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高一英语下学期unit 18 new zealand重难点突破

Unit 18



学法指导 在本单元中,我们将讨论新西兰这个国家的地理、历史知识,请同学们注意 相关的词汇,并力求学会用同样的思路描述其他的国家和地区。关于语法方面, 需要注意 it 的用法。 学习要点 词汇 fisherman: one who makes a living by fishing surround: to enclose on all sides mild: warm and full of sunshine; pleasant; not severe harbour: port kiwi: a kind of bird that lives in New Zealand and can’t fly; It can also refer to “New Zealander” volcano: an opening in the earth's crust through which molten(熔化的) lava, ash, and gases are thrown out settle: to move and live in another place possession: wealth or property bold: fearless, courageous, brave; (of printing)well marked mountainous: having many mountains coach: a person who trains or directs athletes or athletic teams; a motorbus conference: a meeting for consultation(磋商) or discussion. relation: relative export: to send or transport (goods, for example) abroad, especially for trade or sale ship: transport 短语 lie in(on/to)the north of/ in the northern part of/your great-grandfather on your father’s side/be made up of/ be surrounded by/ be famous for(as)/ be used to do sth/ have a population of…/ be marked with/share their memories/ be of high quality/advise sb to do sth/ sign an agreement with/ take in/ take off/ take out/ take place/ take possession of/despite/ from early on/ try one’s luck/ set up/ be skilled at/ be known to sb/win the war against…/ 句型
It lies in/on/to the east of… It is too bad that you missed the train. It is … for/of sb to do sth. It is… doing sth

日常交际用语 Where is sb from? Can you explain where that is? 重点难点突破 1.What are the positions of the different places and waters in relation to China? 中国不同地区和水域的位置在哪里? in relation to 关于, 涉及, 与…相比 Prices seem high in relation to wages. 和工资相比,物价似乎偏高。 What did you say in relation to what happened yesterday? 关于昨天发生的事你 说什么了? 2.The East China Sea lies to the east of Zhejiang Province.东海位于浙江东 面。 1)英语表示方位的名词有: east, west, south, north, southeast, northeast, southwest, northwest. 2)谈论某地的地理位置时,我们经常用的短语是: lie / be in/on/to the north of 某地位于……的北部。 Beijing lies in the north of China. 北京位于中国北部。 Beijing lies to the north of Shijiazhuang. 北京在石家庄北边。 Hebei lies on the north of Henan. 河北位于河南北边。 注意: 当某地属于另一地范围内时, 用 in ; 当某地不属于另一地范围内, 但接壤时,用 on ; 当某地不属于另一地范围内,且不接壤时,用 to 。 3)当方位名词用做副词时,前面无介词和冠词。 I live in the room whose window faces south. (adv.) = I live in the room whose window faces to the south. (n.) = I live in the room whose window faces the south. (n.) 我住在窗户朝南的那间屋子里。 New Zealand is east of Australia. 新西兰位于澳大利亚的东边。 My hometown is 100 kilometres north of Xi’an. 我的家乡在西安以北 100 公里 处。 3.Where is your great-grandfather on your father’s side from? 你的曾祖父 是哪里人呢? one’s great-grandmother on one’s father’s side 曾祖母 one’s great-grandfather on one’s mother’s side 外曾祖父 one’s great-grandmother on one’s mother’s side 外曾祖母 4.New Zealand is an island that lies off the eastern coast of Australia.新西兰 是澳大利亚东面的一个岛国。 off prep. 离……一些距离 There are a number of islands off the southeast coast of China. 中国东南沿海有 许多岛屿。 Did you notice the house off the main road? 你注意到离大路不远处的房子了

