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Unit 1 Module 5 Grammar and usage To-infinitive, Bare infinitive and Verb-ing form as a noun

Part 1

一、不定式: 一般式的构成:__________; (被动)___________ 完成式的构成:___________; (被动)___________ 进行式的构成:_____________ The crowd cheered wildly at the sight of Liu Xiang, who was reported _______________(break) the world record in the 110-meter hurdle race. Many buildings in the city need repairing, but the one __________(repair) first is the library.

1.不定式作________ 主语

To find a best friend is difficult.
=It is difficult to find a best friend.

动词不定式做主语时,为了句子平衡, 通常用it做形式主语,而把不定式放在后面。


①It’s +adj. for sb. to do sth. (常用的形容词有:
_________________________________) difficult, easy, hard, important…

②It’s +adj. of sb. to do sth.(常用的形容词有:
right, wrong, brave, careful, careless, clever, __________________________________________ wise, stupid, cruel, foolish, good, honest, kind, __________________________________________ nice, silly…) ________

③It is + n. (a pity, a pleasure, one’s duty,

a shame, bad/good manners…) + to do sth.

④It takes + some time (hours, months, days,
patience…) + to do sth.

动词不定式做主语时,谓语动词用单数形式。 is To catch fish with your hands only _____(be) not easy. was To complete the building in one year ____(be) a difficult task in ancient times

The cat said “Remember not to take it next time!”

2.不定式作________ 宾语

a)直接用不定式作宾语的动词: agree, afford, ask, decide, determine, expect, fail, hope, learn, intend, manage, offer, plan, promise, refuse, want, wish等。
I don’t want _____ A like I’m speaking ill of anybody, but the manager’s plan is unfair. A. to sound B. to be sounded

C. sounding

D. to have sounded

b)只有少数介词如but, except等后面可以跟不定 式作宾语。一般情况下作介词宾语的不定式都 带to,但如果but或except之前有do, does, did时, 通常省略to。即带do不带to, 带to不带do. to wait We have no choice but________(wait).

We can do nothing but_______(wait). wait

c)当不定式短语比宾补长时,往往将不定式放到宾 补 后 , 而用 代 词 it 作 形式宾 语 , 常用动词有 feel, think, find, believe, consider, make等。

He found it easy to solve the problem.

3.不定式作宾补 _____

He asked you to call him at ten o’clock.

allow, ask, advise, encourage, expect, force, would like, love, hate, order, teach, tell, want, warn, wish, forbid, get等。

(2) 可以跟不带to的不定式作宾补的动词有: 一感: feel 二听 : hear, listen to 三让 : let, make, have 五看 : see, watch, notice look at 和observe

注意:但当使役动词和感官动词变成被动语 态时, 应加上“to”。 Eg, The workers were made to work 14 hours a day by the boss.

注意:感官动词后也可接v.-ing但意思有区别。 I saw her ______(talk) to her new friends. talk


I saw her ________ talking to her new friends.
(没看到整个过程, 看到动作正在发生)

While watching television, ______. C A. the doorbell rang

B. the doorbell rings
C. we heard the doorbell ring

D. we heard the doorbell rings
If anyone happens to drop in while I’m out, _____ A him or her leave a message. A. have B. get C. ask D.tell

4. 不定式作________ 表语 Our most important task now is to make a plan. 当句子的主语是 aim, idea, wish, task, duty, purpose等或者主语是what引导的名词性从句 时, 后面可以用不定式做表语, 用以说明主语所 包含内容。 My dream is to go to Peking University. What he wishes is to buy a good birthday present for his mother every year. 注 : 作表语的不定式都带 to, 但当主语部分有 实义动词do时, to可以省略。 Now the only thing we can do is (to) wait.

定语 5. 不定式做_________
I have a very important meeting to attend. 1) 不定式在作定语时, 有时与被修饰的名词有 意义上的动宾关系 , 如果该不定式是不及物动 词, 它后面需要加上适当的介词。 with/to She has no person to talk________. There’s nothing to worry_______. about on I have no chair to sit ________. with He has no friend to make______.

