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【步步高】2017版高考英语一轮复习 语法专题 第二部分 词法篇-其他词类 专题3 代词素材 外研版


专题 3 代词

代词分为九类:人称代词、物主代词、反身代词、相互代词、指示代词、疑问代词、连接代 词、关系代词、不定代词。大多数代词具有名词和形容词的作用。 1.人称代词 (1)人称代词作主语用主格,作宾语、表语用宾格,但应注意以下四种情况: ①作主语的人称代词如果孤立地使用于无谓语动词的句子中,或在这种句子中与动词不定式 连用,常用宾格。 —Susan,go and join your sister cleaning the yard. —Why me?John is sitting there doing nothing. ②句子中代词作宾语或宾语补足语时,与所替代的名词在人称、数、格以及意义上一般要保 持前后一致。 The thief was thought to be he.(the thief 是主格,故用 he 替代) They took me to be her.他们误以为我是她。(me 是宾格,故用 her 替代) ③作表语的人称代词一般用宾格,但在强调句型中,被强调部分代词的格不变。 I met her in the hospital.→It was her who I met in the hospital. ④在比较级的句子中 than、as 后用主格、宾格都可以。如:He is taller than me (I).但 在下列句子中有区别: I like Jack as much as her.=I like both Jack and her. I like Jack as much as she.=I like Jack and she likes him,too. (2)两个以上的人称代词并列,其次序排列原则: 在并列主语中,“I”总是放在最后,排列顺序为:二 三 一(人称)。宾格 me 也一样。 You,she and I will be in charge of the case. Mr.Zhang asked Li Hua and me to help him. 2.物主代词 (1)注意名词性和形容词性物主代词各自的语法功能。 (2)one’s own...=...of one’s own 句式的转换。 (3)某些固定结构中常用定冠词代替物主代词。 take sb.by the arm,be wounded in the leg 3.反身代词 (1)反身代词的语法功能:宾语、表语、主语或宾语的同位语。
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(2)反身代词和某些动词连用,构成固定短语。 devote oneself to 致力于 dress oneself 自己穿衣 enjoy oneself 过得快乐 feel oneself 觉得身体正常 (3)反身代词还可用于某些成语中。 for oneself 为自己;独立地 of oneself 自然地;自动地 by oneself 独自地 in oneself 本身 4.相互代词(each other,one another) 相互代词无人称、数和格的区别,在句中作宾语。其所有格分别为 each other’s, one another’s,作定语。 一般来说,each other 指两者之间,one another 指三者或三者以上之间,但现在区分已不 明显。 5.指示代词(this,that,these,those,such,same) 指示代词具有形容词和代词两种词性,在句子中可以作定语、主语、宾语或表语等。 (1)指示代词 this (these)和 that (those)的区别。 ①this (these)一般指时间或空间上较近的人或物;that (those)常指时间或空间上较远的 人或物。 This is my desk and that is yours. In those days they could not go to school. ②this 常指后面要讲到的事物, 有启下的作用; that 则指前面讲到过的事物, 有承上的作用。 I want to tell you this:the English party will be held on Saturday afternoon. He hurt his leg yesterday.That’s why he didn’t come. ③为了避免重复,常用 that 或 those 代替前面已提过的名词。 The weather of Beijing is colder than that of Nanjing. The ears of a rabbit are longer than those of a fox. ④this 在电话用语中用于作自我介绍;that 用于询问对方;this 和 that 还可以当副词用, 意思相当于副词 so。 Can hard work change a person that much? (2)such 和 same 的用法。 ①such 指“这样的”人或事,在句中作主语和定语。 Such was the story.
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We have never seen such a tall building. ②same 指“同样的”人或事,在句中作主语、表语、宾语和定语,same 的前面要用定冠词 the。 The same can be said of the other article. Whether he can do it or not,it is all the same to me. 6.疑问代词(who,whom,which,what,whose) 疑问代词在句中作主语、宾语、定语和表语。 (1)who/what ①询问姓名或关系。 —Who is he? —He is my brother./He is Henry. 询问职业或地位。 —What is he? —He is a lawyer/teacher. ②what/who 作主语时,谓语动词的单复数取决于说话人的视点,可单数也可复数。 What is/are on the table? Who is/are in the library? (2)which 与 who,what which 表示在一定范围内,而 who,what 则无此限制。 I found two books on the desk.Which is yours? 7.连接代词和关系代词 连接代词与疑问代词的形式相同,主要有 who,whom,whose,what,which 以及它们与?ever 合成的代词 whoever,whomever,whatever,whichever 等。它们用来引导主语从句、宾语从 句和表语从句,即连接复合句中的主句和从句,并在从句中担任一定的句子成分,由连接代 词引起的名词性从句前不能再加 that。 关系代词是用来引导定语从句的代词,它们包括 who,whom,whose,which,that 等。这两 类代词的用法详见“名词性从句”和“定语从句”部分。 8.不定代词 不定代词主要有:all,each,every,both,either,neither,one,none,little,few, many,much,other,another,some,any,no 等。还有由 some,any,no 和 every 构成的 合成代词。不定代词具有名词和形容词的性质,并有可数和不可数之分,在句中可以作主语、 表语、宾语、同位语、定语、状语等(every,no 只能作定语)。下面介绍几组主要不定代词 的用法与区别: (1)some 与 any
