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名词性从句讲解及练习[1]


名词性从句
? 名词性从句在功能上相当于名词 主语

{What he does is important {
This is his job.

His job is important.

.

表语

This is what he does every day.

I don’t like his job. 宾语 I don’t like what he does every day.

{

同位语

{ I don’t know about the fact that he is a
teacher.

I don’t know about the man, Mr. White.

什么叫名词性从句?
? 在句子中起名词作用的句子叫名词从句 (Noun Clauses) ? 名词从句的功能相当于名词词组, 它在 复合句中能担任主语、宾语、表语、同 位语等

? 因此根据它在句中不同的语法功能,名 词从句又可分别称为主语从句、宾语从 句、表语从句和同位语从句

主语从句
subject clause

宾语从句

名词性从句 noun clause

object clause

表语从句
predicative clause

同位语从句
appositive clause

Subject Clauses 主语从句

1. 主语从句:从句在句中充当主语成分

他会成功是肯定的 1). That he will succeed is certain . 是否他去那儿还不知道 2) Whether he will go there is not known . 他说的话不是真的 3) What he said is not true .
无论谁来都是受欢迎的

4) Whoever comes is welcome.

1.主语从句 引导词:
1.从属连词:that, whether 2.疑问代词:what, which, who, whom, whose

3.疑问副词:when, where, why, how
4.复合关系代词:whatever, whichever, whoever, whomever

考点一:主语从句后置! 为了避免主语冗长,句子头重脚轻,经常用 it作形式主语,主语从句放在后面作真正的 主语.例: 1.That we shall be late is certain. -- It’s certain that we shall be late.

2. That the earth is round is known to all.
-- It’s known to all that the earth is round.

It 的用法: (形式主语)

It’s possible/important/necessary/clear/
obvious that…很可能/重要的是…/必要的 是…/很清楚… It’s said/ reported/believed that..据说/据报 道… It seems/appears/happens/occurs/matters/

that…显然、明显、 碰巧..

It’s no wonder that…并不奇怪/无疑… It’s a pity/a fact /a common knowledge (众所周知) /a surprise/ a question/ a shame/ high time…
【特别提醒】

连接代词what, whoever, whatever, whichever 等引导的主语从句不宜用it作形式主语。 What is worth doing is worth doing well. Whatever was said here has left us much to think.

? 考点二 ? 注意:从句作主语 ,谓语动词一般用 单数 ? What引导的主语从句,可根据表语决 定 _is_ ? What he needs---- that book. ? What he needs are some books. __

Object Clauses 宾语从句

1. I
主语

know him . (简单句)
谓语 宾语

2. I
主语 主

know who
谓语 句

he

is . (复合句)

连词 从句主语 从句谓语 宾语从句

宾语从句的概念:

宾语从句在复合句中作主句的宾语。
句子结构: 主语 + 谓语 vt.
be+adj.

+连词(引导词)+ 宾语从句

vi+prep.

? 他建议他们明年去香港旅行。 ? He suggested that they should make a trip to Hong Kong next year. ? 我们的成功取决于我们互相之间合作得 如何。 ? Our success depends on how well we can cooperate with one another. ? 没人敢确定一百万年以后地球是否存在 ? No one can be sure whether the earth will exist in a million years. ? 你可以做你喜欢做的任何事情 ? You may do whatever you like to do

宾语从句
一,引导词: 1.从属连词:that, whether, if
2.疑问代词:what, which, who, whom, whose

3.疑问副词:when, where, why, how

4.复合关系代词:whatever, whoever, whichever, whomever

引导宾语从句的that在下列情况下一般不省略: ? 1. 宾语从句前有插入语。 ? We hope, on the contrary, that he will stay at home with us. ? 2. 在介词后。 ? He has no special fault except that he smokes too much. ? 3. that在与之并列的另一个宾语从句之后。 ? He said (that) the book was very interesting and that(不省略) all the children like to read it. ? 4. 有间接宾语时。 ? He told me that he was leaving for Japan.

? ? ? ? ? ? ?

5. that从句单独回答问题时。 —What did he hear? 他听说了什么事? —That Kate had passed the exam. 6. 在“it(形式宾语)+补语”之后时。 I think it necessary that he should stay here. 7. 位于句首时。如: That our team will win, I believe.

