teenager n.十几岁的青少年 1. _______ 2 ________ point n. 点；分数 upset 3. ________ v. 使不安；使心烦 ignore v. 不理睬；忽视 4. ________ 5. ________ v. （使）平静；（使）镇静 calm 6. _______
_ v. 涉及；关心 concern 7. ________v. 欺骗；作弊 cheat 8. ________ v. 分享；分担 share 9. ________ adj. 疯狂的；狂热的 crazy
purpose n. 目的；意图 10. __________
11. __________ entirely adv. 完全地；整个地
12. __________ trust v. 信任；信赖
13. __________ suffer v. 遭受；经历 14.questionnaire _____________ n. 调查表；问卷
15. ___________ advice n. 忠告；建议
16. communicate _____________ v. 交际；沟通 17. __________ habit n. 习惯；习性 18. __________ reason n. 理由；原因
nature n. 自然；自然界 19. __________
20. __________ situation n. 情形；境遇
二、单词运用 根据句子的结构和意义，在空格处 填入一个恰当的单词，或者用括号中所给词的适当 形式填空。 reason for your absence of 1. What is the _______ yesterday’s meeting? calm someone down 2. It is a little difficult to _____ when he or she is excited. ccording 3. A__________ to Anne, a true friend is a person whom you can tell everything to. 4. My English teacher is very friendly to us. She dvice on learning English. often gives us some a_______
purpose 5. Was it an accident or was it done on _________? 6. He was punished by the school because of his cheating (cheat) in the exam. __________ 7. All the people are__________ concerned about the growth of the younger generation. 8. My naughty son has _______ hidden my bag away somewhere, so I can’t go to work. trust him. 9. No matter what he says, don’t _______ He’s not honest. 10. It was thundering, so the little girl dared not _______ walk (walk) the dog outdoors today. She just played with the dog indoors.
三、词语派生 用括号中所给词的适当形式填空。 1. When learning English, it is quite important to communication develop the ability of ___________________ (communicate). natural 2. It’s quite ___________ (nature) for a person to refuse the offer of help from strangers. powerful (power) man. 3. The headmaster is a ___________ All the teachers and students respect him very much. 4. How stupid the emperor was! He was cheated (cheat) by the two _________ ___________ cheats (cheat). 5. The company has a bad reputation. They often lie to the customers. They’re very ___________ dishonest (honest).
6. With the help of the government, the people sufferings (suffer) in have recovered from the ___________ the snow disaster. 7. He was driving very fast because he was ignorant (ignore) of the speed limit. ___________ entire 8. He wrote the ___________ (entirely) novel in only two months. 9. The weather has changed suddenly, and we accordingly (according). must alter our plans ___________ 10. The old lady showed a great deal of concern (concern) for her son. ___________
四、词组互译 将下列词组或短语译成中文或英语。 1. ________________ 将??加起来 add up 2. ________________ 使??平静下来 calm down 3. ______________________ 关心、挂念 be concerned about a series of 4. ________________ 一连串的，一系列、一套 get along with 5. ________________ 与??相处，进展 go through 6. ________________ 经历、经受 according to 7. ________________ 根据 in order to 8. ________________ 为了?? 9. ________________ 故意 on purpose 10. ________________ 参加，加入 join in
11. be crazy about ________________ 对??狂热 12. set sth. down _________________ 放下，记下，登记 13. have (got) to do sth _________________ 不得不，必须做某事 爱上，喜欢上 14. fall in love with _________________ 15. face to face _________________ 面对面地 16. walk the dog _________________ 溜狗 躲藏，隐藏 17. hide away _________________ 18. suffer from _________________ 受??的苦 有??麻烦，有困难 19. have trouble with_________________ 20. make an effort to do sth _________________ 努力去做某事
五、词组运用 翻译填空 根据汉语意思，从上述短语中选一个恰当的词组 完成句子。 1.请把我说的话全都记下来。 Please ________________all that I said. set down 2. 把分数加起来看看你能拿几分。 ____________your scores and see how many points you can Add up get. 3. 由于雪灾很多人不得不留在广州过年。 Many people __________ had to spend the Chinese New Year in Guangzhou because of the snow disaster. 4. 李明在这里定居后，和邻居们相处得很好。 Since Li Ming _________________ here, he has settled got along well with his neighbours. _______________________
5. 我的假期完全被一连串的雨天毁了。 a series of My vocation was completely spoiled by________________ rainy days. 6. 伊拉克已经经历了太多的战争。 gone through too many wars. Iraq has ________________ 7. 作为中国人，我们对2008年奥运会特别关注。 As Chinese, we _____ are very ____________________ concerned about the 2008 Olympic Games. 8. 英国的年青人对《哈利波特》的喜爱近乎狂热。 are crazy about “Harry Potter”. Young people in Britain ________________ 9. 为了学好英语，她尽了很大努力。 ________________ In order to improve English, she makes ________________. a great effort 10. 你想和我一起参加英语角吗？ join in Would you like to ___________the English Corner together with me?