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一般用法:some,any 可与单、复数可数名词及不可数名词连用。some 一般用于肯定句,any 多用于疑问、否定或条件句。 特殊用法: ①any 用于肯定句表示“任何”。 Any child can do that.(定语) You may take any of them.(宾语) ②some 用于单数可数名词前表示“某一”。 Smith went to some place in England.(定语) ③在期待对方回答 yes 时,some 用在表示请求或邀请的问句中。 Would you like some bananas?(邀请) Mum,could you give me some money?(请求) ④some 用于否定句表示部分否定。 I don’t know some of the students.(宾语) ⑤some 和 any 还有副词的词性, 在句中可作状语。 some 意为“大约”, 相当于 about; 而 any 则表示程度,意为“稍微,丝毫”。 There are some 300 workers on strike. Do you feel any better today? (2)one,both,all ①one 作定语、表语、主语或宾语,可以指人或物,表示“一个”,其复数为 ones;指人时, 其所有格是 one’s,反身代词是 oneself。 One should try one’s best to serve the people.(主语、定语) This is not the one I want.(表语) ②one, ones 可以代替上文提到过的名词, 以免重复。 one, ones 前面分别可以用 this, that, these,those 或 the,which 等词修饰。 These books are more interesting than those ones. Here are three pens.Which one is yours,this one or that one or the one in the pencil case? ③both 用作定语、宾语、主语和同位语,可以指人或指物,表示“两者都”。 注意:both 用于否定句,表示部分否定;表示完全否定时,用 neither。 Both of us are not teachers.我们俩并不都是教师。 Neither of us is a teacher.我们俩都不是教师。 both 不能放在 the,these,those,my 等之后,而应放在它们的前面。如:Both my parents like this film. Both the/these boys are tall.
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④all 用作主语、表语、宾语、定语、同位语,指“全部的”、“整个的”,可与可数或不 可数名词连用;除少数情况外,一般不与单数可数名词连用;与复数名词连用时,表示“所 有的”、“全部的”,指三个或三个以上的人或物。 注意:all 用于否定句,表示部分否定;表示完全否定用 none。 Not all the ants go out for food.(or:All the ants don’t go out for food.) 并不是所有的蚂蚁都出去觅食。 None of the money is mine. 这钱一分也不是我的。 (3)many 和 much many 和 much 都表示“许多”, 但 many 修饰或代替复数可数名词, much 修饰或代替不可数名 词。它们在句中可作主语、宾语、定语。much 有时用作状语。 (4)few,little,a few,a little few 和 little 表示“没有多少”,含否定意义;而 a few 和 a little 表示“有一些,有几 个”,含肯定意义。另外,few,a few 修饰可数名词;little,a little 修饰不可数名词。 它们在句中常用作定语、主语和宾语。 (5)no 和 none no=not any,表示“没有”,用来修饰可数名词或不可数名词,通常作定语。none 代替不 可数名词作主语时,谓语动词用单数形式;代替可数名词作主语时,谓语动词可用单数也可 用复数形式。none 还可以在句中作宾语。 注意:none 既可以指人又可以指物,no one 只能指人。 (6)each 和 every each(各个),指两个或两个以上的人或物,侧重个体,在句中作主语、宾语、定语和同位语。 every(每个),指三个或三个以上的人或物,侧重整体,在句中只能作定语。 Every student in our class has a dictionary.(定语,强调班上“所有的人”) Each student in our class has a dictionary.(定语,强调各个个体) Each of them has been there.(主语) The teacher gave each of the students a new textbook.(宾语) We each got a ticket.(同位语) (7)either 和 neither either 是“两者中任何一个”的意思,可修饰或代替单数可数名词;neither 是“两者中没 有一个”的意思,可以修饰或代替单数可数名词,它们可在句中作主语、宾语或定语。 Here are two pens.You may take either of them.(宾语) Neither boy knows French.(定语) 注意:①either 用作副词,意为“也”,用于否定句的句末。He doesn’t like tea,and I
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don’t either.(状语)②either 与 or 连用构成连词,意为“不是??就是??”或“要 么??要么??”。 He is either Japanese or Chinese.③neither 用作副词, 意为“也不”, 即“not...either”。He can’t do it,neither can I.④neither 可与 nor 连用构成连 词,意为“既不??也不”。Neither he nor you are a student. (8)the other 和 another,the others 和 others ①the other 表示“两者中的另一个”;“the other+复数可数名词”表示“其余 ( 他 ) 的??”;the others 表示“其他的人或物”。others 及“other+复数名词”泛指“其他 的(别的)人或物”。这些词语在句中可作主语、宾语和定语。 He got two books;one is a textbook,and the other is a novel. Five of the pencils are red;the others (the other pens) are yellow. Some are singing;others are dancing. ②another 修饰或代替单数可数名词,意为“(三个或三个以上的)另一个”,不能指两者中 的另一个,在句中可作宾语和定语。 This coat is too dark.Please show me another.(宾语) Please give me another book.(定语) 注意:another 修饰复数名词时,意为“再,又”。 Please give me another ten minutes. =Please give me ten more minutes.

