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现在完成时语法PPT


the Present Perfect Tense

现在完成时
助动词have (has)+过去分词done

past
Yesterday , we cleaned the classroom.

now
Now , the classroom is clean because we

have cleaned it.

用法1
强调过去发生的动作对现在产生的结 果或影响

1. My father bought many books for me yesterday . Now , I have a lot to read because my father has bought many books for me. ________________________________ 2. I saw this film last week. Now, I know this film because have seen it before I_____________________. 3. I did my homework yesterday. Now, I can give it to the teacher because I______________ have done it.

“已经”通常用于肯定句中,放在句中。 already: I have already read this book. 有时,也用在疑问句中表示惊讶。 Have you eaten up all the food already ?

Yet:

“仍然,还 ” 用在疑问句和否定句 中,放在句末。 I haven’t read this book yet . Have you had breakfast yet ?

ever

never

“曾经”通常用于疑问句 和肯定句中,放在句中。 I have ever seen this film. Have you ever been to the USA ?
“从来不” 用在否定句中,放在句 中。 Is he famous ?I have never heard of him .

just

“刚刚 ”用在陈述句中, 放在句中。 I have just bought a novel。
“以前”用在完成时中,

before

放在句末。 Ihave never read this kind of books before.

She began to work in 2005.
She still works here now. She has worked at this school for 7 years.

past
I began to teach English at this school five years ago.

now
I have taught English at this school for five years.

用法2:

过去发生的动作一直延续到现在。

1. I am a doctor. I began to work when I was 22.Now , I am 26. I have worked for four years. ________ 2. We went to the USA last Monday. Today is Monday . We _________ have stayed (stay) in the USA since last Monday.

since and for
The woman has worked at this school for 2 years.( since two years ago) for + 时间段 for 2 years/a long time
since 2 years ago since+时间点 since 1998 since she came to the school)

一、用for和since填空。
for ______three

hours

_______a week for since _______1997 for ______two weeks

since for ______three o’clock _______a long time
for ______two days since ______yesterday afternoon

since _______three years since ______I came here ago since ______last Sunday since _______ last month

A 1.They’ve known each other since_______. A.1995 B. three years 2.I’ve been interested in Chinese for______. B A. last year B. one year A 3. She has been a doctor for______. A. two years B.two years ago 4. I’ve had a headache since_______. A A. I got up this morning B. five hours 5. We’ve been here for______. B A. one hour B. one o’clock

6. My parents have owned this house for______. A A. a long time B. many years ago A 7. They’ve been in love since______. A. last spring B. three months B 8. We have known each other since_____. A. one year B. last year 9. --How long have you been like this? A --Since______. A.last night B. two days 10.--How long has she worked here? B --She has worked here for_____. A. 1993 B. six years

Exercise
根据所给情况,用just,already或yet造句。 1.After lunch you go to see a friend at her house.She says‘Would you like something to eat?’ You say: No, thank I’ve just had lunch. you. _______________( have lunch ) 2.Joe goes out. Five minutes later,the phone rings and the caller says ‘Can I speak to Joe?’ You say: I’m afraid he has just gone out _________________.( go out )

3.You are eating in a restaurant this

evening. The waiter thinks you have finished and starts to take your plate away.You say: Wait a I haven’t finished it yet. moment !_______________________ ( not / finish )

4.You are going to a restaurant this evening.
You phone to reserve(预定)a table. Later your friend says ‘Shall I phone to reserve a table? ’You say: I have already done No,__________________ it (do)

1.现在完成时用来表示过去发生或已完成 的动作或状态对现在造成的影响或结果,也 就是说,动作或状态发生在过去但它的影响 现在还存在.
I have lost my wallet.(含义是:现在我没有钱花了.) Jane has just had breakfast.(含义是:简现在不饿 了.) Michael has been ill.(含义是:现在仍然很虚弱) He has returned from abroad. (含义是:现在已在 此地)

2. 现在完成时可以用来表示发生在过 去某一时刻一直持续到现在的动作和 状态,常与表示持续的时间状语连用. 表示持续动作或状态的动词多是延续 性动词。

I haven’t seen her these days. Mary has been ill for three days. I have lived here since 1998.

3. 现在完成时往往同表示不确定的过去时 间状语连用,如already, yet, just, before, recently, still, lately等标志词

He has already got a chance to go abroad. I haven't seen much of him recently (lately). We have seen that film before. Have they found the missing child yet ?

4. 现在完成时常常与表示频度的时间状语 连用,如often, sometimes, ever, never, twice, on several occasion等: Have you ever been to Beijing? I have never heard of Bunny. I have used this pen only three times. George has met that gentleman on several occasions.

