public)affair 私事 (公事) a love affair 风流韵事 the affairs of state 国事,政务

即境活用 用 event, affair, matter 填空 ① There's nothing the ________with the TV. ② The railway accident was a terrible________. ③ Britain agreed to support the US in the________of war.

答案:①matter ②affair ③event

8. shock vt.&vi.(使 )震惊;震动 n.休克;打击;震惊 ● 用法拓展 be shocked at...对??感到震惊 be shocked to do sth.做某事很震惊 be shocked that...对??很震惊 shocking adj.令人震惊的 shocked adj.感到震惊的

① It shocks you when something like that happens. 发生这样的事使人感到难以置信。 ② The news of his death came as a shock to us all. 他的死讯传来,大家都感到震惊。 ③ We were all shocked at the news of his guilty. 听到他的罪行,我们深感震惊。 ④ I was shocked to hear that he had resigned. 听到他辞职的消息,我深感意外。 ⑤ Neighbors were shocked that such an attack could happen in the area. 竟有这样的暴力行为发生在这个地区,邻居们大为惊骇。 ⑥ What she did was so shocking that I can hardly describe it. 她的行为太过分了,我简直无法形容。 ● 特别提醒 shock 意为“令人震惊的人或事”时为可数名词,其前可以与不 定冠词连用。

即境活用 单项填空 ① Everybody felt ________ the moment a police officer entered the classroom. You could hear a pin drop. A. damaged B. frightened C. shocked D. terrifying 完成句子 ②我们在国外时常会遇到文化冲击。 We often _____ _____ ______ when we are in a foreign country.

答案:①C ②suffer culture shock

9. honour n. &vt.尊敬,敬意,荣誉,给以荣誉 We should honour our parents. 我们应该尊敬父母。 It is a great honour to be invited. 承蒙邀请,十分荣幸。 She is an honour to her profession. 她是同行的光荣。 ● 用法拓展 do sb. an honour; do sb. the honour(of doing sth.) 给某人以特权;使某人有特殊的荣幸 in honour of sb./sth.; in sb.'s/sth.'s honour 出于对某人 /某事物的敬意 honour sb./sth. (with sth.) 向某人 /某事物致敬;表扬某人;给某人以荣誉 be honoured for 因??受到尊敬 for the honour of 为了??的荣誉

即境活用 翻译句子 ①我得到您的信任,感到十分荣幸。 ②两位消防员因为勇气而受到尊敬。

答案:①I feel highly honoured by your trust. ②Two firefighters have been honoured for their courage.

10. frighten vt.使害怕;吓唬 ● 用法拓展 ① be frightened at 听 /看到??吓了一跳 ② be frightened away/off 被吓跑 ③ frighten sb. into(doing)sth.吓得某人做某事 ④ frighten sb. out of doing sth.吓得某人不做某事 ⑤ be frightened to do sth.不敢做某事 Don't stand so near the edge, you're frightening me! 不要站得那么靠边,你要把我吓坏了! The lawyer frightened the old lady into signing the paper. 那位律师恐吓着那位老太太在文件上签了字。

完成句子 ① The ________ ________(受惊吓的男孩 )was speechless after he saw the terrible scene. ② She ____ ____ ______(看到??吓一跳)the traffic accident.

答案:①frightened boy

②was frightened at

11. judge v.断定;判断;判决; n.裁判员;法官;评判员 ● 用法拓展 judge sb./sth. from/by...从??来判断 judge between right and wrong 判断是非 as far as I can judge 据我判断,我认为 judging by/from 从??上看,根据??判断 judgement n.判断,审判,意见,判断力 in one's judgement 依某人看来,按某人的看法 ① Judging from (by) his accent, he must be a southerner. 根据他的口音判断,他一定是一个南方人。 ② He was judged to be the best actor of this year. 他被判定今年年度最佳男演员。 ● 特别提示 judging from/by 表示“从??上看,根据??来判断”,用在 句首时,为一个独立成分,不受句子主语和时态影响,只用现在分 词作状语,而不采用过去分词的形式。

即境活用 单项填空 ________ from his accent, he is possibly from Korea. A. Judging B. To judge C. Judged D. Being judged

答案:A

重点短语 1.a (large) number of 许多的,大量的 ● 用法拓展 a large/great number of 许多的,大量的,相当于 large/great number of,后面跟可数名词复数形式。 number 之前可加某些表示 数量大小的形容词。a number of 加复数名词作主语时,谓语动词用 复数形式。 a small number of 少量的 an equal number of 相同数量的 in number 在数量上 number...among/with/as...把??看做??

