主语从句在句中做------ 主语 表语从句在句中做------ 表语 1. That he will come is certain.
宾语从句在句中做------ 宾语 同
2. I know that he will come.
3. The truth is that I have been there.
4. The fact that she was late surprised us.
从 句 that whether who whom whose 引导词: what which when where why how
1. That he knows Japanese is known to all. That无词义,不可省略 他懂英语,这一点大家都知道 2. What surprised me was to see him here . What “什么”, “所…. 3. When he will come is unknown . 的”
When “什么时候” 4. Whether he is coming doesn’t matter much. 主语从句不用 if 5. It remains a secret how they climbed up the mountain. 他们是怎么登上山顶的仍是个秘密.
主语从句的位置 1.在句首 2.主语较长时通常放在后面,句首主语用 It
It 作主语的常用句型有: 1. It + be +形容词 + that 从句 2. It + be +名称词组(duty/pity..) + that 从句 3. It + be + 过去分词(said/thought..) + that 从句 4. It +不及物动词(seem/happen..) + that 从句
1. 2. 3. 4. 真可惜我们不能去游泳.
It is a pity that we can’t go swimming.
It happened that I was out that day.
happen只有 it 句型
It is certain that he will do well in the exam.
It is said that he told her everything.
It is said只有 it 句型 More
注意: It looked that he was right. ( × ) 可以说: It looks as if….
用形式主语 it 的主语从句常见结构
1. It is clear (necessary, important, possible,remarkable that… 很清楚（必要, 重要,可能, 值得注意等)…
2. It is a fact (a good thing, good news…) that … 事实是 ( 好事是,好消息是…)…
3. It is well-known ( reported, recorded, estimated,said, believed) that…众所周知( 据报道,,据记载,据说,据估 )… out ( seems, happens, appears…) that… 结果 4. 计 It turns 是 ( 似乎是, 碰巧是, 好象是…)…
5. It has been found (has been proved,can be seen,must be pointed out) that …已发现( 已证明,可以看出,需指 出)…
用 it 句型翻译:
→ It is said that the Senior Grade one students will learn a new text 2. 事实是他们靠自己完成了所有的任务. this year. → It is a fact that they finished all the work by themselves. √
3. 4. 5.
→ It happened that they had had their military training.
→ It is well-known that Bill Gates is the richest person in the world.
→ It is important that we (should) form a good habit of studying. √
众所周知, 比尔 ·盖茨是世界上最富有的人.
Note: It is important/necessary/natural/our duty/essential/strange that sb (should) do sth. 固定句型, should可以省略
翻译: 真奇怪他今天竟然迟到了. It is strange that he should be late today. strange不省略should为好
系动词后面 1. The truth is that he has never been to the countryside. 实际情况是他从未去过农村. that 一般不省略 2. The question is whether w can finish the experiment by Friday. 问题在于我们能否在明天下午之前完成这项实验. 表语从句不用 if
从 句 同主语从句 (11个), 外加as if / 引导词: as though,
3. It looks as if it were going to rain.
as if /as though从句常表示 不真实的情况
She talks as if /as though she had been there before . 她说话的口气好象以前去过那儿似的.
4. This school is no longer what it was before.
这所学校已不再是从前的那个样子了. what =the thing that
注意下列表语从句中where, how, why 的译法
1. This is where Lu Xun once lived. 固定句型: This is where…
这就是鲁迅曾经住过的地方. 这就是…的地方 This is why … 2. That was how they won the match. 这就是…的原因 他们就是这样赢得这场比赛的. This is how…. 3. This is why she got up so early this morning. 这就是…的方法 这就是她为什么今天早上起得这么早的原因.
This is / That was how we overcame the difficulties.
That is why he was absent yesterday.
This is where we met last Sunday.
This is 总是现在时 That is 表示性质 That was 指过去动作
宾语从句中的连接词that在以下三种情况下不 能省略： ? （1）当that 从句与另一名词性从句并列作 宾语时，第二个that不能省； ? （2）当that作介词宾语时，that不可省掉。 ? （3）用it做形式宾语的宾语从句 ? Everyone knew what happened and that she was worried. ? The reason lies in that she works harder than the others do.
主语从句 b. 表语从句 c. 同位语从句 e. 介词后的宾语从句 f.后接动词不定式 (whether to do sth.) g .whether or not 连在一起引导宾语从 句时不用if
a..当whether后紧跟or not时,不用if. eg: I don’t know whether or not I will stay. b.介词后面的宾语从句不能用if.
eg: I worry about whether I hurt
if / whether
if / whether she had a 1. I asked her __________ bike. whether he is 3. We’re worried about ________ safe. whether \if 4. I don’t know ___________ he is well or not. whether or not he is 5. I don’t know ________ well. whether to go. 8. I don’t know _______
1. I doubt if / whether he will pass the exam. 2. I don’t doubt that we will win the match. 3. Do you doubt that he did it on his own? 肯定句中用 if / whether
1. I doubt if _________he / whether is telling the truth. that 2. We never doubt _________ the plan will be carried out . that 3. Does he doubt _________ you are from Austria?
