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一. 主谓结构(主语+不及物动词) 1.The sun is shining 2.They talked for half an hour. 3.The pen writes well. *主语:可以做主语的有名词(boy. fire. apple 等),代词(I, you ,it. she 等) ,数词 (two, thirteen) ,动词不定式 (to learn English, to take a taxi) ,动词 ing 形式(playing football, watching TV)以及从句(what he did, That he is from Sichuan). #不能做主语的是:动词及动词短语(do, do some cooking, listen to the radio), 介词短语(by bike, in the classroom.)学生常见错误如: 1. Do something is better than do nothing. 2. In the classroom have three boys. 3. By bike is good for health. 4. Listen to the music make me happy. *不及物动词 (vi) 指该动词不能跟宾语, 也就是说该动词后没有宾语. (如上例) 。 常见的不及物动词有 (go, come, arrive, sleep, fall, appear, get. look, turn 等) 。 如: 1.We go work every day. 2.My mother arrived Chengdu yesterday. 3she often looks me. 如果不及物动词后面跟宾语必须加介词过渡,转化为介词宾语。 1. we go to work every day. 2.My mother arrived in Chengdu yesterday. 3.She often looks at me. *谓语: 由动词构成, 位于主语之后。 谓语的动词可分为实义动词 (come, see, run, teach, think, find, eat) 、 系动词 (is, am, are/was, were,) 、 情态动词 (can, may, should, must, ought to, shall) 、助动词(do, did, does/has, have, had). #实义动词可单独做谓语,系动词+表语组成谓语。情态动词+动词原形一起构成 谓语。助动词+动词原形构成谓语。如; 1. He works in a factory.(实义动词) 2. I taught English in the school two years ago.(实义动词) 3. I felt cold(系+表)。 4. We can speak English.(情+实) 。 5. She didn’t do her homework last week.(助+实) 。 6. They were working in the field.(助+实) 二.主谓宾结构 1.Tom speaks English. 2.He bought a car. 3.They have finished the job. 4.My daughter is reading a book. *宾语:及物动词所作用的对象,一般有名词、代词、数词、不定式、动词 ing 形式担任。如: 1.He is doing his homework.( 名词) 2.They did nothing this morning.(代词) 3.She wants to go home.(不定式)

4.we enjoy playing tennis(动词 ing). 注意:有一些动词有两个宾语,即双宾语。如:tell, give,pass, bring,show 等, 指人的是间接宾语,指物的是直接宾语。(主+谓+宾+宾) 如;1.Mr. Brown teaches us English. 2. My mother told me a story. 3. Sandy, please pass me the newspaper. 三.主系表结构 *系动词除了 be 动词外,有些动词常充当系动词 become,turn,get,feel,taste,smell,sound,stay,remain,keep,seem,prove appear, go, look .*表语是指系动词后的成分,即系动词后就是表语。很多词和短语甚至句子 都可以做表语。如: 1,。She is a teacher.(名词 ) 2.The food tastes delicious.(形容词) 3.We will be seventeen next year.(数词) 4.They are in the classroom.(介词短语) 。 5.My job is to sell newspapers. (不定式)。 6.The radio is broken.(动词 ed 形式) 7.The movie was moving .(动词 ing) 8.The question is why he didn’t attend the party last night.(表语从句) 特别注意: (1)副词是不能作表语的。这是改错题中的常考点。如: 1.The weather was wonderfully. 2.She got angrily. 3.The music sounded sweetly. 4.Peter looks sadly. (2)系动词没有被动语态,这也是改错题的常考点。 1. The plan was sounded reasonable 2.The material is felt soft 3.Ten years later, his theory was proved true. 4.The food is smelt bad. 四: 主+谓+间宾+直宾 有些及物动词可以有两个宾语,如 give ,pass,bring,show。这两个宾语通常一 个指人, 为间接宾语; 一个指物, 为直接宾语。 间接宾语一般位于直接宾语之前。 一般的顺序为:动词 + 间接宾语 + 直接宾语。 如:He give me a cup of tea. 强调直接宾语顺序为:动词 + 直接宾语 +介词+ 间接宾语。如: Show this house to Mr. Smith. 若直接宾语为人称代词:只能说 :动词+ 代词直接宾语 +介词+ 间接宾语。 如:Bring it to me, please. (不能说 Bring me it, please。)