1. While walking the dog, you were careless and it got loose and was hit by a car.你在遛狗的时候，你 不小心让狗松开了，结果被车撞了。 句中While walking the dog, …=While you were walking the dog, … While doing…意为“在……期间，在做……的时 候”。又如： While providing convenience to consumers, plastic bags have also caused serious pollution, waste of energy and resources.在给顾客提供方面的 同时，塑料袋也会影起严重的污染，能源的浪费。
■运用：改写以下各句。 (1)When I was traveling in Beijing, I happened to meet a former classmate. When traveling __________________in Beijing, I happened to meet a former classmate. (2)Though he is over sixty, he still keeps on studying English _____________________, he still keeps on studying English. Though over sixty (3)She won’t go to the conference unless he is invited She won’t go to the conference__________________. unless invited ※归纳：此句型的使用条件： (1)在____________________状语从句中； 时间、条件、让步 (2)如果从句的主语与主句的主语_________，而且从句中 相同 的谓语含有______动词的某种形式； 有be be可以省略，并且要______________， (3)从句中的主语和 同时省略 不能只省略其一。
2. I wonder if it’s because I haven’t been able to be outdoors for so long that I’ve grown so crazy about everything to do with nature.我不知道这是不是因为我长久 无法出门的缘故，我变得对一切与大自然有关的事物都无 比狂热。 结构分析：本句是一个复杂句，I wonder是主句的主语和 谓语，if引导一个宾语从句，在宾语从句中because引导一 个原因状语从句，且用了“It is/ was +被强调部分+that/ who +其它”这个强调结构，强调原因状语从句。运用该强 调结构需知以下两点： (1)此句型常用来强调除谓语动词外的句子成分。 (2)此句中的that是固定的, 即使被强调部分是时间或地点， 也用that; 强调人物时可用who。
■运用：用it is…that…强调下句中的划线部。 Jack broke a glass yesterday afternoon at his uncle’s home. (1) _________________________broke a glass yesterday It was Jack that / who afternoon at his uncle’s home.(强调主语) (2) _______________________Jack broke yesterday It was a glass that afternoon at his uncle’s home.(强调宾语) (3) _____________________________________Jack broke It was yesterday afternoon that a glass at his uncle’s home.(强调时间状语) (4) __________________________________Jack broke a It was at his uncle’s home that glass yesterday afternoon. (强调地点状语)
3. It was the first time in a year and a half that I had seen the night face to face. (从句时态用完成时)这是我第一次目 睹夜晚…… 句型提炼：It is/was the first time that…have/had done (1)其中的it可用this或that替代； (2)first根据实际情况可改为second, third…等； (3)前面是is时，后面用have/has done；前面是was时，后 面用had done。 (4)比较：It is (about /high) time that sb. did/ should do sth.是某人该做某事的时候了(=It is time for sb. to do sth.)。 如：It is time that we started (=should start).=It is time for us to start.是我们该动身的时候了。
■运用：请用此句型将下列句子译成英文。 (1) 这是我第一次来北京。 have been This is the first time that I _______________in Beijing. (2) 那是他第二次上班迟到。 had been It was the third time that the man ___________ late for work. (3)他说那是我第一次开出租车。 was the first time that he had driven He said it_________________________________ a taxi.
?Language points for Reading I
Language points for Reading I 1. go through 经历 go through two stages 经历阶级斗争的考验 go through the test in class struggle
The poor girl has gone through a lot since her parents died.
2. or = otherwise 3. hide(hid, hidden) away 4. set down= write down I set down everything that happened then.
5. series (单复同形) There is a television series on this channel every night. a series of + n (pl) a series of good harvests/ questions/ Long March memorial stamps
There has been a series of car accidents at the crossing.