/ whether he will agree to this. 4. I’m doubtful if _________
that 从句只跟在 except,but, in ,besides, save五个介词后面
1. The Swede stood still, except _____ that his lips moved slightly. 2. She is not satisfied with what ____ she has achieved. how she can do more for the class. 3. Mary always thinks of ____ 4. He wrote a letter of thanks to whoever ______ helped him. (任何一个)
5. It depends on if whether we have we enough have enough time. time.
what you 6. Are you sorry for which youhave havedone? done? 宾语从句经常作表语形容词的宾语 1. I’m afraid (that ) I’ll be late. 我恐怕要迟到了. that 可以省略 2. We were surprised that he lost the game.
此类表语形容词有: afraid pleased happy satisfied anxious sure surprised certain glad aware用它们造句
We consider her suitable for the job.
I consider that we should learn English well
it不能漏 I consider it necessary that we should learn English well consider find think feel make 等动词常带宾语补足 语,这时要用形式宾语 it ,宾语从句放到宾补之后
1. We think that middle school students master one foreign language possible . (改用形式宾语 it ) We think it possible that middle school students master one foreign language. 2. We have made that a foreign language is useful weapon in the struggle of life clear. (改用形式宾语 it )
We have made it clear that a foreign language is useful weapon in the struggle of life.
1. The emperor was pleased by which what the minister told him about it.
that不做介词宾语 2. Are you sorry for that you have annoyed him? it necessary that should kept secret for the time 3. I find that this should bethis kept secretbe for the time being necessary. being 4. Can you doubt if she will succeed? that she will succeed ?
5. I worried about if my brother will return time.in time. whether my brother willin return 6. She said that she had has never told a lie. will leave for Paris? 7. Will you tell me when he leaves for Paris?
football team won match Sunday excited allus. of us 8. That Ourour football team won the the match lastlast Sunday excited all of seemed 9. ItIt looked that he was well prepared for the unexpected challenge. 10.What That he said moved everyone present. 没有It look that…表达式 that不做句子成分
被修饰词有: fact, news, hope, opinion, order, question, problem, belief, truth, theory, decision, discovery, conclusion, promise, rumor, fear, thought, suggestion, plan, idea…
常见引导词: that , whether ( if ), how, wh- 疑问词 1. The fact that deeds are better than words is quite clear.
2. The question how I did it is hard to answer.
3. They had no idea where they should go to find some food.
4. The question whether he comes or not is not important. ( if )
5. A thought came to me that he might be in the library.
1.Two thirds of all girls in Britain are on a diet./ The fact _______ ________________________________________ worries ______ their parents and teachers a lot.
The fact that two thirds of all girls are on a diet worries their parents and teachers a lot. 2.The Queen of England was on a three-day visit in ______________________________________________ China./ We heard _________ the news last night. ______ We heard the news last night that the Queen of England was on a three-day visit in China.
3.Teenagers should not spend too much time online./ _____________________________________________ Many British parents hold the view. _______ Many British parents hold the view that teenagers shouldn’t spend too much time online. 4.Time travel is possible./ There is no scientific proof for ____________________ the idea. ________
There is no scientific proof for the idea that time travel is possible.
5.Chinese students should be given more free time./ __________________________________________ The suggestion is welcomed by many people, especially ____________ kids in school. The suggestion that Chinese students should be given more free time is welcomed by many people, especially kids in school.
1、两种从句都可以译成定语 e.g. The news that our team has won the final match
is encouraging. （同位语从句） 我们队取得决赛胜利的消息令人鼓舞。 The news that you told us is really encouraging. （定语从句）你告诉我们的消息真的令人鼓舞。
The suggestion that students should learn something practical is worth considering. （同位语从句） 学生应该学些实用的东西的建议值得考虑。 The suggestion that is worth considering is that the students should learn something practical. （定语从句）值得考虑的建议是学生应该学 些实用的东西。
1、从句的作用不同：同位语从句用来进一步 说明前面名词的内容；定语从句用来修饰、 限定前面的名词。
e.g. The news that our team has won the final match is encouraging. （从句说明“消息”的内容：我们队 取得了决赛胜利。） The news that you told us is really encouraging. （从句对“消息”加以限定：是你告诉我们的，而非 来自其他渠道。但消息是何内容却不得而知。）
2、引导从句的关联词that的功能不同： that引导同位语从句时是一个纯连词， 不充当任何成分；而引导定语从句的 that是关系代词，既指代先行词又须在 从句中充当成分。
e.g.1) Dad made a promise that he would buy me CD player if I passed the English test. （that 不充 当任何成分） 2) Dad made a promise that excited all his children. （that指代promise，又在从句中充当主语。）
的区别 ? 考例: _______ we can't get seems better than _______ we have. ? A. What; what B. What; that ? C. That; that D. That; what ? 分析: (注:划线的选项为最佳答案,下 同.)在名词性从句中that与what的区别 是:that在名词性从句中不作句子成分,只 起连接作用;而what在名词性从句中不仅 起连接作用,而且作句子成分.句子的意思 是:我们不能得到的似乎比我们已经拥有 的要好.此题考查了两个名词性从句:主语 从句和宾语从句,what在这两个名词性从 句中都作宾语.