① A great number of students find it hard to find an acceptable job after graduation. 许多学生发现毕业以后找一份合适的工作不容易。 ② He has collected large numbers of photos of different kinds of birds. 他已经收集了大量的不同鸟类的照片。

● 用法拓展 表示“数量”的词语还有: a lot of/lots of 许多;大量 (修饰可数或不可数名词 ) a great/big deal of 许多;很多 (修饰不可数名词 ) an amount of/amounts of 大量的 (修饰不可数名词) a quantity of/quantities of 很多;大量 (修饰可数或不可数名词 ) a little 一些 (修饰不可数名词 ) a bit of 一些 (修饰不可数名词 ) a great many 很多 (修饰可数名词 ) many a 许多 (修饰单数可数名词 )

① They spent a great deal of money on this project. 他们在这个项目上花了大量的钱。 ② We have had an enormous amount of help from people. 我们得到了人们的大力帮助。 ③ It's cheaper to buy goods in quantity/in large quantities. 大批量购货较便宜。 ④ A good many students in our class are fond of pop music. 我们班里很多学生喜欢流行音乐。

● 易混辨析 a number of 与 the number of (1)a number of 意为“若干; 许多”; number 前可用 good, great, large, small 等词修饰,其后必须接名词复数。用作主语时,谓语动 词一般用复数形式。 (2)the number of 意为“??的数量”, 其后接名词的复数或具 有复数意义的名词。用作主语时,谓语一般要用单数形式。 ① A small number of people have applied for the job. 只有少数人申请这份工作。 ② The number of the students is increasing very fast. 学生数量正在迅速增长。

即境活用 单项填空 The number of people invited ________ fifty, but a number of them ________ not seen at the meeting. A. was; were B. was; was C. were; was D. were; were

答案: A

2. one third 三分之一 ● 用法拓展 分数的表达:分子用基数词,分母用序数词,分子大于 1 时, 分母用序数词的复数形式。分数或分数修饰名词作主语时谓语动词 的数根据其含义或其后的名词而定。 ① Two thirds of the students in our class are boys. 我们班三分之二的学生是男生。 ② Five sixths of the land in this area is polluted by this factory. 这个地区六分之五的土地被这家工厂污染了。

● 用法拓展 (1)百分数的表达: percent 与具体的数词连用, percentage 可与 large, small, high, increasing 等词连用。 (2)年龄的表达:表示“在某人??岁时”用 in one's+整十的复 数形式。 (3)年份的表达: 表示“在??年代”用 in the+年份 (后加 's 或 s)。 (4)倍数的表达: ① A+谓语+倍数+比较级+ than+ B ② A+谓语+倍数+ as+原级+ as+ B ③ A+谓语+倍数+ the+名词 (size, length, height 等 )+ of+ B ④ A+谓语+倍数+ that+ of+B ⑤ A+谓语+倍数+ what 引导的名词性从句

① Eighty percent of the students have gone to university this year. 今年百分之八十的学生考上了大学。 ② An increasing percentage of the population own their own homes. 自己有房子的人占的比例越来越大了。 ③ He set up the company in his thirties. 三十几岁时,他成立了这家公司。 ④ This happened in the 1920s. 这件事发生在 20 世纪 20 年代。 ⑤ He earns three times more than her. He earns three times as much as her. He earns three times the money that she does. The money he earns is three times that of hers. He earns three times what she does. 他的收入是她的三倍。

即境活用 单项填空 ① With too many trees cut down, ________ of the farmland in that district ________ become desert in the past 50 years. A. two seventh; has B. two seventh; have C. two sevenths; has D. two sevenths; have ② When he moved to Germany in ________ , he was already in ________. A. the fifties; his sixty B . fifties; his sixties C. the fifties; his sixties D. fifty; sixty

