? This unit seeks to give us a better understanding of how English developed and how it is spoken in the world.
Let’s do a small quiz to distinguish the national
flags of different countries, and find out the languages spoken in these countries.
United States of America
The United Kingdom
English Around the World
the United Kingdom
Ireland India Philippines Singapore
Australia New Zealand
Map of the world
English is spoken in these countries.
When you hear two native speakers of English, they may still not speak the same kind of English. Br E & Am.E
David William Donald Cameron，the Prime Minister of the United Kingdom Barack Hussein Obama，the President of the United States of America
Do you want to come to my apartment?
How far is your flat? It is beautiful
Wow, I want some sweets. What about you, Obama?
No, thanks. I don't like candy ______
Shall we go to the pub to celebrate your birthday?
Wow, bar is a nice place.
Great. I like ___________ football match very much.
Well, let’s go and see a soccer game. It is very exciting.
Time to go home. Let’s go to the lift together. Oh no， elevator the___ must be full of people this time.
公寓 糖果 电梯 比赛 足球
flat sweets lift match football
apartment candy elevator game soccer
The differences between British English and American English.
BrE AmE autumn fall vocabulary rubber eraser I think I guess colour color spelling centre center traveller traveler pronunciation dance [da:ns] dance[d? ns] not [not] not [na:t]
电梯 汽油 公寓 秋天 地铁 大学 垃圾 卡车 假期 两周
AmE lift elevator petrol gas, gasoline flat apartment autumn fall underground subway university college rubbish garbage lorry truck holiday vacation fortnight two weeks
Am E neighborhood labor color honorable humor favorite theater kilometer
Br E neighbourhood labour colour honourable humour favourite theatre kilometre
I mean, I’d like to take the lift to Room 705 on the 6th floor. We say the 7th floor instead of 6th floor in the US.
American English the first floor the second floor the third floor
the ground floor
the first floor the second floor the third floor
the forth floor
Match the words that have the same meaning.
center apartment color elevator candy bar fall petrol eraser sweets gas centre flat autumn lift rubber pub colour
1.With your partner, list the countries that use English as an official language. America, the United Kingdom, Canada, Australia,south Africa, Ireland, New Zealand, and so on. 2.Which country do you think has the most English learners? China.
篇文章的大意是有重点的。比如，当出现first second的这种归类总结的地方，或because， as a result这样的因果关系，或是 but， however的语意转折处，都需要格外留心。 skimming的技巧在第一遍阅读文章意图抓住 文章大意时是非常重要的。
Skim the text to find or make out a key sentence for each paragraph.
是指用较短的时间快速扫视文章，查找 具体信息或相关事实与细节的阅读技巧 。查读有一定的目的性，是带着问题寻 找答案的阅读方法，在考试中具有很高 的实用价值
Scan the text to answer the following questions.
Please write down the main idea of each paragraph.
Thedevelopment of the English _________ language in the world.
understand Para. 2: Native speaker can __________ each other but they may not be able to everything understand ______________ ____________. Para. 3-4: language change when __________ cultures All communicate with one another. ____________ foreign Para. 5: English is spoken as a _______ second language or ________ language in Asia Africa _______ and ______.
1 What are the two big changes in English spelling? (two big changes)
First Samuel Johnson wrote his dictionary and later Noah Webster wrote The
American Dictionary of the English Language. (Line 1, Para 4)
2 Why does India have a very large number of fluent English speakers? (reason) It was ruled by Britain from 1765 to 1940. (Line 2,Para 5)
Why does English change
Because all languages change and develop when cultures meet and communicate with each other.
Development of English
today the end of the 16th century the next century More people speak in more countries
Many other countries
Find out the characteristics of each time according to the time clue.
later AD450-1150 800-1150
In the 1600’s
The time ADEL was written
German less like German; more like French
Shakespeare’ Australian American s English English English
developed English has changed and ____1____ when cultures meet and _____2_____ with each other. From AD450 to 1150, new communicate settlers to England enriched the English language and enlarged its _____3_____. In 1620, British people began to move to vocabulary other countries, and _____4_____, English was spoken in gradually many other countries. By the 19th century American English identity spelling got a separate _____5_____ when Noah Webster wrote his dictionary. At ____6____, more people speak Engpresent lish as their first, ____7____ or a foreign language than ever second before. People in South Asia ____8____ as India, Singapore such fluent speak ____9____ English. China may have the ____10____ largest number of English learners.