2) 试比较: Do you have anything to wash? Do you have anything to be washed? Practice: I am going to Beijing tomorrow. Do you have anything to_________ be taken (take) to your father? I am going to Beijing tomorrow, and I have a lot of things to _______(take) along with take me.

3) 不定代词或被序数词、 形容词最高级或 only, last, next等修饰的名词可以用不定式作定语。 Would you please give me something to drink? She was the only person to survive after the earthquake. He’s always the first to come and the last to leave. This is the best book to read.

6. 不定式作_________ 状语 表示目的(to /in order to /so as to do sth.)、 结果(only /just to do sth.)等
All these gifts must be mailed immediately ___ C in time for Christmas. A. in order to have received B. in order to receive C. so as to be received D. so as to be receiving He hurried to the station only ___ A that the train had gone. A. to find B. finding C. found D. to have found

My friend, John , a bookworm, was always busy doing his homework , only A __________ once in a while to drink some water. A. stopping B. to stop C. to have stopped D. having stopped 改错: In order to learn English better, my father makes me do some reading every day. (注意,动词不定式做状语时,其逻辑主语 通常要跟句子的主语保持一致。)



1. 疑 问 代 ( 副 ) 词 + 不 定 式 (whether, what, which, whom, where, when, how), 在句中起名词作用, 通 常 跟在 tell, know, show, decide, learn, wonder, explain等动词后作主语、宾语或表语。
No one can tell me where to find John.

When to take the exam is still unknown.
The problem is how to get enough money. I don’t know what to do next. They haven’t decided which to buy.

2. 不定式的进行式、完成式和被动式
①不定式的进行式: to be+v-ing,用来表示谓语 动词动作发生时, 不定式的动作正在进行。 Some students pretended to be reading English when the teacher came in.

②不定式完成式:to have +v.-ed 构成,用来表示动作发生在谓语动作之前。
--- Is Bob still performing? A ___ the --- I’m afraid not. He is said stage already as he has become an official. A. to have left B. to leave C. to have been D. to be left

③当不定式的逻辑主语是不定式所表示 的动作的承受者时,不定式要用被动语态。 不定式的被动式分为一般式被动:to be v-ed和 完成式被动:to have been v-ed

People in England are proud of the 30th C in London in 2012. Olympic Games _____ A. hold B. holding C. held D. to be held 据说这本书已经被翻译成多种语言。
The book is said to have been translated into many languages.

3.有些句型后面须接不带to的不定式。 go (go) swimming. I would rather ____
tidy (tidy) your You had better ______ bedroom. visit (visit) your cousin in Why not ______ Japan?

4. 当两个不定式由and, or, expect, but, than或 rather than连接起来时,第二个不定式符号to 省略。 She told me _______(be) to be cheerful and look ______(look) on the bright side. We had nothing to do but ________ watch (watch) TV. I decided to write rather than _________(phone). phone

Part 2 Verb-ing form as a noun

Collecting stamps is a good hobby.

1.动名词的句法功能:动名词由动词加 ing构成, 主要起名词作用,在句中做主语、表语、宾 语和定语。
①作主语,可以直接放在句首,也可以用 代词it作为形式主语,而把动名词后置。 (单个动名词短语作主语时,谓语动词用单数) Seeing is believing. (眼见为实)

动名词作主语还有以下两个习惯表达法: It is no use (good) + doing:做某事没用(不好) crying over spilt milk. (覆水难收) It’s no use ______ spitting It’s no good _________(spit) in public. There is no + doing (= It is impossible to do sth.) There is no knowing _______(know) what may happen. (未来的事无法知道)

②作表语:通常是说明主语的内容,注意 它与谓语动词进行时的区别。 His hobby is collecting stamps. He is collecting stamps. (is collecting是谓语 动词进行时) ③作宾语 A. 作及物动词的宾语 (stand, admit, dislike, imagine, delay, consider, mind, avoid, enjoy, practise, finish, keep, suggest, appreciate, escape, miss,advise …)