二、时态
1. 如果主句是现在的时态 (包括一般现在时 , 现在进行时,现在完成时),

?I know he lives here .

?I know he lived here ten years ago .
?I have heard that he will come tomorrow .

2.如果主句是过去的时态(包括一般过去时,过 去进行时),那么从句的时态一定要用相对应

的过去的某种时态(包括一般过去时,过去进
行时,过去将来时, 过去完成时)

?I knew who lived here.
?I saw she was talking with her mother. ?He asked whether his father would come back

tomorrow.
?He said that he had seen it .

3.当从句是客观真理,定义,公理,定理 时用一般现在时。 ?The teacher said that the sun travels around the earth .

三、语序
宾语从句的语序用陈述语序:

连接词+主语+谓语+其他成分

1. When will he go to the library?

√ a. His brother asks when he will go to the
library .
b. His brother asks when will he go to the

library .
2. What does he want to buy ?

√ a. I don’t know what he wants to buy .
b. I don’t know what does he want to buy .

3. 否定的转移:若主语谓语动词为think, consider, suppose, believe, expect,, imagine等,其后的宾语从句若含有否 定意义,一般要把否定词转移到主句谓 语上,从句谓语用肯定式。

(我认为这件衣服不适合你穿。)
I don’t think this dress fits you well.

上述部分主句谓语是think, believe, expect, suppose, imagine等引导的宾语从句,疑问部分 与宾语从句相对应构成反意疑问句。 I don’t think he is bright, is he? We believe she can do it better, can’t she? 但此时主句主语必须是第一人称

如果不是则不能否定从句 ,如: He thought they were wrong, didn't he? 而不能说weren't they?

4. It 作为形式宾语而真正的宾语从句则放 在句尾,
? Like/love/hate/appreciate/help/look/depend on/see to/ count on/rely on + it + when/if/that clause ? I hate it when people speak with their mouths full. ? Sb.+ think/find/make + it +adj./n.+that clause ? He made it clear that he would leave office soon.

Predicative Clauses 表语从句

表语从句是在复合句中作表语的名词性 从句, 放在系动词之后,一般结构是 “主语+系动词+表语从句”。可以 接表语从句的系动词有be, look, remain, seem等。另外,常用的还有 the reason why … is that … 和It is because …等结构。例如:

? 他缺席的原因是因为他生病住院. ? The reason for his absence was that he was ill in hospital. ? 问题是他们是否能帮我们克服困难 ? The question is whether they will be able to help us out. ? 那就是我们应该首先做的事 ? That is what we should do first. ? 这是因为你太认真的缘故 ? it is because you are too serious. ? 他看起来好像快要哭起来了 ? He looked as if he was going to cry

. 表语从句:从句在句中充当表语成分,一般放 在系动词之后. 作用:对主语进行解释说明。
连接词:that / whether /as if /as though 连接代词:who / whom / whose / which / what 连接副词:when / where / why / how / because

注 意:
1.在表语从句中,表“是否” 时,只能用 “whether”不能用“If”。
2.一般情况下,“that”不能省。 3. It is /was because …. It is /was why….

3. The reason (why…/for…)is /was that….
4 The reason is because /why… that ….

Appositive Clauses 同位语从句

同位语从句在句中充当同位语从句成分,其一般 跟在一些抽象名词( idea ;belief ; fact ; truth ; problem ;news 等)后面,对名词作 进一步解释说明. n.+ 连接词 + 从句

汤姆将出国的消息是他讲的。

The news that Tom would go abroad is told by him.

? 他是否胜利还有一些疑问 ? There is some doubt whether he will win or not. ? 同位语从句常用 that 引导或用连接副词 when / where/why / how / whether

注: 1. 同 位语从句多用that 引导 2. 在have no idea 之后常用wh-引导同位语 从句. I have no idea where he has gone. I have no idea when he did it. I have no idea what he did.