③ Much to his surprise, he invited only twenty friends to the dinner, but ________ came. A. twice as many as B. as many as twice C. twice as many D. twice more than

答案:①C ②C ③C

3. at an end 结束,终止 Our hunt for a cheaper but larger house is at last at an end. 我们想寻找一幢便宜些但要大些的房子的事终于有了结果。 I must warn you that my patience is almost at an end. 我必须警告你,我已忍无可忍了。 The war was at an end. 战争结束了。 ● 用法拓展 end in 以??为结果 at the end of 到??的尽头 by the end of 到??末 come to the end 结束,告终 make both ends meet 使收支相抵,量入为出 put an end to sth.结束某事,终止某事;消灭某事 stand on end 竖立,直立

即境活用 翻译句子 ①我的假期结束了,明天我得回去工作了。 ②他们失了业,还要养活两个小孩,无法维持起码的生活。

答案: ① My holiday is at an end and I must go back to work tomorrow. ② Being out of work and having two young children, they found it impossible to make ends meet.

4. right away 毫不迟疑,立刻 He is ill; you should call in the doctor right away. 他病了,你应该立即请大夫来。 The storm will blow over right away. 暴风雨很快就会平息。 If war breaks out, we shall be called up right away. 如果战争爆发,我们将立即被征召服役。 ● 用法拓展 “立刻,马上”表达一览: at once on no time right now without delay immediately ● 易混辨析 right away 与 right now right away 意为“毫不迟疑, 立刻”, 而 right now 意为“现在”。

即境活用 完成句子 ① It's an important thing, do it ________ ! ② ________ it's summer vacation and I'm helping my dad on the farm. ③ ________ he is doing an operation on the patient, please don't disturb him.

答案:①right away

②Right now

③Right now

5. give out 分发,发出 (气味、热等),发表,用尽,精疲力竭 He has refused to give out any information on the matter. 他已拒绝发表有关此事的任何消息。 After a month their food supplies gave out. 过了一个月,他们的食物已消耗殆尽。 The fire can be compared with the sun, and both all give out light and warm up. 火可以与太阳相比,两者都发光和热。 ● 用法拓展 give away 泄露,揭发,赠送,分送;颁发 give in 屈服 give off 放出;散发出 give up 放弃 give back 归还 give for 牺牲;交换

即境活用 翻译句子 ①请帮我分发这些试卷。 ②我决不屈服。 ③他终于戒烟了。

答案:①Please help me give out these test papers. ②Never will I give in. ③Finally he gave up smoking.

6. too...to...太 ?? 以至于不能 ?? He's far too young to go on his own. 他太小了不能自己去。 It's too cold to go in the sea yet. 天太冷还不能下海。 It's too long a journey to make in one day. 路程太远,一天之内到不了。

● 用法拓展 (1)too 后是表心情的形容词,如: happy, pleased , willing , thankful, anxious, eager, easy, kind, good 等时, too 意为“非 常”,不再带有否定意义。如: She is too kind to help others. 她非常乐于帮助别人。 (2)too...to 前有否定词时, too...to 表肯定。如: It is never too late to study. 活到老,学到老。 (3)too + adj. + for sb.(to do sth.) 表 示 “ 太 ?? 以 至 于 不 能 做??”。如: The question is too difficult for me to answer. 这问题太难了,我回答不了。

即境活用 翻译句子 ①这篇课文对他们来说太难了。 ②她非常乐意去帮助他。 ③箱子太重,我提不动。

答案: ①This is too difficult a text for them./This text is too difficult for them. ② She is too willing to help him. ③ The box was too heavy for me to carry.

7. as if 意为 “ 仿佛;好像” He behaves as if he had no common sense. 他的言行就好像没有常识似的。 He quickly ran home, looking as if there was something wrong with him. 他快步跑回家,看上去好像有什么事不对劲。

● 用法拓展 as if= as though 引导的从句中的谓语动词常用虚拟语气。若表 示与现在事实相反,谓语动词用一般过去时, be 动词一般用 were。 若表示与过去事实相反,谓语动词用过去完成时。如果从句的内容 发生的可能性很大,通常不用虚拟语气。 It's my birthday.It seems as if you didn't know! 今天是我的生日,你好像不知道似的! If a pen is partly into the water, it looks as if it were broken. 如果把钢笔的一部分放在水里,它看上去像断了似的。 He was shaking with fright as if he had seen a ghost. 他吓得直哆嗦,就好像看见了鬼一样。 It looks as if it is going to rain. 看来要下雨了。