Will Chinese English become one of
the world Englishes?
“ Only time will tell”.
The Road to Modern English
The development __________of Modern English
more than more than ＋数词。表示“多于……”. “over”
1)我认识大卫有二十多年了。 I have known David for more than 20 years. more than +n 不只是 ， 不仅仅 2) 杰克不仅是一个老师，他还是一个作家。 Jack is more than a teacher , he is a writer, too.
more than one+n “不止一个” 作主语 谓语动词用单数。 不止一个人有这本书。 More than one person has this book.
和……一样不（都否定） 我和杰克一样不聪明。 Jack is no more clever than me.
不如,(前者不如后者) 杰克不如他老师聪明。 Jack is not more clever than his teacher. no more than + 数词 “仅仅” not more than+数词“不超过”
in a way / in some way /in one way 在某种 程度上 no way 没门 give way to sb:屈服，让步 in the way :造成不便,挡道 I am afraid your car is in the way. by the way 顺便说一下 by way of :路经,途经,通过….的方法 他们通过看电视学英语。 They learn English by way of watching TV.
the way+从句, the way 是先行词, 作“方式/方 法”解释，其后是定语从句. 1)the way+ in which 2) the way+that 3)the way + 从句(省略了that或in which), 在通常情况下, 用in which 引导的定语从句最 为正式,用that的次之,而省略了关系代词that 或 in which 的, 反而显得更自然,最为常用.如 下面三句话所示,其意义相同. I like the way in which he talks. I like the way that he talks. I like the way he talks.
the way of doing sth=the way to do sth 做某事的方法 她向他们示范做这件事的方法。 She showed them the way to do it. =She showed them the way of doing it.
there be结构 “存在,有”
? be 动词的单复数要根据后面名词的单复数 而定.如是多个并列的名词,则由第一个名 词的单复数而定. ? There is one book and two pens on the desk. ? There are two pens and one book on the desk.
? at the end of指“在……的末尾”,既指时间, 也指空间（at the end of the year / the street...) ? by the end of 指“到……末”,只指时间，不 指空间。by the end of 通常与动词的完成时 连用 ? in the end 最终，最后
1) 在街尾，有一家书店。 At the end of the street, there is a bookstore. 2)到去年为止我们已经学了9年了。 We had studied for 9 years by the end of last year.
3) 他们最后赢了。 They won in the end.
3.because / because of
because of+代词/名词 (复合介词) ，做原因状语 because + 句子（连词），以原因状语从句形式 表面主句的根本原因。 因为你的关心，我发现生活充满了希望。 1）Because you are concerned about me, I find that life is full of hope. 2）Because of your concern, I find that life is full of hope.
He came to work late _______ he got up late. because He came to work late _________ getting up because of late. 3)He was late not only because of his illness but because he missed the train. 不仅因为他的病而且因为他误了火车他才迟到的。
1) even if ( = even though ): 即使;尽管是连 词,用来引导让步状语从句；若主、从句皆 表示将来情况，从句中可用一般现在时代 替将来时。 Even if I have to walk all the way, I will get there.
He likes to help us even though he is very busy.
