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英语必修五第一单元语法(免费)


Module 5 Unit 1 Language Learning
Great Scientists

discover (v.)

“发现”(被探索或被揭示的事 物早已客观存在) e.g. Columbus discovered America in 1492. Who discovered radium? comp. in

vent (v.) 发明(原先不存在的东西) e.g. Who invented the steam engine? find (v.) 发现,发觉,找到 e.g. He found a good way to solve the problem. The scientist found it necessary to get a map. Ex. The scientists ____________ new coal mines in Shanxi province. discovered

the way of doing sth. = the way to do sth. 做···的方法 ··· e.g. 她教我们清洗它的方法。

She showed us the way of cleaning it. She showed us the way to clean it. “the way”引导定语从句的引导词有三种:that, in which, 或者省略。 e.g. 我不喜欢你跟你父亲讲话的方式。 I don’t like the way (that / in which) you speak to your father. no way (俚语) ? Phrases: by the way 顺便说说 没门,别想 lose one’s way 迷路 on one’s way to… 在去??的路上 feel one’s way (to…) 摸着走,谨慎从事 in this way / by this means 用这种方法 / with this method

Ex. What surprised me was not what he said A but _____ he said it. A. the way B. in the way that C. in the way D. the way which

put forward

提出(建议等) e.g. 他提出一个新的计划。 He put forward a new plan. 推荐某人或自己任职位;提名 e.g. 我能否提名你当我们的班长? May I put your name forward as our monitor? ? Phrases: put away put down put up 放好;抛弃 put off 放下;写下来 put out 挂起;搭起;建造 put on 延期;推迟 穿上;上演 熄灭(灯);扑灭(火) put up with …
忍受

Ex.
You can take anything from the shelf and read, but please _________ the books when put away you’ve finished with them.

expert
noun专家;行家;能手 an expert in child psychology儿童心理学家 an expert on modren literature现在文学研究专家 He is an expert at getting his own way.他在如何达到 自己的目的方面很在行 adj 熟练的,内行的或经验丰富的 She is expert at making cheap,but stylish clothes.她 做便宜而时髦的衣服很在行 They are all expert in this field.他们都是这个领域的 专家。

attend

attend

to be present at; go to (meeting, conference, lecture…) 出席,参加 e.g. He decided to attend the meeting himself. to go regularly to a place e.g.Our children attend the same school. How many people attend the church every day? to look after, care for, serve 照顾;看护 e.g. Which doctor is attending (on) you?

attend to照顾,招待,处理
? A nurse attends to his needs. 有个护士照顾他. Are you being attended to?有人接待您吗 ? Could you attend to (ie deal with) this matter immediately? ? 你能不能立刻处理这件事?

expose to make visible (与to连用)暴露 e.g. Don’t expose yourself to the sun for too long. You’ll get sunburned. As a soldier in the war,she was exposed to many dangers. to reveal the guilt or wrong doing of 揭露 e.g. He exposed their plot. 他揭穿了他们的阴谋。 The crime of the corrupt officials must be exposed without any reserve. 对贪官污吏的罪行一定要毫无保留地予以揭发。

be exposed to暴露于,面临,遭受 e.g.If you are exposed to English reading and listening every day , you are sure to make much progress in it. e.g.Exposed to the dialect of the miniority of the local place, he gradually learn to speak some of it.

adj. (1) dangerous; likely to cause death 危险的; 致命的一般 e.g. a deadly disease / weapon (2) highly effective against sth. or sb. 强有力的;致 命的 e.g. a deadly remark 击中要害的评论 (3) aiming to kill or destroy 意在杀死的;不共戴天 的 e.g. a deadly enemy 不共戴天的敌人 adv. (1) very 极度;非常;十分 e.g. deadly serious 十分认真 (2) like death 死一般地 e.g. deadly pale 死一般苍白 die (v.) dead (adj.) death (n.)

deadly

cure
? v. / n. 治愈, 治疗 ? This kind of medicine can’t cure him of his headache. v.
这种药治不了他的头痛。

? He went to the city for a cure in a famous hospital. n.
他到城里一家有名的医院治疗。 ? 科学家们在寻找一种治疗禽流感的方法。 ? Scientists are searching for a method to ? cure bird flu.

every time(each time,next time,last time,the first
time,the last time,by the time)

是连词,引导时间状语从句,意为“每次,每 当” e.g. Every time I meet him, I will think of the things that happened between us. 每次见到他,我就会想起发生在我们之间的事情。 Every time/Each time I see him,he is always busy writing. The first time I went abroad I cold hardly understand what the foreigners said. By the time I got home from work,my mum

immediately, the moment, directly, instantly 等,都可以作连词,引导时 间状语从句,意为“一···就···” ··· ··· e.g. I will give the letter to him immediately I see him. I came directly I got your letter. I recognied her the moment I saw her.

challenge
face the challenge 面对挑战 challenge sb to sth /challenge sb to do 向某

人挑战
When I said I was faster,she challenged me to a race.