● 温馨提示 as if/as though 后面除了可以跟句子外,还可以跟动词不定式、 介词短语、过去分词、动词的 ing 形式。 He raised his hand as if to take off his hat. 他举起了手,好像要摘下帽子。 The boy looked around as if in search of something. 那孩子环视四周,好像在寻找什么东西。 The man was lying on the ground as if hurt. 那个人躺在地上,好像受了伤。 The girl sat at her desk quietly as if listening to the teacher. 那个女孩静静地坐在桌子旁,好像在听老师讲课。

即境活用 单项填空 The boy still remembers the it________yesterday. A. was happening B. happens C. has happened D. happened

accident

exactly

as

if

答案:D

8. instead of 代替 ● 用法拓展 ①作“代替、取代”讲的有: instead of/instead/in place of 。 ② instead of 除作“代替”讲之外,还意为“而不,而没有”。 这时,不能与 in place of 替换,但可与 rather than 替换。 They went there by bus instead of(rather than)on foot. 他们乘车去那儿而不是步行。 ③若要点明“被代替的人或物”,instead 之后须加 of;若不需 要具体点出来“被代替的人或物”,则不加 of。 If you can't go, he'll go instead(of you). 如果你不能去,他将代替你去。

● 特别提醒 instead 用作副词,一般放在句末,否定上文提到的事物,而 instead of 为介词短语,一般放在句首或句中,否定 of 后的宾语。 We'll have tea in the garden instead of in the house. = We'll not have tea in the house.Instead, we'll have tea in the garden. 我们不在屋子里喝茶,而要在花园里喝茶。

即境活用 单项填空 ① ________buying them in the shops, she prefers making her own clothes. A. Instead B. Instead of C. More than D. Rather than ② Mr. Li is ill so I will have this English class with you________him. A. instead B. take the place of C. instead of D. taking place of

答案:①B 句意为:她更喜欢自己制作衣服,而不喜欢在商 店中购买。由句意排除 C 项, A 项为副词,其后不接宾语; D 项 后一般不跟动名词,故选 B。 ②C instead of“代替 ”, 在此符合句意也符合语法结构, 若 用动词短语则应该用 taking the place of 形式。

重点句式 1.It seems as if the world was at an end! 世界似乎到了末日! ● 用法拓展 表示“好像”的几种表达: ① It seems/looks/appears as if/though...看起来好像?? It always seemed as though they would marry in the end. 久而久之,看来他们终归得结婚。 It seemed as if the end of the world had come. 好像世界末日已经来临。 It looks like rain./It looks as if it's going to rain. 好像要下雨了。

② Sb./Sth. looks as if/though/like...( 不用 seem/appear) That photograph doesn't look like her at all. 那张照片看上去一点都不像她。 This looks to me like the right door. 依我看就是这个门。 You look as if you slept badly. 看你那样子仿佛没睡好觉。 ③ There seems/appears(to be) . ..(不用 look) There appears to have been a mistake. = It appears that there has been a mistake. 看起来好像是个错误。 ④ It seems so.= So it seems.看来似乎是这样。

● 易混辨析 seem, look 与 appear 这 三 个 词 都可 用 作 系动 词 , 都可 以 译 作“ 似 乎 ”或 “ 看 上 去??”。 (1)seem 所表示的“似乎”或“看来”是以客观的迹象为依据 的。例如: A pilot noticed a balloon which seemed to be making for a Royal Air Force Station nearby. 一位飞行员看到一个气球,好像要飞向附近的英国空军基地。 (2)look 所表示的“看来”是以视觉所接受的印象为依据的。 例 如: He looked pale and his clothes were in a frightful state. 他看上去脸色苍白,一身衣服弄得一塌糊涂。

(3)appear 与上两个词的含义似乎没有多大差异,但是如果要表 示某种判断是由被歪曲了的印象而得出的,最好用 appear。例如: The actress is thirtyfive years old , but she appears a lot younger. 那个女演员三十五岁了,但是她看上去年轻得多。

即境活用 翻译句子 ①他们似乎误解了我。 ②他们要得奖似乎是毫无疑问的了。 ③我的妻子戴着一顶看起来好像一座灯塔的帽子。

答案: ① They appear to have misunderstood me. ② It seemed certain that they would win the prize. ③ My wife was wearing a hat that looked like a lighthouse.