(需借助 to 的) allow, bring, , give, grant, hand, ,lend, offer, owe, pass, pay, , promise, read, refuse, , , sell, send, show, teach, tell wish, write 等 (需借助 for 的)bring, buy, cash, choose, fetch, get, leave, make, order, paint, play(演奏),save, sing, spare 等 He sent me an English-Chinese Dictionary. = He sent an English-Chinese Dictionary to me. She gave John a book.= She bought a book for m 五: 主+谓+宾+宾补

*宾补位于宾语后,是对宾语进行补充说明的,宾语是什么或做什么。宾语和宾 补之间是主系或主谓关系。它们一起构成复合宾语。 1.We elected her chairman. 2.We should keep the classroom clean. 3.I want him to come. 4.She heard him singing. 五.There be 结构 这个结构表存在,“ ….地方…有”。 1. There are 56 students in our class. 2. There was a lecture in the hall last night. 3.There will be a football match between class two and class five next Monday. 注意:此句型有时可用 live, stand, come, go, lie, remain, exist, arrive,等词代替 be 动词。 1.There lived an old man at the foot of the mountain 2.There lies a book on the desk. 3.There stands a tree on the hill. 学生使用误区:there

be 和 have/ has 混用

如:1.There has a book on the desk. 2.There has a meeting this evening. 常可用 there be 句型的一些习作练习: 1. 下周五我们学校将举办一场歌唱比赛。 2. 今天晚上将有一场电影。 3.过去几年中国发生了多次地震。。 4. 森林火灾之后,山上到处都是死鸟。 5.街道两边矗立着许多高楼大夏

宾语从句放在动词、 介词等词性后面起宾语作用的从句叫宾语从句。 宾语从句的语序必须是 陈述语序。谓语动词、介词、 。有些形容词(afraid ,sure ,glad 等)之后也可以带宾语从句 如:1.I know that he is from the USA.

2. I don’t know if / whether he will come on time. 3 .He told me what he wanted. 4 .He told us that he felt ill. 5 .I know he has returned.

七. 形式主语
一、 It 用作形式主语 当不定式(短语)、动名词(短语)或从句在某个句子中作主语时,为保持句子 结构前后平衡,避免头重脚轻,因此常用 it 作形式主语置于句首,而将真正的主 语放在句尾。此时 it 只起先行引导作用,本身无词义。 1.It is wrong to tell a lie. 2.It is no use arguing about it. 3.It is uncertain who will come.

It 作形式主语的常见句型: ① It + be + 形容词 + to do sth. / doing / that …. e.g. It is very important to learn a foreign language. (学一门外语非常重要。) It is useless crying over the spilt milk. (覆水难收。) ② It + be +名词词组 + doing / that …. e.g. It is no good telling lies. It is a pity that you didn’t go to see the film yesterday. (你昨天没看成那部电影真遗憾。) It is a truth that there would be no new China without the Communist Party. ③ It + be + 过去分词 + that …. 该句型常见动词有:say, hope, think, suppose, expect, report, know, believe, decide, etc. e.g. It is said that they have invented a new type of computer. ) It is believed that China will become one of the strongest countries in the world.。) It was reported that more than 170 thousand people died in the 2004 tsunami. It appears that Tom might change his mind. (4) It + takes + (sb.) + some time + to do sth. 这是一个表示“(某人)花多少时间干某事”的句型,其中 it 是形式主语,代替后 面的不定式(to do sth.),句型中的 sb.也可以省略。 1. It took me some time to read the reading materials. 2.It took him fourteen hours to go to New Zealand from Shanghai by plane. (从上海乘飞机去新西兰花了他 14 小时。): 十年前,我的家乡又小,又旧,又穷。大多数都是农民,工厂很少,人们食不果 腹,日子过的很苦。现在,家乡发生了很多变化,人们找到各种挣钱的方式。高 楼林立,公路宽敞干净。人们乘车或开车上班。很多人使用手机和电脑,交流更 方便,人们过着幸福的日子。



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