当我说我比她跑的快时,她向我挑战(要比 个高低) He challenged me to play chess.他向我挑战下 象棋。

control

v. to have power over, rule, direct 统治,控制 e.g. The government tries its best to control prices. He cannot control his anger. n. 控制,统治,掌握 (1) lose control of / be (go) out of control 失去控制 e.g. The driver lost control of his car and it knocked into a tree. The car was out of control and ran into a wall. (2) in control of 控制··· ··· e.g. Mr. Brown is in control of the money. (3) under the control of 被···控制 ··· e.g. The money is under the control of Mr. Brown.

suggest (v.)

to intimate or imply 暗示;间接表明 e.g. It suggests that you did not catch the 8 o’clock train but the 8:25 train. 事实表明你没有乘坐八点的火车而是八点二十 五的火车。 to offer for consideration or action 建议 (接that从句时常用虚拟语气) e.g. I suggested that they (should) travel by train. suggest doing sth. advise doing sth. / advise sb. to do sth.

absorb (v.)
to take or suck in 吸收 e.g. A sponge absorbs water. 海绵吸水。 The big company has gradually absorbed these small companies into its own organization. 这家大公司渐渐把这些小公司吞并了。 to take in (knowledge, ideas…) 专心于,吸取 e.g. The little girl was absorbed in reading a tale. 小姑娘正在全神贯注地阅读一篇故事。 I was so interested in these new ideas that I absorbed them without thinking. 我对这些新观念非常感兴趣,甚至于不求甚解地吸 收了。

suspect?怀疑
? She was found dead in her department,and the police suspect murder. ? They said the problem was in the engine,which was just what I had suspected. ?suspect sb of...怀疑某人有罪,认为某人 有...嫌疑 e.g.They suspect him of murder/of giving false evidence. She was suspected of being a spy.

severe (adj.)
so serious; so bad 严厉的;严格的 e.g. I think you are too severe on the boy. His severe looks frightened me. 他的严厉表情使我恐慌。 very harmful or painful; serious or uncomfortable (疼痛)剧烈的 e.g. SARS --- severe acute respiratory syndrome 严重的、急性的呼吸道综合病 He has a severe pain in his leg. be severe with = be strict with 对···要求严格 ··· e.g. He is severe with himself. severely (adv.) 严格地

(vt.) 责怪;把···归咎于 ··· blame sb. for sth./doing sth. blame sth. on sb. e.g. She was blamed for the mistake. be to blame (固定搭配)···应受到谴责;该怨··· ··· ··· e.g. The children were not to blame. I am to blame. (n.) 过失;责备;埋怨 put / lay the blame on 怪在···身上 ··· take the blame 承担责任 e.g. Everyone put / laid the blame for that on me. The car driver took the blame for the accident.

look into examine; investigate 调查,了解,研究 e.g. The police are looking into all the records of the man. 警察正在查阅那个人的所有档案。 I’ll look into the matter as soon as possible. Just have a little patience. 我将尽快调查这件事情,耐心点。 look at the inside of 朝···里面看(与one’s ··· face / eyes 等连用,表示“注视”) e.g. He looks into her face with great interest. 他饶有兴趣地注视着她的脸。

?to deal with or control a situation,a person,an area of work or a strong emotion处理、控制、管理(局 势、人、工作或感情) e.g.A man was apppointed to handle the crisis.新指派 一个人来处理这场危机 We can handle up to 500 calls an hour at our new offices. 我们的新办公室每小时可以处理500个电话。 ?to control a vehicle,an animal ,a tool,etc e.g.I wasn't sure whether I can handle such a powerful car. She is a difficult horse to handle.

handle

link… to… 把···与···连接;联系 ··· ··· e.g. Fingerprints linked the suspect to the crime.指纹证实了嫌疑犯的犯罪事实。 The video cameras are linked to a powerful computer. The pay will be linked to the inflation rate. 将工资的增长与通货膨胀率的上升挂钩。 link (v.) : to be joined (常与together, to, with 连用)连接 e.g. The two towns are linked by a railway.