2. Your speech was heard by a group of five judges, all of whom agreed that it was the best one this year. 评委会是五位评委听了你的演讲,一致认为你的演讲是今年最 好的。 ● 用法拓展 judge n.法官;裁判员 v.断定;裁决,评定;审判 You should never judge a person by their looks. 你不能以貌取人。 I judged him to be about 50. 我看他有 50 岁。 We judge the success of a product by the number of sales it brings in. 我们判断一个产品的成功与否是通过它带来的销售额判断的。 Judging from what you say in your letter, you don't sound well. 从你来信的话语看,你好像不舒服。

● 用法拓展 judge(sb./sth.)by/from sth.根据??判断、断定 judge by appearances 从外貌来看 judging by/from sth.依据??来判断(常作状语使用 ) judge between right and wrong 判断是非 so far as I can judge 据我判断,我认为

即境活用 翻译句子 ①根据以往的经验来看,他得迟到。 ②从他的肤色判断他肯定来自南方。

答案:①Judging from previous experience, he will be late. ②Judging by skin, he must come from the south.

3. Then, later that afternoon, another big quake which was almost as strong as the first one shook Tangshan. 接着,在下午晚些时候,又一次几乎和第一次一样的强烈的地 震震撼着唐山。 ● 用法拓展 该句包含了形容词的比较级形式,比较级的一种构成形式是 as + adj./adv.+ as 结构。 It's as hard as I thought. 这和我想象的一样困难。 She plays as well as her sister. 她演奏得和她姐姐一样好。

● 用法拓展 用 来 表 示 比 较 的 结 构 还 有 : ①“adj./adv. 的 比 较 级 + than sb./sth.”,②“ not as+ adj./adv.+ as”。 He loves me more than you do. 他比你更爱我。 It was much better than I'd expected. 这比我预料得要好得多。 She doesn't play football as well as her sister. 她踢球不如她姐姐。

即境活用 单项填空 I moved to a small town and changed my job years ago.I don't make________. A. money as much as I used to B. money as much as I was used to C. as much money as I used to D. money as much as I was used to

答案:C

4. All hope was not lost. 不是所有的希望都破灭了。 ● 用法拓展 ①全部否定 英语中的 no, none, never, nobody, nothing, neither , no one, nowhere,no more,no longer,no way 等表示否定意义的词 (词组) 与肯定式谓语一起使用构成“全部否定”。 ②部分否定 英语中的 all, both, each, every, everybody, everything 等 具有总括意义的代词与否定词 not 连用,构成部分否定,表示“不 都,并非都”的意思。 ● 特别提醒 无论 not 在句中位置如何,与 all, both, each, every 等词连 用时,一律表达部分否定含义。

即境活用 单项填空 ① We can't have lunch at the restaurant , because________. A. all of us don't have money B. not all of us have money C. every one of us doesn't have money D. none of us has money ② I haven't read________of his books, but judging from the one I have read, I think he is a very promising writer. A. any B. both C. either D. none

答案: ①D 句意为:我们不能在餐馆里用餐,因为我们都没 有钱。此处应用全部否定句,而因为我们都没有钱。此处应用全部 否定句,而 A、 B、 C 三项均为部分否定,不合语境。 ② B 句意为: 他的两本书我没都看, 但从我所读的那本书来判 断,我认为他是一位很有前途的作家。根据后半句,排除 C 项,not both 为部分否定,表示 “并非两个都 ??”,符合句意。 not any 表示三者或三者以上的全部否定; none 本身表示全部否定, 不与 not 连用。

知 能 层 层 练 一、单项填空 1 . ________ , the headmaster rose to indicate that the conversation was ________. A. At an end; in an end B. In the end; at an end C. In an end; at the end D. At an end; in the end

