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高一英语下学期unit 18教案


高一下知识归纳(U18) 1.run vi.(物)延伸,扩展;(事情)继续。 [举例](1) The road runs along the river. 那条道路沿着河流延伸。 (2) The ivy runs along the hedge. 常春藤沿着篱笆攀爬。 (3) The musical play has been running for five years. 那出音乐剧已经连续演了五年。 [搭配] run across 偶然遇见;跑过 run after 追求,追逐 run against 与……相撞 run at 向……冲去 run away 逃跑,跑 run back to 追溯到 run out of 用完 run up to (数目)达到…… 2.be made up of 由.. ..组成 [举例] Our class is made up of six groups. 我们班由六个小组组成。 [比较] be made up of / be made with / be made out of / be made into (1) be made with 指制成品中包含的某种原材料,是“由……做成的”的意思。 A fruit cake is made with fruit. 水果蛋糕是用水果制成的。 (2) be made out of 指做成整个成品的材料,多用于口语,意思和 be made of/from 差不多, 只 是语气强一些。 The shirt is made out of the material. 这衬衫是用这种料子做成的。 (3) be made into 是指“某种原料制成某种成品”。 Wool has been made into sweaters. 羊毛已做成羊毛衫了。 3.Surround vt.包围、环绕 [用法]surround 指一物四周被另一物围绕或完全覆盖;也可指人(尤指土兵或警察)包围一个 地方。 [举例](1) The house was surrounded by high walls.房屋四周围着高墙。 (2) The whole cake is surrounded by a thick coat of jelly. 整个蛋糕覆盖着一层厚厚的果冻。 (3) The village was surrounded by troops.村庄被部队包围了。 (4) They have surrounded the town with troops. 他们动用部队包围了这座城镇。 4.same adj.同一的,同样的 [搭配] the same.., as 与……一样 the same.., that 是……同一个 at the same time 同时 all the same 尽管,如此,仍然 [举例](1)We are the same age. 我们同岁。 (2)Let's meet at the same place as yesterday. 我们在跟昨天一样的地方见面。 (3)That jacket is the same as mine. 那上衣与我的一样。 (4)This is the same pen that I lost. 这正是我遗失的那支钢笔。 (5)They began to laugh at the same time. 他们同时笑了起来。 (6)He has faults, but I like him all the same. 他有缺点,然而我还是喜欢他。 5.be famous for 以……闻名 [举例] He is famous for his fine acting.他以演技精湛著称。 China has been famous for its silk trade.中国以丝绸贸易著称。

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[比较] be famous for/be famous as, be famous as 表示“以……身份闻名”,be famous for 是“以……而著名”。 [举例]The town is famous as a gambling resort. 该城是个著名的赌场。 He is rather famous as a speechmaker. 他作为一个演说家是相当有名的。 The boy is famous for his handwriting. 这个男孩以他的书法而闻名。 6.settle 安排;料理;解决;决定;使平静;安静;安家;家居 [举例](1) The moment she got up, she settled her room.她一起来就整理房间。 (2) That settles the matter.事情就这样定了。 (3) He settled in the country after his retirement.他退休后定居在乡下。 (4) The family finally settled down in Canada.这一家最后定居加拿大。 7.by 不迟于,到……为止 [用法]by 表示“不迟于某时”,“在某时之前(已经完成)”,常与完成时态连用;若指“到过去的 某一时候止”,则用过去完成时;有时 by 后接将来时间,也用将来时。 [举例](1) Perhaps she has recovered by now.或许到现在她已康复了。 (2) By next Friday I ought to have finished the job. 到下周五,我应完成这项工作。 (3)By the end of last term, had studied more than five hundred English words. We 到上学期末为 止,我们已经学了 500 多英语单词。 (4) Your son will be all right by supper time.你儿子到晚饭时会好的。 8.sign vt.vi.署名、签字(约) [举例](1) He signed the check.他签发了支票。 (2) Please sign here.请在此签名。 (3) He signed his name on the painting which he had just finished. 他在刚刚完成的画上写上了自己的名字。 (4) She signed with the company. 她与那家公司签署了合约。 [拓展]sign 也可以用作名词,作“记号、标识、信号、迹象”等。例如: (1) maths signs 数学符号 (2) the sign of a barber's shop 理发店的标志 (3) The teacher made a sign to us to be quiet. 老师做了一个手势叫我们安静。 (4) There were no signs of life on the island. 那个岛上没有生物存在的迹象。 9.refer to 涉及;说到;查阅;参考 [用法]refer to 中的 to 为介词,表示“提及、涉及”的对象。 [举例](1) what are you referring to ?你指的是什么? (2) I thought that he had referred to the boy.我想他指的是那个男孩。 (3) The speaker often referred to his notes.那位演讲者常看他的笔记。 (4) He referred to the dictionary.他参考了那本词典。 [比较]refer. .to..为“把……提交”“指点…‘交付”,其中的 t。也为介词,例如: . (1) We referred her to a doctor.我们把她交给了医生。 (2) He referred me to the dictionary.他吩咐我查字典。 10.population 人口 [用法]population,作“人口”解时是集体名词,一般不用作复数。当我们说一个城市,地区或 国家的人口时, 常加冠词。 如: 人口众多: a large population, has 有……人口 has a population