I can’t stand _____ with Jane in the same office. She just refuses _____ talking while she works. A. working; stopping B. to work; stopping C. working; to stop D. to work; to stop He got well-prepared for the job interview, for he could not risk _____ the good opportunity. A. to lose B. losing C. to be lost D. being lost ---There is a story here in the paper about a 110-year-old man. ---My goodness! I can’t imagine ___ that old. A. to be B. to have been C. being D. having been

B. 作介词的宾语 be used to doing 习惯于做_________________ look forward to doing 盼望做___________________ devote one’s life to doing 致力于做_________________ spend time (in) doing 花时间做_________________ be fond of doing 喜爱做___________________ be good at doing 擅长做___________________ be proud of doing 为做…而自豪_________________ be tired of doing 对做…感到厌倦_______________ feel like doing 想要做_______________________

The president spoke at the business meeting for nearly an hour without ______ his notes. A. bringing up C. looking for B. referring to D. trying on

Tips: a. 有些动词( continue, prefer,begin, hate, like, dislike,start, love)后面既可以接不定式作 宾语,也可以接动名词作宾语,意义差别不大。 通常认为用动名词泛指一般的倾向性,用不定式 则表示特定或具体某一种动作。 to swim swimming I like ___________but I don’t like ________ in winter. (swim)

b.有些动词,如forget, remember, regret,mean, try, stop, go on, can’t help等,后面既可以接动名词,也可 以接不定式,但表示的意思不同。

clean 1)I’m very busy now, so I can’t help _____(clean) the room. crying 2)The girl couldn’t help ______(cry) when she saw her mother again. to hurt 3)I didn’t mean ________(hurt) you. 4)What he said means _______(go)there by air. going

5)When asked by the police, he said that he remembered_____ at the party, but not ______. A. to arrive, leaving B. to arrive, to leave C. arriving, leaving the meeting. --- Well, now I regret _____ that. A. to do C. to have done B. to be doing D. having done D. arriving, to leave

6) ---You were brave enough to raise objections(反对) at

c. 在下列句型中动名词作真正宾语:
动词 + it(形式宾语)+宾补+动名词(真正宾语) I found it no use / good quarrelling with him.

④作定语 a sleeping car, a walking stick 表示所修饰的词的用途或目的,可用for改写 a sleeping car = a car for sleeping a walking stick = a stick for walking

a sleeping boy=_________________________ a boy who is sleeping a leaf which is falling a falling leaf =__________________________


Do you mind my/me smoking here? He was awakened by someone knocking at the door. ________(Mary) Mary’s laughing made Tom angry. There is no hope of the factory making profits. That trees were cut down resulted in /led to the buried city being _____________( bury) by sand.

I really can’t understand _____ her like that.
A. you treat B. you to treat

C. why treat D. you treating
总结:在口语中,动名词如果不在句首,可 以用名词普通格或人称代词宾格作逻辑主语。

Language points :

1.would rather (that)sb

did 表示现在或将来 had done 表示过去

1. 我宁愿是一只快乐的小鸟。 I would rather I were a happy bird. 2.他宁愿从来没打过她。 He would rather he had never beaten her.

3. I would rather you ______ came (come) tomorrow than today.
4. I would rather you _________ had told (tell) me the truth.

2.宁愿...而不愿.... would rather do...than do... would do rather than do.. prefer doing… to doing… prefer to do rather than do...

To enjoy the scenery, Irene would rather spend long hours on the train ___travel by air. C A. as B. to C. than D. while
3. rather than 连接句子的并列结构,若连接主语,与 前者保持一致. rather than + n /pron /adj /doing /do /clause (从句)/prep.

(1)颜色好像是绿色,而不是蓝色. The colour seems green rather than blue. (2)他打了电话而没写信. He telephoned rather than wrote. (3)是他而不是你该受责备. He rather than you is to blame. (4)与其说他是位哲学家,不如说他是位艺术家.
He is an artist rather than a philosopher. (5)I would die with my head high rather than live with knees bent. 我宁愿站着生也不愿跪着死。


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