答案: B 解析:in the end 意为 “最后;终于 ”,at an end 意为 “结束; 终结 ”,常用做表语。

2. — Where did you work twenty years ago? — I worked at the ________ edge of the forest. A. severe B. ceremonial C. extreme D. portable

答案: C 解析: extreme“极端的;尽头的;末端的 ”, extreme edge of the forest 意为 “森林的最边缘 ”。

3. After the explosion, the roads are full of ________ people leaving the city. A. afraid B. frightened C. frightening D. scary

答案:B 解析:frightened“感到害怕的 ”,常用来修饰人。afraid“害 怕的”,多用做表语;frightening“令人害怕的 ”,常用于修饰事 物;scary“吓人的;可怕的”。

4. —I hear they will get married next week. —________ A. Good luck! B . Congratulations! C. Oh, really? D. Yes, sir?

答案:C 解析:根据语境可知,回应者对此事感到惊讶,故选 C 项。

5 . After ________ in the research for so many years, the scientist succeeded in finding the result at last. A. buried B. being buried C. having buried D. having been buried

答案: D 解析: 介词 after 之后用动名词形式, 排除 A 项;be buried in 是固定短语,且有时间状语 for so many years,故用动名词的完 成被动式。

6. — What's the weather like tomorrow, John? — Well, I ________ it, for the pictures drew my attention as the weather forecast was going on. A. was missing B. missed C. will miss D. had missed

答案: B 解析:由答语中的 for 引导的原因状语从句可知 “由于播报天 气预报时一直在看照片,所以错过了 ”,故用一般过去时。

7. I am sorry that I can not meet you at the airport. I ________ Changsha by the time you come back from abroad. A. am leaving B. will leave C. will have left D. have left

答案: C 解析:由题干前半句可知从国外回来是将来发生的动作,且表 示该动作在对方从国外回来时已完成,故用将来完成时表示。

8. Some passengers were ________ in the traffic accident and taken to the hospital nearby. A. injured B. damaged C. destroyed D. harmed

答案: A 解析: injure 可指身体上受到的伤害,也可指情感上受到了伤 害 。 damage 侧 重 对物的 “ 损害 ” ,损害 后事物一 般可修复 ; destroy“ 破坏;毁坏 ”,一般无法进行修复; harm 指伤害。

9. ________ from what he did, he isn't a person to depend on. A. Judge B. Judging C. Judged D. Judges

答案: B 解析:judging from...“根据??来判断”, 属独立结构作状语。

10. I didn't know anybody at the party, but the hostess came to my ________ by introducing me to a few people. A. help B. save C. rescue D. life

答案: C 解析: come to one's rescue 为固定搭配,意为 “帮助某人 ”。

二、用适当的介词填空。 1. I must take no notice of their politeness or kindness which was designed to trap me ________ giving information. 2. You'll never solve your problems if you just bury your head ________ the sand— you have to face them. 3. These plants must be sheltered ________ direct sunlight. 4.Hundreds were hospitalized suffering ________ the effects of tear gas. 5. New ways of reducing the damage ________ the environment are needed. 6. My wife burst ________ tears when she heard the bad news. 7. The little boy was frightened ________ the dog. So he didn't dare to go there.

答案:1.into

2.in

3.from

4.from

5.to

6.into

7.of

三、根据汉语意思完成下列句子。 (每空一词) 1.地震之后整座城市成了一片废墟。 The whole city lay ______ ______ ________ ______ ______. 2.从地里挖出的财富是一盒金币。 The treasure ________ ________ ________ ________ ________was a box of gold coins. 3.许多妇女陷入了没有爱情的婚姻之中。 Many women ________ ________ ________ loveless marriages. 4.数百年来,这尊雕像被深埋于一个地下洞穴中。 For hundreds of years the statue has remained ________ ________ an underground cave. 5.从母亲的来信判断,她似乎觉得好多了。 ________ ________ ________ ________, Mother seems to be feeling a lot better. 6.他那样说话,似乎不想参加会议。 He speaks like that ______ ______ ______ ______ ______ to attend the meeting.