I have heard the news that he visited our factory . I have heard the news that he told you the other day . 同位语从句和定语从句的区别: 1 同位语从句——that 只起连接作用,不作任何成分 定语从句 —— that 是关系代词,起连接作用和充 当宾语和主语 2同位语从句——同位语从句和前面的名词是同位关系, 对名词进行补充说明 定语从句 ——定从和前面的名词是所属关系,对 名词进行修饰,加以限定 3同位语从句——that 不能省 定语从句 ——that 在从句中作宾语时,可以省

Practice :判断下列各句是同位语 从句还是定语从句
? 1.They expressed the hope that they would come to visit China again. 同位语从句 ? 2. The hope that she expressed is that they 定语从句 would come to visit China again. ? 3.The fact that she works hard is well known 同位语从句 ? to us all. ? 4. I can't stand the terrible noise that she is 同位语从句 crying loudly.

考点一whether与if的辨用
? 表“是否”时,在下列情况下用whether。 ? a. 主语从句 b. 表语从句 c. 同位语从句 e. 介词后的宾语从句 f.后接动词不定式 (whether to do sth.) g .whether or not 连在一起引导宾语从句时不 用if h.某些动词后面(如discuss) 只能用whether, 不用if。

1._______ he has won the tennis is not known. Whether
whether 2. The problem is ________ I can get a job. whether 3. I am worried about ________ I hurt her feeling. whether 4. I have a question __________ he has enough money. whether 5. They discussed________ the sports meet will be put off. whether/if 6. I wonder __________ he has agreed or not. whether 7. Please tell me ________ or not this book is worth buying.

由 that 、what引导的区别: 2. That the earth is round is known to _____________________ all. (地球是圆的) 3. What surprises us ________________________ is that
考点二

computers can recognize human voices .(让我们感到惊讶的是电脑能分辨人的声 音。)
what不但起连接作用,而且有具体意义,意为 “所……的”(the thing(s) that),在从句中作主语, 表语或宾语。而that 在从句中无词义,只起连接作用。 简言之,从句中如果不缺少成分时,连接词用that,否 则用what。

What 1. _______ he needs is more practice. 2. _______ he got the first place in the competition That surprised us. 3. The truth is ______ I didn’t go there that 4. He is not _______ he used to be 20 years. what What 5. _______impressed me most was ______such a that little boy could play the violin so well.

考点三 。表示坚持、命令、建议、要求的名词从

句的语气要用虚拟语气, 结构为 should + do, should 可省略

He gave me a suggestion that I ( should ) be calm now.
It is necessary that he (should) come to see us.

C It was ordered that all the soldiers____to the front. A.should send B.must be sent C.should be sent D.must go

考点四 : whoever = anyone who + 定语从句 whomever=anyone whom +定语从句 What/whatever , when / whenever , where / wherever 的含义基相 同,只是后者比前者语气更重。在意义上也有细微差别: whatever 含义为 anything that whenever 含义为 any time when wherever 含义为 any place where

1. Who leaves the room last ought to turn off the lights .

Whoever
2. Mary hopes to become a friend of whomever shares her interests . whoever

Anyone who

anyone who

1 . ____ wants to do the experiment comes to my office. A. Whoever B. Who 2. Give it to ____ you think can do the work well. A.who B.whoever C.whomever D.those 3. ___ she did was right. So everyone always believed her. A. What B. Whatever C. How D. That who 4.____ will be elected the president doesn’t make much difference to me. what 5 . This is exactly ___ I want.

考点五 :名词从句中须使用陈述语序!

1.They want to know ______ do to help us . A . what can they B . what they can C . how they can D . how can they 2.No one can be sure ______ in a million years . A . what man will look like B . what will man look like C . man will look like what D . what look will man like 3.You can't imagine ____ when they received these nice presents . A . how they were excited B . how excited they were C . how excited were they D . they were how excited

考点六 :主句谓语动词是过去时态,从句也必须使用过去相应的时 态。

1.We were all surprised when he made it clear that he ______ office soon . A . leaves B . would leave C . left D . had left

2.He asked ______ for the violin . A . did I pay how much B . I paid how much C . how much did I pay D . how much I paid
3. Our physics teacher told us light _____ faster than sound. A.travelled B.has travelled C.travels D.will travel

小结:
(1) 连词的选择; (2) 名词性从句的语序问题 (3)主句与从句时态的呼应; (4)同位语从句与定语从句的区别; (5)wh- 与wh-ever 的区别; (6)that在名词性从句中的省略问题;

Thank you


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