吗? 5.It is made up of two large islands: North Island and South Island. 它由两 大岛屿组成:北岛和南岛。 be made up of = consist of 由……组成 A team is made up of nine players. = Nine players make up a team. = A team consists of nine players. 一支队由 9 名队员组成。 The audience was made up of very young children. 观众是由非常小的孩子组成 的。 注意比较下面的短语: be made of… 由……制成(看得出原材料) be made from… 由……制成(看不出原材料) be made in… 产于某地 make…into… 把……制成…… be made out of… 是由……制成的 6.New Zealand is surrounded by the Pacific Ocean to the north and east, and the Tasman Sea to the south and west. 新西兰北面和东面临太平洋,南面 和西面临塔斯曼海。 surround vt. 围住, 环绕; The village was surrounded on all sides by mountains. 这个村子四面环山。 He surrounded the castle with a high wall. 他在城堡周围建了一堵高墙。 7.The North Island is famous for an area of hot springs, some of which throw hot water high into the air. 北岛是著名的温泉胜地, 有些温泉的热水 能高高地喷向半空。 be famous for = be well-known for 因……出名 be famous as = be well-known as 以……的身份出名 France is famous /well-known for its fine food and wine. 法国以其佳肴和 酒著名。 The town is famous/well-known as a hot-spring resort. 这个小镇是著名的温泉 胜地。 注意:be famous for 是褒义的,而 be well-known for 还可以是贬义的。 He is well-known for his laziness. 他的懒惰是出了名的。 8.Some of this heat near the earth’s surface is used to make electricity. 一些近 地面的地热被用来发电。 注意区分下面的词组: be used to do sth 被用来做…… be/get used to sth/ doing sth 习惯于做…… be used for sth 被用于…… be used as sth 被用作…… used to do sth 过去常常做…… A knife can be used to cut things. 刀子可以用来切东西。 I’ve become used to a vegetarian diet. 我已经习惯于素食了。 Bamboo can be used for building houses. 竹子可用于建筑房屋。 Sometimes a piece of bamboo can be used as a walking stick. 有时竹子可用来当 拐杖。

I used to write poems myself when I was his age.我像他那么大的时候常自己写 诗。 9. It is some 3,500 kilometres from Polynesia to New Zealand. 从波利尼西亚 到新西兰大约 3,500 公里。 some = about 大约 It happened some/about thirty years ago. 那事发生在大约 30 年前。 Some/about 500 were present. 大约 500 人在场。 注意:or so “大约”, 放在数字后面。 The work will take us a week or so. 那项工作将花掉我们一周左右时间。 10.… Captain James Cook took possession of the island in 1769. 在 1769 年 库克船长占领了这个岛。 possession un. 拥有,占有权 cn. 东西,财产 Does the possession of wealth bring happiness? 拥有财富能带来幸福吗? How did it come into your possession? 这怎么就成了你的呢? The foolish man soon lost all his possessions. 那个蠢人很快就失去了所有的财 产。 Please move your possessions from my room. 请把你的东西从我房间拿走。 take possession of 夺取,没收, 拿过来 The soldiers took possession of the small town. 士兵们占领了小镇。 11.…the maori signed an agreement with these settlers. 毛利人与殖民者签署 了一项协议。 agreement cn.协议 sign an agreement 签署协议 come to /reach/make an agreement 达成协议; 取得一致意见 break the agreement 违背协议 tear up the agreement 撕毁协议 12.New Zealand has a population of about 3.8 million, of which about 14 percent are Maori. 新西兰人口有 3,800,000,其中 14% 是毛利人。 1) population 前加 a 为抽象名词具体化。 --What is the population of China? 中国有多少人口? --China has a population of 1.3 billion. 中国有 13 亿人。 China is a country with a long history. 中国是一个有着悠久历史的国家。 China has a history of 5,000 years. 中国有 5000 年的历史。 The river has a length of 1,000 kilometres. 这条河有 1000 公里长。 其他常见的还有: have a width/height/depth of 有……宽/高/深 2) about 14 percent of the population 在定语从句中做主语, 其含义是 14%的人, 是复数概念,所以谓语动词用复数,其他如 some , part, most, half, the rest, all……等做主语, 也同样要考虑后边的名词或所指代的东西,是可数名词还是不 可数名词,是单数概念还是复数概念,再决定谓语动词的单复数。 Part of the water in this area is polluted. 这个地区的一部分水被污染了。 Part of the buildings were destroyed in the flood. 一部分建筑在洪水中被毁掉 了。 All have arrived. 所有的人都到了。