5. 现在完成时还往往可以同包括现在时间在内 的时间状语连用,如now, just, today, this morning/week/month/year, up to these few days/weeks/months/years,, up to present, so far 等:
Peter has written six poems so far. Man has now learned to make use of natural materials. There has been too much rain in San Francisco this year. Up to these weeks, everything has been successful.

have (has) gone和have (has) been的区别
1.have (has) gone表示“已经去某地了” She has gone to Shanghai .(她可能已在去上海 的路上,或已到上海,总之现在不在这里。)
2.have (has) been表示“曾经去过某地” She has been to Shanghai three times.(她已经不 在上海,只说明她曾经去过。)

非延续性动词不能与时间段连用: go/come/begin/start/die/buy/borrow/sell/leave/arrive/ receive/become等词语是瞬间动词表示的动作是一时的, 不能延续,不能与for、since等表示一段时间的词连用, 也不能用于how long引导的疑问句中。 如不能说:He has borrowed the book for two months.(ⅹ) 但可以说:He has kept the book for 2 months. 或:It has been 2 months since he borrowed the book. 或:Two months has passed since he borrowed the book.
这些瞬间动词常与它对应的可以表示时间段的词语进行互换。 become—be borrow—keep buy—have begin (start)—be on open—be open die—be dead leave--be away come--be here/in go out—be out join--be a member/be in begin to study--study

注明:非延续性动词在否定结构中可用于现在完成时态: I haven’t bought anything for two days.

动词的过去分词的规则变化
动词的过去分词的规则变化,在动词后加ed,规则 变化有以下四种: ①原形+ed 如:worked, passed ②词尾是e时,直接加d 如:liked lived ③若词尾为“辅音字母加y”,则改y为i加ed。词尾 为“元音字母+y”时,直接加d; 如: played stayed studied cried ④末尾只有一个辅音字母的重读闭音节是,双写 最后一个辅音字母加ed. 如: stopped dropped

不规则动词的过去式以及过去分词 巧记规律
AAA: put– put –put let—let –let ABA: become—became—become ABB: stand—stood—stood ABC: eat— ate—eaten

cost-cost-cost put-put-put let-let-let beat-beat-beat hurt-hurt-hurt rid-rid-rid

AAA

read-read-read cut-cut-cut set-set-set hit-hit-hit spit-spit-spit

一、原形、过去式和过去分词的词形和读音都相 同的单词,结尾字母一般是t或d。 特殊:动词read的过去式和过去分词虽然词形与 原形一致,read-read-read,但发音分别是 [ri:d]-[red]-[red]。

ABA
有些动词的过去分词与原形是一样的:

run-ran-run come-came-come become-became-become overcome-overcame-overcome

ABB(含规则动词)
原型 过去式 过去分词 例词

-eep
-ell -d -ay

-ept
-old -t -aid

-ept
-old -t -aid

keep,sweep,sleep
sell,tell lend,spend,send,build say,pay,lay

-n
-ee-

-nt
-e-ought

-nt
-e-ought

burn,learn,mean
meet,feed bring,buy,fight,think

-aught

-aught

catch,teach

ABB(含规则动词)
1.另有一些其它形式的变化。 have (has)-had-had lose-lost-lost feel-felt-felt stand-stood-stood
leave-left-left make-made-made spell-spelt-spelt

2. 改变单词中间元音字母。 sit-sat-sat (babysit) win-won-won shine-shone-shone hold-held-held find-found-found hear-heard-heard hang-hung (hanged)-hung (hanged)

ABC
原型 过去式 过去分 词 -oke -oken -ole -olen -ore -orn -ew -own -a-o-

例词
break,speak steal wear,bear,tear grow,blow,know, throw,draw sink,swim,drink,ring, sing,begin drive,rise,ride,write

-eak -eal -ear -ow (aw)

-i-i-

-u-n

ABC
有些动词的过去分词是在原形词尾加n或en,变 成以en结尾的单词。 take-took-taken give-gave-given fall-fell-fallen eat-ate-eaten write-wrote-written speak-spoke-spoken freeze-froze-frozen ride-rode-ridden get-got-gotten (got) forget-forgot-forgotten (forgot) 特殊: am/is-was-been are-were-been, do (does)-did-done go-went-gone see-saw-seen show-showed-shown (showed) lie-lay (lied)-lain (lied)

比较现在完成时和过去时的区别:
*现在完成时所表示的是过去的发生的动作对现在 造成的影响和结果,强调的是现在的情况,所以 不能和表示过去的时间状语连用,如:yesterday, last night, three weeks ago, in 1990。 *一般过去时表示的是过去发生的动作或状态,和 现在不发生联系,它可以和表示过去的时间状语 连用。 I have seen the film.(我了解这部电影的内容。) I saw the film last week.(只说明上星期看了这部 电影,不涉及现在的情况。)

总结现在完成时: 1、构成:have / has +过去分词。 2、概念: (1)表示过去或已经完成的某一动作对现在 成的影响 或结果。常与下列状语连用:already, just, yet, ever, never, before (2)表示过去已经发生,持续到现在的动作或状态, 可以和表示从过去某一时刻延续到现在(包括“现 在”在内)的一段时间的状语连用。 a.for和表示一段时间的词组连用。 如:for 3 years

b.since和表示过去某一时刻的词或词组连用。

如:since 1997, since two years ago,since last week


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