She had it delivered to her home every day.她每天

派人把水送到家里来。 句中had it delivered 是“have+宾语+宾补”结构, 意为“让别人做...使某物遭受...使某事被...",其中 宾补由过去分词充当

e.g.When will you have your homework handed in? He had his leg broken while playing basketball. I had the door painted this morning. 在“have+宾语+宾补”这一结构还可以这样构成: have sb do(make sb do/let sb do/get sb to do)让某人 做某事;have sb doing让某人一直做;容忍,允许

announce (v.)
to make known publicly 发表、告知、宣布 e.g. The government announced its new economic policies. 政府发布了新的经济政策。 The news was announced to the public on TV. 这则消息经由电视向大众宣布了。 to state in a loud voice (the name of a person or thing on arrival, as of people at a party or aircraft at an airport) 宣布(客人、飞机等的到达) e.g. His servant announced Mr and Mrs White. to make clearly known (事情)显示···;预告 ··· e.g. Warm sunshine announces the coming of spring.

instruct (v.) to provide with knowledge, especially in a methodical way 教;教授 e.g. He instructs a class in history. 他教授一个班的历史。 to give orders to; direct (常与to不定式连用) 命令 e.g. I’ve been instructed to wait here until the lecturer arrives. 我得到指示在这儿等到讲课老师来到。 She arrived at 10 as instructed. instruction (n.) 指示;指导;指令 follow sb's instructions听从某人的指示

conclude (v.) to bring to an end; close 使结束;完毕 e.g. to conclude a speech To conclude, I wish you all good health and a long life. 最后, 祝大家健康长寿。 推论;推断出;断定 e.g. The doctor concluded that the patient’s disease was cancer. 医生断定病人患的是癌症。 conclusion (n.) 结论;结束 draw a conclusion 得出结论

捐助;贡献 e.g. Although he has plenty of money Allan didn’t contribute to Jane’s present when she left the office. 艾伦虽然很有钱,但并没有在珍离职时凑钱买 礼物给她。 有助于;促进;造成 e.g. Plenty of fresh air contributes to good health. 多呼吸新鲜空气,有助于身体健康。 Too much alcoholic drink will contribute to your ruin. 喝酒过度会毁了你。

contribute (v.)

apart from 具有多重意义:既可以表示besides,也可以表 示except或except for,还可以表示without。 e.g. Apart from the cost, it will take a lot of time. (=besides) The orphan had no one to take care of him apart from his uncle. (=except) He has done good work, apart from a few slight faults. (=except for) There can be no knowledge apart from practice. (=without) 实践出真知。

strict (adj.) be strict with sb. 对某人要求严格 e.g. They are very strict with their children. He is always strict with himself. be strict in sth. 对某事要求格 e.g. Scientists are strict in their own scientific rearch. strictly (adv.) e.g. Strictly speaking, it’s not allowed, but we won’t prevent it. 严格来说,那种事是不允许的,但我们不会去 阻止。

Expressions & phrases (1)
1. know about… 了解……的情况
2. lift up 举起;抬起;提升

3. steam engine

蒸汽机

4. physical characteristic 人体的特征

5. put forward a theory about black holes
提出一个有关黑洞的理论

6. infectious disease

传染性的疾病

7. in scientific research 在科学研究上 8. examine a new scientific idea 验证一个新的科学思想

9. draw a conclusion 10. analyse the results

得出结论 分析结果

11. a well-known doctor 一个著名的医生

12. ordinary people
13. expose (…)to sth.

百姓;普通人
暴露(…..)在……中

14. the most deadly disease 最致命的疾病
15. terrified people 17. absorb sth. into… 被吓坏的人们

16. get interested in sth./doing sth. 对…产生兴趣
把….吸收入….

18. gather the information 收集信息
19. be determine to do sth. 决心干某事

20. a valuable clue

一条珍贵的线索

21. the water pump
22. link … to …

水泵
(be linked to…)

将….和….联系起来

23. have it delivered (have sth. done) 叫某人送东西
24. die of… 死于…

25. announce with certainty 肯定地宣布
26. polluted water 28. deal with… 被污染的水

27. prevent sb. from doing sth. 阻止某人干某事 处理……

29. solve the problem 解决难题

Do Ex.1~3 on P4, and Ex.1~3 on P42. Read the passage John Snow Defeat “King Cholera” aloud fluently, and recite the first two paragraphs.


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