All that glitters is not gold. 闪闪发光的不都是金子。 70 percent of the surface of the earth is covered by water. 地球表面的 70%被水 覆盖着。 Half of the city children know nothing about life in the country. 一半的城市孩 子不了解农村生活。 13.Since the mid-1980s growing numbers of Asians have settled in New Zealand…从二十世纪八十年代中期起,越来越多的亚洲人到新西兰定居。 1)numbers of = a number of 一些, 许多 I have a number of/numbers of things that I must see to. 我有许多事要处理。 Numbers of people rushed into California for gold. 许多人涌向加利福尼亚去淘 金。 2)settle v.定居, 处理 He settled in the country after his retirement. 他退休后定居在农村。 She’ll be coming over as soon as I’ve settled down. 我一安定下来,她就会过 来。 I must settle all my affairs before leaving. 我必须在离开前处理好所有的事。 It’s time you settled the argument. 是你解决分歧的时候了。 settlement n. 定居点 Indians often attacked the little settlements of the colonists. 印第安人经常袭击 殖民者的定居点。 settler n. 定居者 The Maori signed an agreement with the European settlers. 毛利人和欧洲定居 者签署了一项协议。 Early settlers had a hard life. 早期的移民日子很苦。 14.The happier events are marked with speeches, singing and dancing.那些喜 庆的事件常拌有演讲、唱歌和跳舞。 mark v. 1)标出, 在……上面打上标记, 使有某种花纹等 Every pupil’s coat must be marked with his name. 每个学生的衣服上都必须标 上名字。 The leopard's skin is marked with black spots. 豹子身上有黑斑点。 Her face is marked with sadness.她的脸上带着难过的表情。 2)批分数,评成绩 The teacher marked the examination papers. 老师批改考试卷。 n.标志,记号,分数,斑点,起跑线…… You have a dirty mark on your face. 你脸上有个脏点。 It is dangerous to swim beyond this mark. 游泳超出这个标志是危险的。 The teacher gave me a good mark for my story. 老师给了我的故事以好的评分。 The runners were all quick off the mark. 赛跑运动员很快冲出了起跑线。 常见词组:make one's mark (on) 成功;成名 On your marks, get set, go!各就各位,预备,跑! 15.When someone dies, all the relations, old and young, come to the marae for the Maori burial service. 当有人去世时,所有的亲戚,无论年长、年少,都 来到会场参加葬礼。 1)relation = relative n. 亲戚

2) service 在这里的意思不是“服务”,而是指宗教的仪式,如:the morning service(早祷告) ,the evening service(晚祷告) ,the wedding service(婚礼) ,the burial/funeral service(葬礼)等。 16.The main exports of the country are wool, lamb, beef, butter, forest products, fruit and vegetables. 这个国家的主要出口产品有羊毛,羊肉,牛肉, 黄油,林产品,水果和蔬菜。 export n. 出口, 输出; 出口货, 输出品; Wool is one of the main exports of Australia. 羊毛是澳大利亚的主要出口物 资之一。 The export of gold is forbidden. 禁止黄金出口。 v. 出口, 输出, 排出; Waste products are exported by blood through the tissue. 废物由血液从组织中 排出。 China exports to many other countries or areas. 中国向许多其它国家和地区出 口货物。 反义词:import v. n. 进口 17.The deer are farmed for their meat and fur, which are then shipped to many other countries. 人们养鹿以获得鹿肉和皮毛,然后运送到许多其他的国 家。 1) farm n. 农场;饲养场 v. 耕作;饲养(畜禽) He farms 200 acres. 他耕种了 200 公顷地。 It is practical to farm cattle in hilly areas. 在山区养殖牲畜是很切合实际的。 2) ship n. 船 v.用船、火车等运, I’m flying to America but my car is being shipped.我将坐飞机去美国,而我的汽 车将用船运去。 They planned to ship the goods by train. 他们计划用火车运送货物。 3) 在英语学习中,我们要注意词性的转化,这样能够帮助我们重新认识记忆 这些单词,如: 名词转化为动词: hand n. 手 v. 交给; nurse n. 护士 v. 护理 fool n. 傻瓜 v. 愚弄 ; mail n. 邮件 v. 邮寄 ; heat n. 热 v.加热 形容词转化为动词: dry adj. 干燥的 v. 使干燥; warm adj. 暖和的 v. 使温 暖 free adj. 自由的 v. 使自由; empty adj. 空的 v. 倒空 动词转化为名词:look v.看 n.看; walk v.走 n. 散步; rest v.休息 n.休息; doubt v.怀疑 n.怀疑; cook v.烹调 n.厨师 cheat v.欺骗 n.骗子; try v.试图 n.尝试 18. New Zealand wine is of high quality… 新西兰的葡萄酒品质优良…… be of + 抽象名词,相当于 be + adj, 用来描述人或事物的特征。 The meeting is very important. = The meeting is of great importance. 这个会很重要。 The experience might be very helpful for him. = The experience might be of great help for him. 这种经历或许对他会有很大帮 助。