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of.. .。表示人口多、少一般不用 much,little,而用 large,small 来修饰。问有多少人口时 应用疑问词 what。 [举例] Our country has a large population.我国人口很多。 The city has a population of 100,000.那城市有十万人口。 What is the population of your province?你们省有多少人口? [注意] 当 population 作主语指人, 且宾语或表语是表职业或身份的词,那么其谓语动词应用 复数形式。例如: Most of the population in this factory are women workers. 这个工厂大部分职工都是女职工。 11.Take place 发生 [比较] happen 与 take place 都有“发生”的意思,但用法有所不同。 (1)happen 指事情的发生,往往带有“偶然”,或“未能预见”的意思。 (2)take place 指事先布置或策划好而后发生,没有“偶然”的意味。 [举例](1) If anything happens to the patient, let me know at once. 如果这位病人发生什么意外,请马上告诉我。 (2) I happened to meet him in the park that day. 那天我碰巧在公园遇到了他。 (3) The December Ninth Movement took place in 1935. “一二·九”运动发生在 1935 年. [注意]take place 与 happen 都是不及物动词,不能用于被动语态,例如: Great changes have taken place in my hometown.我的家乡发生了巨大的变化。 12.compare 比较 [搭配]:compare.., to...把......比作 compare., with...把......进行比较 [举例](1) A beginner's painting can't be compared to that of an expert. 初学者的画不能同专家的相比。 (2)If you compare her work with his,you,11 find hers is much better. 要是把他俩的工作比较一下,就会发现她好得多。 [注意](1)compared with(to)“和……比较”,常位于句首或句尾,作状语。 Compared with(to)drivers in other countries,Americans think they’re good drivers.同其他国家 司机相比,美国人认为它们是不错的。 (2)compare notes(with sb)(习语)交换意见、观点、看法 We saw the play separately and compared notes afterwards. 我们各自看了那出戏,后来交换了意见。 13.while conj.而 [用法]while 作连词,表对比,常译为“而”;此时,不能同 when 互换。 [举例](1)He is lazy,while his brother is diligent.他懒惰而他兄弟勤勉·. (2)While you maybe right,I cannot altogether agree with you. 你也许是对的,可我不能同意你。 [注意] while 作“当……的时候”讲时表示一段时间,往往有自己的特殊意义,含有“趁着”之 意。细读下列句子,体会句中 while 与 when 意义的区别: If you don’t work hard while you are young,you may regret when you are old. 少壮不努力, 老大徒伤悲。 14.Possession n.(U)所有;拥有(C)财产;所有物(常用复数)