◆代词与语法填空 代词在语法填空中考查指示代词、不定代词以及 it 的用法时,无提示词,而考查人称代词、 物主代词与反身代词的词形变换常给出提示词。 典题试做 1 在空白处填入适当的内容(1 个单词)或括号内所给词的正确形式 1.A few hours before,I’d been at home in Hong Kong,with smog.(2015·全国Ⅰ) 答案 its 解析 空格后面有名词 smog,故要使用形容词性物主代词 its 来修饰限定。 2.Now it occurred to that his farm had much potential and that the death (it) choking

of the cow was a bit of luck.(2015·广东) 答案 him 解析 It occurred to sb.that...某人突然发现??,这是一个固定的句型。根据从句中
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his 可知,填 him。 3. Then the driver stood up and asked, “Did anyone lose a suitcase at the last stop?” A woman on the bus shouted,“Oh dear! It’s 答案 me/mine 解析 此题答案不唯一,要根据语境仔细揣摩。此处的 It 如果指前面的 suitcase 的话,那 么此空需要使用名词性物主代词 mine,表示“那个箱子是我的”;如果指前面的 anyone 的 话,那么此空需要用 I 的宾格形式 me,表示“是我在上一站丢失了手提箱”。 4.Last year,my brother and I went to Miami for a vacation.Some of my friends who had been there before said 东) 答案 it 解析 从空后的 a wonderful holiday destination 可以知道,这个地方就是 Miami,用 it 指代前面提到的地点。 5.Raise your leg and let 答案 it 解析 根据句意可知此处应该填入指代 leg 的代词。故填 it。 应对策略 1 1.当句子缺主语或宾语时,填代词。要根据语境,看该空格是指人还是指物,是男还是女, 是单数还是复数。为了避免重复,it,one(s),that,those 都可以用来替代上文出现的名 词, 要注意它们的不同用法。 it 可以用来代替不定式、 动名词或从句作形式主语或形式宾语。 还要注意不定代词 one,both,neither,nor,all,none,either,another 等的用法。 2.如是物主代词(表示某人的),作主语、宾语或表语用名词性物主代词;在名词前作定语只 能用形容词性物主代词;反身代词反指谁,它通常作主语和宾语的同位语,这时应与主语或 宾语一致;也可作某些动词或介词的宾语,这时需与主语一致。 ◆代词与短文改错 高考短文改错中,对于代词的考查常会涉及人称不一致、代词混用或漏掉代词等方面出现的 错误。 典题试做 2 单句改错(每小题 1 处错误) 1.We must find ways to protect your environment.If we fail to do so,we’ll live to regret it.(2015·全国Ⅰ) 答案 your→our/the 解析 从整个语境以及句子的主语来看应该把 your 改为 our 才能讲得通,也可以改为 the。 2. Close to the school there was a beautiful park with many trees around them.(2015·浙
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(I).”(2014·新课标全国Ⅱ)

was a wonderful holiday destination.(2014·广

stay in the air for seconds.(2014·辽宁)