This is a teacher of experience. = This is an experienced teacher.这是个有经验的老师。 We are of the same age.我们年龄一样大。 19. Living in a country with plenty of space and a good climate, New Zealanders love all kinds of sport and outdoor activities. 居住在这样一个空旷, 气候宜人的国家,新西兰人酷爱各种各样的运动和户外活动。 outdoor adj.(做定语)户外的 outdoors adv. (做表语或状语) indoor adj. (做定语)室内的 indoors adv.(做表语或状语) 20. In summer, people like to go sailing, swimming, horse-riding, and rockclimbing in the mountains. 夏天, 人们喜欢去划船, 游泳, 骑马和在山里攀岩。 go + doing 意思是去干什么,如: go sailing go swimming go horse-riding go rock-climbing go skating go skiing go hunting go shopping go boating go dancing… 21. New Zealand, with its natural beauty, mountains, rivers and national parks, also attracts tourists from all over the world. 由于其自然风光,山脉,河 流和自然公园,新西兰吸引了来自世界各地的旅游者。 attract vt 吸引 She was attracted by the interesting advertisement. 她被这有趣的广告吸引住 了。 Flowers attract many bees. 鲜花引来许多蜜蜂。 attraction n. 吸引, 吸引力,吸引人的东西 The idea of working for state-owned enterprises has little attraction to young people nowadays. 现时去国营企业就职的想法对年青人没有多大吸引力。 The tides are caused by the attraction of the moon for the earth. 潮汐是由月亮对 地球的引力引起的。 To many people, the wax museum in London is a great attraction. 对许多人来 说, 伦敦蜡人馆是个吸引人的地方。 22. gung ho n. 同心协力, 合作 23. Despite the fact that New Zealand is so far away, ties have existed between the two nations from early on. 尽管新西兰位置遥远,两国之间的联系很早就存 在了。 despite = in spite of prep. 不管,不顾,即使,尽管 Despite the bad weather we enjoyed our holiday. 尽管天气不好,我们的假期仍 过得很愉快。 24.They come to try their luck to find gold. 他们来碰运气,找金子。 try one’s luck = try one’s fortune 碰碰运气 luck n. 运气 lucky adj. 幸运的 反义词:unlucky adj. 不幸的 luckily adv. 不幸的 unluckily adv. fortune n.运气 fortunate adj. 幸运的 反义词:unfortunate adj. 不幸的 fortunately adv. unfortunately adv. 25.Among the first settlers, the Chinese were more skilled at setting up and running businesses. 在早期的移民中,中国人更擅长经商。 1) skilled adj.熟练的

She was skilled enough in French to translate a novel. 她法语娴熟, 足以翻译小 说。 be skilled at/in doing sth 做某事熟练 2)run = organize, manage, 经营,管理 His father runs a fast food restaurant. 他父亲经营一家快餐店。 26.it 在句子中做主语 1) It was 11 o’clock when they reached their destination. (指时间) It’s damp and cold. I think it’s going to rain. (指天气) How far is it from here to the airport? (指距离) It’s very quiet in the hall. (指环境) There is a man standing under the tree. Who can it be? (指心目中想的那个人) 2) it 做形式主语,真正的主语为后面的主语从句。 It’s such a pleasure that you are here. It appears that he is ill. It’s reported that the project will be completed by the end of this month. 3) it 做形式主语,真正的主语为后面的不定式。 Is it necessary to tell them the truth? It is impossible to live without air. It is great fun to play with snow in winter. 注意句型:It is + adj. +for/of sb to do sth 其中 sb 为不定式的逻辑主语,for/of sb to do sth 被称做不定式的复合结构。 当形容词只能用来描述事时用 for;当形容词既可描述事,又可描述人时,用 of; 如: It is impossible for us to understand him. It was very kind of you to send me this gift. 4) it 做形式主语,真正的主语为后面的动名词: It is no good spending a lot time on computer games. It is no use talking with him over this matter. 注意:形式主语 it 不可以用 this, that 代替。


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