2) even if 从句所说的不那么肯定。 even though 从句是事实。 though 常表示一些已经确定的消息， 而if由它本身所带的“如果”的含义，表示了一 种对假设信息的不确定。 虽然他知道这个秘密，但是他会守口如瓶。 Even though he knows it, he'll not let out the secret.（他知道这个秘密）. 即使他知道这个秘密，但他也会守口如瓶。 Even if he knows it, he'll not let out the secret. （不确定他是否知道这个秘密）.
come up 走近；上来；提出 come down 落下,塌下 come across 邂逅,偶然遇见 come about 发生 come at 向…扑来,攻击 come from 来自 come out 出版;开花；结果是 come up with 赶上；提出；想出 come along 一道走，一起来；进展；进步 come to： 达到，苏醒，谈到 come to oneself 恢复知觉； 苏醒
? ? ? ? ? ?
be different from 与…不同 都市生活与乡村生活迥然不同。 City life is different from country life. Be different in 在….方面不同 我们的书包颜色不同。 Our bags are different in color.
? difference n.差异；不同；差额；分歧 ? differ vi.不同；有区别
prep. 在 ... 的上方；遍及地；在 ... 期间 adv. 穿过；完全覆盖；结束；落下
我们住在一家小书店的楼上。 We live over a small bookstore. 我的孙儿孙女们圣诞节期间将呆在这儿。 My grandchildren will stay over Christmas.
above, on, over 前置词均含“在……上”之意。 above: 一般指位置高于某物，但不一定在正上 方，也不接触另一物，其反义词是below。 on: 指与另一物表面相接触。 over: 指一物在另一物的垂直上方，多暗示悬空， 但也含“覆盖于……之上”之意。其反义词是 under。
? especially adv. 意思是“尤其，特别”， ? specially adv.特别地；专门地；尤其 ? 指为了某一目的，专门做某事 【练习】用上面所提供的辨析词的适当形式 填空 especially ? 1). Our city is very beautiful, ___________ in spring. specially ? 2). He came here ___________ to ask you for help.
make use of 利用
make good use of 好好利用 make full/the best/most use of 充分利用 make little use of 很少利用 make no use of 不用
1). 要充分利用一切机会说英语。 Make full use of every chance you have to speak English. 2). 我们要很好地发挥她的才能。 We will make good use of her talents.
later latter 这两个字仅差一字之微，词义和使用场合却大 相径庭，读音也不一样。 later ['le?t?r]: 是形容词late的比较形式，表示时 间的先后，意为“较后的”、“较新的”，它 能作形容词，也能作副词。 我要稍后跟她谈。 I'll speak with her later. 你迟早会离开父母的。 You will leave your parents sooner or later.
latter ['l?t?r] 表示事物的先后，意为“后者“， 只能作形容词，不能作副词。 这两个人中，前者已死，而后者仍然活着。 Of these two men, the former is dead but the latter is still alive.
此事发生在晚秋时节。 It happened at the latter end of the autumn.
a number of 大量的（其后谓语动词用复数） 今天我有许多重要事情要做。 I have a number of important things to do today. the number of …的数目（其后谓语动词用单数） 我们学校有3000个学生。 The number of students in our school is 3000.
用适当的介词填空。 of 1. You’d better make full use _____ your time. at 2. You will find the hospital _____ the end of the road. 3. The church is close _____ the school. to 4. We have friends all _____ the world. over 5. As everybody knows, China has the of largest number _____ people. In 6. _____ the 1980s, he went to America.
7.such as /for example 1) 我懂四种语言，如日语、英语。 I know four languages, such as Japanese and English. 2) 例如，北京是中国的首都。 For example, Beijing is the capital of China. such as 用于列举事物，常用在列举的事物和前 面的名词之间，但不能把事物全部列出。否则用 that is 或namely. for example 举例说明，一般只列举同类人或事 物中的“一个”，可置于句首、句中或句末。
such as I like ball games,______ football,basketball and so on. Some students, for example , John,lives in the countryside. He knows three foreign languages,_____English,French and that is Japanese.
How many dialects are there in China ?
dialects family in China
北方方言 吴语 闽南语 客家话
dialects in Guangdong province
粤 方 言
Do you think there are some dialects in English?
English dialects in different countries
Read the passage and answer the questions.
1. Why are there so many dialects in the US?
Because people have come from all over the world. Geography also plays a part in
making dialects. 2. What’s the standard English?
It’s believed to be the English spoken on
TV and the radio.