答案: 1.in ruins after the earthquake 2. dug out of the earth 3. are trapped in 4. buried in 5. Judging from/According to her letter 6. as if he doesn't want/like

四、阅读下面短文,按照句子结构的语法性和上下文连贯的要 求, 在空格处填入一个适当的词或使用括号中词语的正确形式填空。 Haiti has been struck by a 7.0 magnitude earthquake, killing an unknown number of people. The small, poor country is likely to suffer 1.________ severe and deadly natural disasters, 2.________ (especial) hurricanes. A lack of proper emergency services and infrastructure(基础设施) has resulted 3.________ the storms causing the death of thousands of Haitians. Witnesses said the 4. d________ was shocking. Tens of thousands of people are estimated to be 5.________ (home) .

The Presidential Palace stands in 6. r________. Haitian police vehicles as well as those from the United Nations and the Red Cross tried to ferry the 7.________(wound) to hospital, but progress was slow as a large amount of rubble(碎石 ) lay covering the roads. The quake caused widespread panic as it brought down buildings 8.________ (include) the Presidential Palace, hotels, and a hospital in the capital PortauPrince.

9. R________ teams were prevented when communications went down in the minutes after the earthquake struck, but efforts to free people 10.________(trap) in the debris( 残 骸 ) continued throughout the night.

答 案 : 1.from 6.ruins 7.wounded

2.especially 3.in 4.damage 5.homeless 8.including 9.Rescue 10.trapped

语 法 路 路 通 高考语法专题二 冠 词 知识清单 一、不定冠词 a, an 的用法 1.用于未曾提到或对方不知道的人或事物前。 2.泛指某一个人或物,表示微弱的“一”的概念。 3.用于有形容词修饰的表示三餐的名词前。 4.用于具有某种特性的人或物或不确定时间的专有名词前。 5.用于表示“一??”之意的物质名词前。 6.用于序数词前表示“又一,再一”的含义。 7.用于已转化可数名词的抽象名词前表示具体意义。

8 .“ a+最高级”表示“很”;“ a+比较级”表示“更?? 的”;不定冠词还可表示“每??”。 9.用在一些固定搭配中。 have a fever 发烧 make a living 谋生 as a rule 通常 take a bath 洗澡 in a word 总之

二、定冠词 the 的用法 10.特指上文提到过的或特定的人或事物。 11.用在姓氏的复数形式前,表示全家人或夫妇俩。 12.用在形容词最高级及起特定作用的比较级前。 13.用在“动词+ sb.+介词+ the+身体部位”的固定结构中。 14.用在表示自然界中独一无二的事物的名词前或某些地理名 词、国家、组织及由普通名词构成的专有名词前。 15.用在被演奏的乐器、文艺活动或运动场所的名词前。 16.用于“ by+ the+计量单位名词”结构中。 17.用在序数词、表示顺序的词前或表示年代的词前。 18.构成一些固定短语。 in the end 最后 on the left 左边 on the air 在广播 to the full 完全的

三、零冠词的用法 19.泛指的物质名词、抽象名词前不用冠词。 20.表示季节、月份、日期、三餐、球类运动的名词前不用冠 词。 21.名词前已有限定词修饰时不用冠词。 22 .表示学科、语言的名词前不用冠词,但表示特指或加上 language 时,要用定冠词。 23.系动词 turn 后作表语的名词前不用冠词,若名词前有形容 词修饰时则用冠词。 become 后作表语的名词前需加冠词。 24. by 后表示交通工具或方式的名词前不用冠词。 25.表示独一无二的职位、头衔的名词作表语、同位语、补语 或与姓氏连用时不用冠词。

26.表示人名、地名、国名、城市、街道和词首为 Mount 的山 及大多数湖泊的专有名词前不用冠词。 27.很多情况下,名词前有无冠词意义不同。 at table 吃饭 at the table 在桌子旁 28.在一些固定搭配或名词前不用冠词。 at down 拂晓时 at home 在家 lose weight 减肥 on business 因公出差

四、表示类指的几种形式 29.“不定冠词+可数名词单数”表示该类属的任何一个都具有 该类名词的特点。 30.“定冠词+可数名词单数”表示一类人或事物,指该类属名 词总的特点。 31. 表示一般概念的可数名词复数或不可数名词前不用任何冠词。 32.“定冠词+形容词”表示一类人。

THANKS


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