考点之二:考查名词性从句中的it作形式主语或 形式宾语 ? 考例1: _______ is a fact that English is being accepted as an international language. ? A. There B. This C. That D. It ? 分析:在这种名词性从句中为了保持句子 的平衡,往往用先行词it作形式主语或形式宾语, 而把真正的主语或宾语放到后面,尤其是that引 导的主语从句往往用先行词it作形式主语.此句 也可以改写为:That English is being accepted as an international language is a fact. ? 考例2: I hate _______ when people talk with their mouths full. ? A. it B. that C. this D. them ? 分析:此题考查的是用先行词it作形式宾语,
考点之三:考查名词性从句的语序 考例:The photographs will show you _______ . A. what does our village look like B. what our village looks like C. how does our village look like D. how our village looks like
考点之四:考查名词性从句中的whether, if以及that的区别 考例1: _______ we'll go camping tomorrow depends on the weather. A. If B. Whether C. That D. Where 分析:句子的意思是:我们明天是否去野营要视天气而定. whether与if当"是否"讲时的区别是:在引导宾语从句时两者可以互 换,但在引导主语从句、表语从句和同位语从句以及介词后面的宾 语从句或后面紧跟or not时通常只能用whether,而不能用if. 考例2: What the doctors really doubt is _______ my mother will recover from the serious disease soon. A. when B. how C. whether D. why
考例3: It worried her a bit _______ her hair was turning gray. A. while B. that C. if D. for 分析:本题句子的意思是:头发变白使她有点儿不安。It 作形式主语,that引导的是主语从句。whether, if以及 that引导的名词性从句的区别是:whether与if(当"是否" 讲时)引导的名词性从句含有疑问意义;而that引导的名词 性从句不含有疑问意义。
考点之五:考查名词性从句中的疑问词+ever引导的名词性从句及其 与no matter+疑问词引导的从句的区别
考例 1:It is generally considered unwise to give a child _______ he or she wants. A. however B. whatever C. whichever D. whenever
分析:本题句子的意思是:一般认为孩子要什么就给什么是不明 智的.whatever引导的是宾语从句,A. however 和D. whenever是 不能作宾语的;而C. whichever表示"无论哪一个、无论哪些",表示 在一定范围内的人或事物,此处并不涉及"一定范围内的人或事物", 所以也不能选.
考例2: Sarah hopes to become a friend of ______ shares her interests.
A. anyone B. whomever C. whoever D. no matter who
分析:本题句子的意思是:萨拉希望跟自己有共同爱好的人交 朋友.疑问词+ever引导的名词性从句与no matter+疑问词引导 的从句的区别是:前者既可以引导名词性从句也可以引导让步状 语从句;后者只能引导让步状语从句.首先排除D.而选A. anyone 则应在其后加who.从句中需要的是主语,所以whomever也不行.
考例:It is necessary that a college student ______ at least a foreign language. A. masters B. should master C. mastered D. will master 分析:本题选B.句子的意思是:大学生至少应该掌握一门外语。 It作形式主语,that引导的主语从句中谓语动词用虚拟语气。 (1) 在主语从句中用来表示惊奇、不相信、惋惜、理应如此等,谓语 动词用虚拟语气"(should) +do",常用的句型有:I. It is necessary (important, natural, strange, etc.) that... II. It is a pity(a shame, no wonder, etc.) that... III. It is suggested (requested, proposed, desired, etc.) that...如: It is strange that she (should) think so.
(2) 表示建议、请求、命令、要求、坚持等及物动词后面 的宾语从句中要用虚拟语气,常用的这类动词有suggest, propose, insist, desire, demand, request, order, command等。如: I insist that she (should) do her work alone. (3) 主语是suggestion, proposal, request, decision等 表示"建议、请求、要求、决定等"意思的词时,表语从句 中谓语动词要用虚拟语气"(should) +do"。如: His suggestion is that we (should) hold another meeting to discuss the question.
(4) 表示"建议、请求、命令、要求、决定等"意思 的名词后面的同位语从句中谓语动词要用虚拟语 气"(should)+do"。如: They received orders that the work(should)be done at once.