江) 答案 them→it 解析 with 复合结构是作定语修饰 park 的,所以这里的代词指的是 park,故 them 应改为 it。 3.Five minutes later,Tony saw parents.(2015·全国Ⅱ) 答案 parents 前加 his 解析 句意为: 5 分钟后, Tony 看见了他的父母。 没有限定词 his 句意不够完整, 故在 parents 前加上 his。 4.I wanted to do anything special for him at his retirement party.(2015·陕西) 答案 anything→something 解析 句意为: 我想在他的退休晚会上为他做点儿特别的事情。 此处表示某件事(something) 而不是任何事情(anything)。 5.It’s been three Saturdays now and it really costs me many.(2015·四川) 答案 many→much 解析 many 用来指代可数名词复数,而此处指代花费的钱,因此要用 much。 6. In fact, I don’t like to go anymore, but I’m afraid I’ll lose their friendship.What do you think I should do?If you were me,would you talk to him?(2015·四川) 答案 him→them 解析 根据上文 their friendship 可知,作者交了多个朋友,故用 them。 7.My uncles immediately jumped up and shot their arrows at the bird.Neither of the arrows hit the target.Suddenly the arrows were flying down at us from the sky—they were like rain!(2014·陕西) 答案 Neither→None 解析 从后面的“they were like rain”可知,射出去的箭不止两支,因此应把 Neither

改为 None。 8.We appreciate our apologies and goodwill,but we hope that you can figure out a good way of settling the matter.(2014·辽宁) 答案 our→your 解析 人称指代混乱,根据后句中“we hope that you can...”可知,前句句意为:我们感 谢你的道歉和友好。故 our 应改为 your。 9.Then everyone in the carriage began searching for the ticket,which was eventually found under a seat several rows from his owner.(2014·浙江) 答案 his→its/the 解析 搭配与人称指代混乱。根据句意,此处指前文提到的票(the ticket)的主人。故应把
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his 改为 its/the。 10.The understanding between two friends means both of them have similar ideas and trust each other.Otherwise,it is impossible for him to help each other and to make their friendship last long.(2014·大纲全国) 答案 him→them 解析 考查上下文的人称指代错误。根据句意应为“对于这两位朋友而言”,故 him 应改为 them。 应对策略 2 对于代词的考查,要注意以下几点: (1)顺藤摸瓜,理清短文中代词的指代关系,注意联系上下文,还要注意人称一致、单复数一 致以及性别的一致等; (2)注意人称代词格的误用,以及物主代词、反身代词或疑问代词等的错用; (3)系统掌握 it 的各种用法; (4)准确把握不定代词在文中的正确使用。 ◆书面表达中代词易错点聚焦 1.主格、宾格混乱,如: (误)You and us should join hands to do it. (正)You and we should join hands to do it. 2.语序错误,如: (误)I and my family all like playing golf. (正)My family and I all like playing golf. 3.称谓指代混乱,如: (误)Everyone should take an umbrella with yourself. (正)Everyone should take an umbrella with himself or herself.

Ⅰ.单句语法填空 1.“But it’s a tiring job.I have to work whenever there are dogs at home,and no time to enjoy (I).Sometimes I want to go out for a meal or shopping,but

I can’t do so because I worry about them,” she said. 答案 myself 解析 联系前后句以及主语“I”可知,此处考查 enjoy oneself,故用 myself。 2.The Jazz pioneers were sold to plantation owners and forced to work long hours:
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When a Negro died,his friends and relatives attended the funeral. a procession to carry the body to the grave. 答案 They

formed

解析 此处缺少主语,联系上文,此处应为 his friends and relatives,故用主格 they。 3.Have you ever lived abroad?When living overseas in a place where people speak a different language, can be difficult to make yourself understood even in

relatively simple but important areas of life,like shopping and getting around town. 答案 it 解析 此处考查对代词作形式主语的运用能力。此处用 it 替代后面真正的主语 to make