6. as 正如, 照……的方式 1) Do as I say. 2) David, as you know, is a photographer. 3) As I said in my last letter,I’m taking the exam in July.
7. be/ get/ grow crazy about … 1) The boy is crazy about skiing. 2) The teenagers are crazy about the pop singer.
be crazy to do sth 1) You are crazy to do such a thing. 2) You are crazy to buy a car at such a high price. = It’s crazy of you to buy a car at such a high price.
8. to do inf. 作定语 Do you have anything to eat? I’m extremely hungry. 9. stay (link v) + adj/ n 1) I stayed awake through the stormy night. 2) He stayed single all his life. 3) The weather stayed sultry.天气持续闷热。 4) Stay seated!坐在那别动!
10. do sth on purpose I think she lost the key on purpose. do sth with/ for the purpose of… He took along one of his pictures with the purpose of finding a job.
11. in order to = so as to He went to town in order to sell the painting.
= He went to town in order that he could sell the painting.
12. much too + adj/ adv too much (+ un) = more than enough
?She is afraid that the trip will be too much for me. ?He doesn’t talk too much.
?The dress is much too long for me.
?I got into the taxi and the driver started off at once and drove much too fast. ?It’s much too hot.
13. happen vi. 1) What time did the accident happen? 2) No one know who had fired the gun— it all happened so quickly.
sb. happen to do sth. (似乎)碰巧 = to be or as if by chance I happened to see her on my way to work. If you happen to find it, please let me know.
It happens/ happened that clause It happened that they went out when I called.
14. hold/ have sb in one’s power 控制住/ 摆 布某人 The thundering clouds held me entirely in their power.
15. It’s the first/ second time that 某人第 一/二次做 It was the first time in a year and a half that I’d seen the night face to face.
16. cheat v.
to act in a dishonest way in order to win 欺骗，作弊
任何被发现作弊的学生将被赶出教室。 Any student caught cheating will have to leave the classroom.
2) to take from (someone) in a dishonest way 骗，骗取
他们让那老妇人在她不懂的文件上签字， 骗了她的钱。 They cheated the old woman (out) of her money by making her sign a document she didn’t understand.
an act of cheating, dishonest trick 作弊行为 2) one who cheats 骗子
17. lonely & alone
1）He has been very lonely since his wife left him. 2) She lives alone. 3) The gloves alone cost $80.
lonely: unhappy because of being alone or without friends 孤独的，寂寞的
alone: 1) without any friends or separated from others 单独的
2) only 仅仅，只有。用于名词或代词 之后。
leave/let sb or sth alone
Not take, touch or interfere with sb. or sth. 不带走， 不触摸，不干涉某人或某事
1) 不要动，那时我的东西。 Leave that alone. It’s mine. 2) 她要求不要打扰她。 She has asked to be left alone.
But as the moon gave far too much light, I didn’t dare open a window.
Direct and Indirect Speech 直接引语和间接引语
Grammar: Direct and Indirect Speech (1) 1. 转述他人的陈述→陈述句 2. 转述他人的疑问→一般疑问句 3. 转述他人的问题→特殊疑问句 1) He said , “I’m going to Beijing.”
→ He said that he was going to Beijing.
2) He asked, “Are you a teacher?” → He asked me if /whether I was a doctor. 3) She said , “What are you doing?” → She asked me what I was doing.
?陈述句 ?用连词that引导，that在口语中常省略。主句 的谓语动词可直接用引语中的said, 也可用told 来代替，注意，可以说said that, said to sb. that, told sb. that，不可直接说told that
? He said, “I have been to the Great Wall. ” ? He said to us that he had been to the Great Wall. ? He said, “I'll give you an examination next Monday. ”
He told us that he would give us an examination the next Monday.
“I don’t like computers,” Sarah said to her friends. Sarah said to her friends that I don’t like
computers. Sarah said she didn’t
Sarah said to her friends that she didn’t like computers.
?间接引语用连词whether或if引导，原主句中 谓语动词said要改为asked(me/him/us等)，语 序是陈述句的语序
said, “Do you have any difficulty with pronunciation?” ? He asked (me) whether/if I had any difficulty with my pronunciation. ? He said, “You are interested in English, aren't you?” ? He asked whether I was interested in English.
2.一般疑问句: Is it easy to improve the condition of the soil?
( They asked him )
It is easy to improve the condition of the soil. They asked him
it is easy to improve the condition of the soil. is was
They asked him if it was easy to improve the condition of the soil.