II. Choose the best answer
1.They expressed the hope ___they would come over to China. A. which B. that C. whom D. when 2.The fact___ he didn’t see Tom yesterday is true. A. that B. which C. when D. what 3.I have no idea ____he will come back. A. where B. when C. what D. that
II. Choose the best answer
4.The news ___ surprised everybody yesterday now proves to be false. A. that B. when C. what D. how 5.One of the men held the view ___ the book said was right. A. what that B. that which C. that what D. which that 6.Word has come ___ some American guests will come for a visit to our college next week. A. what B. whether c. that D. which
找出下列句子中的错误，并总结出规律： 1. Can you tell me how many students are there in your class? Can you tell me how many students there are in your class? 2. I don't know where has he gone. I don't know where he has gone. 3. The owner of the shop came to see what the matter was. The owner of the shop came to see what was the matter. 规律一：名词从句中须使用陈述语序！
4. We suggested that we would go to the cinema. We suggested that we (should) go to the cinema. 5. My idea is that we must do our homework first. My idea is that we (should) do our homework first. 6. His proposal that we went there on foot is acceptable. His proposal that we (should) go there on foot…...
7. If we will have a meeting hasn't been decided yet. Whether we will have a meeting hasn’t been decided yet.
8. It depends on if the weather is suitable for us to do it. It depends on whether the weather is …... 9. The question is if he himself will be present at the meeting. The question is whether he himself will be present …... 10. He asked me if I could go with him or not. He asked me whether I could go with him or not. 规律三：4种情况只能用whether ： （1）位于句子开头； （2）前面有介词； （3）引导表语从句； （4）与or not连用。
1. I think that worthwhile that we spent so much money it on these books. 2. That is hard to decide when and where we will held our it sports meeting. 3. Everybody considers it impossible which he wants to finish the job in such a short time. that 4. It doesn’t matter that you will come or not. whether
规律四：主语从句和宾语从句在适当的情况 下可以借助 “it” 而后置。 问题：想想看是什么“适当的情况”？
1.I ask her _______ come with me.
A. if she will B. if will she C. whether will she D. will she 2._______ he said is true.
3.Can you tell me ________? A. who is that gentleman C. who that gentleman is B. that gentleman is who D. whom is that gentleman
4.He didn't know which room _______. A. they lived B. they lived in C. did they live D. did they live in 5.To get the job started, _______ I need is some money. A. only what A. what B. all what B. how C. all that C. it's D. only that D. that 6.I have no idea _______ far the railway station is from here.
7.Can you tell me _______ the railway station? A. how I can get to B. what can I get to C. where I can got to D. where can I get to 8.Do you know _______? A. what is his name B. how is his name C. what his name is D. how his name is 9._______ you have done might do harm to other people. A. That B. What C. Which D. This 10.They have no idea at all ________. A. where he has gone B. where did he go C. which place has he gone D. where has he gone 11.They want to know _________ do to help us. A. what can they B. what they can C. how they can D. how can they 12.These photographs will show you _______. A. what our village looks like B. what does our village look like C. how does our village look like D. how our village looks like
13.Can you make sure ________ the gold ring? A. where Alice had put B. where had Alice put C. where Alice has put D. where has Alice put 14.No one can be sure ________ in a million years. A. what man will look like B. what will man look like C. man will look like D. what look man like 15.________ the 2008 Olympic Games will be held in Beijing is not known yet. A. Whenever B. If C. Whether D. That 16.Go and get your coat. It's ________ you left it. A. there B. where C. there where D. where there 17.It worried her a bit _______ her hair was turning gray. A. while B. that C. if D. for 18._______ he said at the meeting astonished everybody present. A. What B. That C. The fact D. The matter
19. — Do you remember ________ he came? — Yes, I do. He came by car. A. how B. when C. that D. if 20._________ we can't get seems better than _________ we have. A. What ; what B. What ; that C. That ; that D. That ; what 21.________ we'll go camping tomorrow depends on the weather. A. If B. Whether C. That D. Where 22.It is generally considered unwise to give a child ________ he or she wants. A. however B. whatever C. whichever D. whenever 23. — I drove to Zhuhai for the air show last week. — Is that _________ you had a few days off? A. why B. when C. what D. where 24.These wild flowers are so special that I would do ________ I can to save them. A. whatever B. that C. which D. whichever
25.________ you don't like him is none of my business.
26.You can't imagine ________ when they received these nice Christmas presents.
A. how they were excited
C. how excited were they
B. how excited they were
D. they were how excited
27.________ caused the accident is still a complete mystery. A. What B. That C. How D. Where
28.I had neither a raincoat nor an umbrella. _________ I got wet through. A. It's the reason C. There's why B. That's why D. It's how
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