yourself understood...。 4.This year all the apples are all red.My niece and nephew are going out this morning to pick 答案 some 解析 由句意可知,苹果都红了,我侄子和侄女要去摘“一些”用于野餐,故填 some。 5.Walking nearer,she looked up at me and then fixed her eyes on my can.At that time, I hadn’t finished my cola,so I gave 答案 her 解析 联系上文,该空处应指代上一句中的主语“she”,此处缺宾语,故用宾格 her。 6.If you’re buying today’s paper from the stand,could you get 答案 one 解析 本题的关键词是 paper,其作“报纸”讲时是可数名词。结合情景,说话人要对方给 自己捎一份报纸,也就是 a paper,因此用 one 来替代。 7.The cost of renting a house in central Xi’an is higher than area of the city. 答案 that 解析 所填词用于比较状语从句中, 指代句中的主语 the cost, 即指代不可数名词, 用 that。 8.To stay awake,he finished a cup of coffee and ordered 答案 another 解析 考查不定代词。句意为:为了保持清醒,他喝完了一杯咖啡,又点了一杯。由句意可 知,是指在原来基础上“再,又一”,故用 another。 9.Larry asks Bill and Peter to go on a picnic with him,but to,because they have work to do. 答案 neither 解析 but 是转折连词,but 前面的分句意为“Larry 请 Bill 和 Peter 和他一起去野餐”,
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for picnic.

several coins instead.

for me?

in any other

.

of them wants

后面分句应为“但是他们两个都不想去”,neither 两者都不。 10.I got this bicycle for one. 答案 nothing 解析 根据后半句:我朋友买了新自行车,就把这辆旧的送给我了。故用 for nothing 表示 “免费;没花钱”。 Ⅱ.单句改错(每小题 1 处错误) 1.If it’s a false alarm and there is no fire,your teacher will lead us back to the classroom. 答案 us→you 2.He had a deep voice,which set himself apart from others in our small town,and he was strong and powerful. 答案 himself→him 3.We took ours fishing poles and headed for the lake. 答案 ours→our 4. Yesterday afternoon, I paid a visit to Mr.Johnson.I was eager to see him, but outside her room I stopped. 答案 her→his 5.After thinking for some time,I let her copy my answers.But after the test,all of us were called to the teacher’s office. 答案 all→both 6.Dad lost his job,and as Mom explained,“He was lucky to find other one.” 答案 other→another 7.How are you those days?I have been missing you very much since I went to college a year ago. 答案 those→these 8.Mother’s Day is coming.I’m sorry that I am abroad and can’t send your flowers, so I’m writing to you. 答案 your→you 9.It is such a great hotel that I would recommend it to any friend of me who is going to Beijing. 答案 me→mine 10.I knew that they would be worried about myself because I was so far away,and that my mother would not sleep if she knew.
11

:My friend gave it to me when she bought a new

答案 myself→me Ⅲ.语法填空 A(代词专练) I can’t believe I made 1.it into San Francisco at long last! This morning,I went to the airport by 2.myself to catch my 10:00 a.m.flight.I got there early to go through security.Since I had an electronic ticket,3.which was more convenient, I then went straight to the boarding gate.When I got there, I couldn’t believe 4.my eyes.The flight was put off for two hours! I made a decision to look at the flight monitors to see 5.if/whether there was an earlier flight to San Francisco.I saw that there was 6.another flight that will leave in 40 minutes,so I ran to the boarding gate of 7.that flight.When I got there, I asked the gate agent if I could get on that flight instead.She said that I needed to stay in the gate area and wait for my name to be called if 8.they had a seat available.So,I waited,and waited,and waited.9.All the passengers were waiting impatiently. The gate agent began calling out names.Guess what?I found 10.nobody was behind me.The last name called was 11.mine.The last seat left on the plane was a middle seat and I usually prefer 12.one near a window,but I was just happy to get on board.I didn’t want my vacation to get delayed because of a late flight. B How difficult it is these days for us 13.to find (find) someone to come and fix our fridge,our TV set or our washing machine if 14.it breaks.Everybody wants to sell us new fridges,new TV sets or new washing machines,15.but nobody wants to fix them when they stop working.One day Mrs.Richard discovered that her washing machine didn’t work,16.so she telephoned a workshop.Three days later,17.a man from the shop came to see 18.what was wrong with her washing machine.But Mrs.Richard was not too glad and said,“Well,you’ve finally arrived.I called you three days ago.” The man 19.paid (pay) no attention to what she said.He 20.simply (simple) took a piece of paper out of his pocket and looked at it.Then he said,“Three days ago? That was the 21st,wasn’t it? Well,I am sorry.I’ve come to the wrong place.I’m looking for Mrs.Robber’s house,not 21.yours.She telephoned me 22.on the 20th.”

12


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