?原来的疑问词作为间接引语的连词，主 句的谓语动词用ask(sb. )来表达，语序 改为陈述句语序
? He said to me，“What's your name?” ? He asked me what my name was. ? He asked us, “How many car factories have been built
in your country?” ? He asked us how many car factories had been built in our country.
When do you harvest the wheat ? ( They asked him )
you harvest the wheat
They asked him When you harvest the wheat. he
harvested They asked him when he harvested the wheat.
? He asked, “Do you speak English or French?” ? He asked me whether I spoke English or French. ? I asked, “Will you take bus or take train?” ? I asked him whether he would take bus or take train.
在直接引语变为间接引语时需要注意的变化 1. 注意时态的变化 2. 注意人称变化。
4. 注意时间的变化 5. 注意地点的变化 6. 注意个别趋向动词的变化
When you change a sentence from direct speech to indirect speech, you sometimes need to change the verb tense. You may also need to change pronouns , time in order to keep the same meaning.
? Direct ? Present ? Past ? Present perfect ? Past perfect
indirect past past and past perfect past perfect past perfect
The geography teacher said, “The sun rises in the east and sets in the west.”
The geography teacher told us that the sun rises in the east and sets in the west.
2. 如果直接引语所表述的内容在目前和说话时 同样有效，变间接引语时，时态可不变
The children said, “We love this game.” They told us that they love that game.
3.主句谓语动词的时态是现在时态，在引述时， 时态不变。 She says, “I’ll never forget the days in the country.”
She says that she’ll never forget the days in the country.
1. 当主句的谓语动词是将来时的时候 2. 当直接引语部分带有具体的过去时间状语时 3. 当直接引语中有以when, while引导的从句，表示 过去的时间时 4. 当引语是谚语、格言时 5. 当直接引语中有情态动词should, would, could, had better, would rather, might, must, ought to, used to, need时
that, those then, that day
时 间 状 语
this week yesterday
last week four days ago the day before yesterday tomorrow next month here come, bring
that week the day before
the week before four days before two days before
the next day the next month
there go, take
直接引语中的助动词 shall should will
间接引语中的助动词 should Should（不变） would
may might can
might Might（不变） could
1. He said , “I m afraid I can’t finish this work.” He said that he was afraid he couldn’t finish that work. 2.He said , “I haven’t heard from him since May.” He said that he hadn’t heard from him since May. 3.Tom said “I will see you next week.” Tom said that he would see me the next week.
4. “Why were you late again?” The teacher said to me. The teacher asked me why I was late again. 5. “I don’t like swimming,” said Sarah. Sarah said she didn’t like swimming. 6. His friends asked him if he would go to Dalian. His friends asked him, “Will you go to Dalian?” 7. “Have you been to Paris?” My classmate asked me. My classmate asked me if I had been to Paris.
Readers can ________ quite well without knowing C the exact meaning of each word. A. get over B. get in C. get along D. get through
解析：答案C。本题主要考查具体语境中 get短语的用法。全句意为：尽管读者不 知道每个单词的确切含义，但他们能够很 好得读懂，即读书进展得顺利，故用get along。
2. It’s hard for me to imagine what I would be doing today if I ______ in love, at the age of seven, with the Melinda Cox Library in my hometown. A. wouldn’t have fallen B. had not fallen C. should fall D. were to fall
解析：答案B。本题考查了fall in love在虚拟语 气中的应用，从标志性时间状语at the age of seven看，宾语从句内容意指过去。在虚拟语气 结构中，若指过去，从句中动词形式用过去完成 时，主句中谓语动词形式用 would/should/might/ could/have done。
B 3. Father went to his doctor for _______ about his heart trouble. A. an advice B. advice C. advices D. the advices
解析：答案B。Advice若作“忠告，劝告， 建议”讲，无论什么情况下都不可数，故 A、C、D各项均属错误。Advice前不能 用不定冠词，但可被some，much，a lot of/lots of，a piece of，a bit of，a word of等修饰。
4. I wonder how he ____ D that to the teacher. A. dare to say B. dare saying C. not dare say D. dared say
解析：答案D。本题主要考查了dare作为 情态动词和实义动词的基本用法。作为实 义动词，dare有人称、数和时态的变化， 故dare to say与主语he相悖；dare doing结构本身错误；dare的否定形式应 为dare not do(情态动词)或 don’t/doesn’t/didn’t dare (实义动词) to do。
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