3.Why do people from both Northeastern and Southeastern of U.S. speak with almost the same dialect?
Because when Americans moved from one place to anther, they took their dialects with them.
standard ['st?nd?d] adj.标准的；普通的；规范的；权威的 n.标准；规格
the standard of living/ one's life
在我看来，你跟他都没有达到标准。 In my opinion, neither you nor he has met the standard.
believe it or not
信不信由你,我明天就要去美国了。 Believe it or not, I'm going to America tomorrow!
no such thing as… 没有…这回事 such…as…: 象…一样的…; 诸如…之类的…
students as you should have a bright future. ? 像你这样的学生应该有一个光明的未来。 ? I don’t like such a person as Mary. ? 我不喜欢像玛丽这样的人。
This is because …句型中,从属连词because 引导的从句在此作表语.这也是个常用句型,意 为“这是因为…”。指前面已提到的事情也可 以用that，但指下面将要谈到的事情时，则只 能用this。
That is why…是常用的句型,意为“这就是为 什么”。在这个句型中，why引导的是个名词 性从句，作表语。句型That is why…通常是 在前面已经说明了原因,现在在来小结的情况下 使用的.
That is because…与That is why…不同:That is because…着重指原因或理由,而That is why..则着重指由于各种原因所造成的后果. He did not see the film last night.That is because he had to help his little sister with her homework..昨天晚上他没有去看电影.那是因为 他得帮他的妹妹做作业.(第一句说的是结果,第 二句说的是原因.) He had seen the film before.That is why he did not see it last night.他以前曾看过那部电影. 因此,他昨天晚上没有去看.(第一句说的是原因, 第二句说的是结果.)
3.expect : [?k'spekt]
expect sb to do sth指望／预料某人做某事
sb be expected to do sth
expect +that-clause认为／预想…… expect sb/sth 期待着某人或某事物的到来 expect to do sth 指望／希望做某事 I expect so. 我想是这样。 I expect not. 我想不是这样。 I don’t expect so.
你期待什么呢? 这就是生活！ What do you expect? This is life!
不要指望一个星期就能学会一门外语。 You can't expect to learn a foreign language in a week. 我预计我会在周日回来的。 I expect (that) I will be back on Sunday.
expect，expert，except expert ['eksp?:t] n.专家, 能手 adj.专家的, 内行的 她是驯兽专家。 She is an expert in training animals. except [?k'sept] prep.除了 ... 之外 conj.除非；除了 ... 之外；若不是 vt.除；除外 除我之外，他们都去睡觉了。 They all went to sleep except me.
expression [?k'spre?n] n.表情；表示；表达；词句；措辞；表现
她毫无表情地朝我看着。 She looked at me without expression.
all over the world
我们游遍全国各地。 We travelled all over the country.
play a part in：起重要作用；扮演角色。
play a role in与play a part in的意思相同， 常可以互换。表示“扮演角色”还可以用 act, act a / the role of等。
Who is acting Hamlet?
She is acting the role of Juliet.
1. elevator 其它讲的都是人 2. modern 其它都是指方向 3. lorry 只有这个词的“y”不是一个后缀，且只有它是 名词，其它的都是形容词 4. impolite 只有这个词的“im ”是一个前缀，表示否定
5. July 只有这个词的“ly”不是一个后缀,而且是名词 6. unless 只有这个词的“un”不是一个后缀,而且是个介 词或者副词，其它的都是形容词的否定 7. aloud 只有它是副词，其它的都是形容词 8. capital 只有这个词的“al”不是一个后缀
1. Visitors are requested not to take photos in the museum. 2. Deng Xiaoping played an important part in developing the economy in China. 3. The reporter asked the writer who he based his characters on.
4. "I'll be wearing a long red coat so you'll be sure to recognize me," she said.
5. Go along the road for three blocks and then turn right. You'll see the hospital on your left. 6. We have a lot of work to do, so we have to make good use of time.
7. He went straight to New York, without staying in HongKong. 8. Rains are frequent in this city in early summer.
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