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[举例] The possession of a passport is important for foreign travel. 去国外旅行需要护照。 She has valuable information in her possession. 她掌握了重要的信息。 He lost all his possessions in the fire. 他在火灾中损失了所有的财产。 [注意](习语)in possession of sth 控制,占有,占据某物 take possession of sth 占有(某物) The old couple were in possession(took possession)“the house 30 years ago. 这两老人 30 年前买下了这座房子。 [比较] possessions/goods/wealth possessions 作“财产;所有物”讲,常用复数。 goods“货物; 商品; 财产”, 复数名词, 无单数形式, 不能与数词连用, 但可与 many, these,those 等词连用,谓语动词用复数。 wealth“财产;财富”,为不可数名词。 [举例] The goods were produced by a big factory in Shanghai 这些货物是由上海一家大工厂生产的。 The king's wealth was too great to measure.国王的财富多得难以计算。 15.地理方位的表示法,学会如何正确地使用介词 in,to,on (1) A 地位于 B 地境内以东(西、南北) A lies/is in the east/west/south/north of B. (2) A 地位于 B 地境外以东(西、南、北) A lies/is to the east/west/south/north of B. (3) A 地位于 B 地的东(西、南、北)部接壤 A lies/is on the east/west/south/north of B. 另外:lie on 还表示“位于……畔”。 Japan lies to the east of China. 日本位于中国东部。 Guangzhou lies in the south of China. 广州位于中国的南部。 Korea lies on the northeast of China. 朝鲜在中国东北。 16. it 作主语的用法: 1)it 用作代词 ①指代事物或前面提到过的事物。例如: What’s in the picture?.It's a cat.图画里是什么?是一只猫。 It's the wind shaking the door.是风刮得门响。 你曾经给过她许多帮助,她永远也不会忘记。 ②指人。例如: Who is it ? It's me. 是谁?是我。 ③表示时间或季节。例如: It is seven o'clock now. 现在 7 点钟。 What day is today? It is Friday.今天星期几?今天星期五。 What is the date today? It's the third of May.今天几号?今天 5 月 3 号。 What season is it? It's autumn.现在是什么季节?是秋天。 ④表示距离。例如: How far is it from the school to your home? 从学校到你家多远? It is twenty miles from here to the village.从这里到那村庄 20 英里路。 ⑤表示气候。例如:

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It is cold today. 今天天气冷。 What was the weather like yesterday? It was fine. 昨天天气怎样?天气晴朗。 It often rains here in summer. 这里夏天时常下雨。 ⑥表示情况。例如: How is it going with you ? 你近来情况怎样? Where does it hurt? 哪儿痛? Whose pen is this? It's mine. 这是谁的钢笔?是我的。 2)it 用作形式主语 it 常用来代替不定式、动名词短语或名词性从句作形式主语,位于句首,而被替代的真正主 语后置。 ① it + 谓语 + 不定式。例如: It is easy to climb the hill.爬那座小山很容易。 It is his duty to settle the problem.解决那个问题是他的责任。 It is not proper to do so.这样做不恰当。 ② it + 谓语 + 动名词短语。例如: It is no use arguing with him.同他争辩没用。 It is no good going there. 到那里去没有用处。 It is exciting working here with you.在这里同你一起工作很令人兴奋。 ③ it + 谓语 + 名词性从句。例如: It is clear that she is the best student in the class. 很明显,她是班上最好的学生。 It's a pity that you can't go with her.你不能同她一块去,真遗憾。 It's certain that he will get on well with them. 可以肯定,他会同他们相处得很好。 It is said that he is doing fine in school.据说他在学校里表现很好。 It doesn't mater whether he comes or not.他来不来都没有关系。 注意:先行词 it 充当形式主语,构成大量的常用句式。要注意计后谓语不同的形式,并译 成通顺的汉语。 (1) It is a pity that..真可惜……,可惜的是…… . It is a fact that..事实是…… . It is a wonder that...这真是个奇迹 It is no wonder that...难怪…… (2)It is obvious(clear)that..很明显……,很清楚…… . It is strange that...奇怪的是……,……令人费解 (3) It so happened that...碰巧……,说来也巧…… It follows that...从而……,于是乎……,这样一来…… It seems that...看来…… It appears that...看来……,似乎…… It turned out that... 原来……,结果…… It occurred to me that... 我突然想到…… (4) It was said that...据说…… It was reported that... 据报道…… It is believed that... 据认为,人们认为…… It is universally accepted that... 普遍认为

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It was announced that... 据宣布 It is estimated that...据估计 It is to be noted that...值得注意的是…… It must be admitted that...必须承认 It can safely be said that...完全可以说…… It can thus be concluded that...由此可以得出结论…… (5)It doesn’t matter.. ……是无关紧要的 . It doesn't need to be bothered that...无须担忧 ... .. It makes no difference...……毫无二致

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