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定语从句讲解


定语从句要点:
1、句子种类中的定语从句 2、定语从句的三要素 3、关系词的选择方法 4、 关系代词的用法 5、关系代词作宾语时用法 6、关系副词的用法 7、限制性定语从句和非限制性定语从句 8、关系代词as的用法 9、 as和which引导非限定,修饰整个主句的用法 10、关系代词that的特殊用法

句子种类: 一、简单句 五种类型 1. 主

+ 谓(vi) 2. 主 + 谓(vt) + 宾 3. 主 + 系 + 表 4. 主 + 谓(vt) + 间宾 + 直宾 5. 主 + 谓(vt) + 宾 + 宾补 二、并列句 = 简单句 + 并列连词 + 简单句 and, but, for, so, while, or, as well as, rather than, either…or, neither…nor, not only…but also…, besides, however, otherwise, therefore

三、复合句 = 主句 + 从句 (主从复合句)

主语从句
宾语从句 从句 表语从句 同位语从句 定语从句 状语从句(八种) 名词性从句

被修饰词

1.代替先行词 2.作从句成分

先行词 + 关系词 + 从句
1. 分类:a. 关系代词 b. 关系副词 2. 选择:a. 先行词—指人、物? b. 据从句—句子成分?

关系词的选择:
前看看(指人、指物?指时间、地点、原因?)

后看看(从句成分:主语、宾语、定语、状语?)
合起来再算算(确定引导词)
that/ which/-- my I have lost the watch ______________ father gave me. when/ on which Do you remember the day _______________ Beijing was liberated.

I. 关系代词的基本用法:
that: 人、物;主、宾

which:
who: 人 whom: 人

物;主、宾
;主 ; 宾

whose: 人、物; 定

将两句合并为一个定语从句: 1. The book is very interesting. I borrowed it from the library last week. The book (that / which) I borrowed from the library last week is very interesting. 2. The school is a big one. The school stands near the river. The school which / that stands near the river is a big one.

3. The house was built last year. Its windows face south. The house whose windows face south was built last year. 4. The students will not pass the exam. They don’t study hard. The students who don’t study hard will not pass the exam.

5. I will remember the day forever. I worked on the farm on the day. I will remember the day when I worked on the farm.

From M5 B3: (观察引导词的选择)
1. Ancient China was a place where states were often at war with each other. 2. But it was also a time when there were many great philosophers. 3. Confucius is the philosopher whose influence has been the greatest.
4. Mencius was a thinker whose teachings were similar to those of Confucius.

5. Mencius believed that the reason why man is different from animals is that man is good. 6. Mozi was another teacher who was very influential. 7. Born in 476 BC, he came from a family which was very poor.

8. As a result, he spent many years trying to find a state where people would follow his teachings. 9. Mozi taught that we should love all human beings and look after those who are weaker than ourselves.

II. 关系代词作宾语时用法:
1.关系代词作定语从句中动词或介词 的宾语时,可以省略; This is the book which/that she was looking for.

-------

2.关系代词作介词的宾语时,介 词可提前;
This is the room which/that we lived in last year.

This is the room in which we lived last year. where

3.介词如果提前, 其后不能接that;
The person whom/that I spoke to just now is our teacher.

The person to whom I spoke just now is our teacher.

----that

4.含有介词的短语动词一般不拆 开,介词仍放在动词的后面. The babies whom/that the nurses are looking after are very healthy.

III. 关系副词的用法:
1. when 时间 2. where 地点 3. why 原因 介词 + which

状语

1. I still remember the day when I first came to Beijing. 2. I’ll never forget the day when I joined the League.
when = on which

3. This is the house where he lived two years ago. 4. The factory where his father works is very large. where = in which

5. He told me the reason why he hadn’t attended the meeting.
6. The reason why he came late was that he was seriously ill.

why = for which

That was the way _____ she looked after us.
(that/in which/---) 在从句中作状语时

分析关系词的使用:
that/which/ x we I still remember the day _____________ spent together.

when I still remember the day ________we stayed together.

that/which/ x I visited This is the museum ______________ yesterday. This is the museum ______ where I once worked.

why Mary was I don’t know the reason _______ late for class. I don’t know the reason ____________ that/which/ x Mary gave for being late for class.

that/which/ x he told of is The way _____________ wonderful. that/ in which/ x he solved the The way _________________ problem is wonderful.

He lives in the room. The room’s window faces south. (将两句合并)

He lives in the room whose window faces south.
He lives in the room of which the window faces south. He lives in the room the window of which faces south.

IV. 限制性定语从句和非限制性定语 从句:
1. 限制性定语从句与先行词关系密切, 两者之间不用逗号分开;

2.非限制性定语从句和主句先行词关系 不十分密切,两者之间通常用逗号分开; 此时,不能用that;

1. Yesterday I met Li Ping, who seemed to be very busy.
2. His brother,who is 18 years old, is a PLA man.

V.关系代词as的用法:
1. 引导限制性定语从句:

the same…as such…as
as many/much…as

I have the same book as you bought yesterday. He lent me as many books as he has.

2. as和which引导非限制性定语从句, 修饰整个主句的用法: 从句可放在主句前或后,常用逗号与主 句隔开。 在主句后, 可用as或which; 在主句前, 只能用as.

He plays football well, as/which we know. 作从句宾语,译成“这一点”

As we know, he plays football well.
作从句宾语,译成“正如…所…”

VI. 关系代词的特殊用法:
在下列情况下只能用that:
1.当先行词是all, something, anything, nothing, everything, little, much等不定 代词时;

That is all that I can do for you.
Is there anything else that I can do for you?

2.当先行词被形容词最高级修饰时; This is the best film that I have ever seen.

3.当先行词被序数词修饰时;
This is the first time that I came here. He is the last person that I want to see.

4.当先行词被the only, the very, 等修 饰时;

This is the very thing that I lost yesterday. He is the only person that is invited.

5.当先行词既是人又是物时; The man and the horse that fell into the river were drowned.

思考:
They said that that “that” that that student wrote was wrong. They said that “that” that student wrote was wrong.


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