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高中英语语法


高中英语语法 非谓语动词 讲解及其练习题
规律方法 1.考查立意较低,主要考查的是非谓语的一些最基本的用法。但是,题目的设置注重了情景化和 结构复杂化,加大了考生对题干句的理解难度。 2.设问的角度呈现出多样化趋势,不仅仅是非谓语间的互相干扰。 命题趋势 不容置疑,高考将继续加强对非谓语动词的考查,试题的特征将继续呈现出“情景化”和“设问角度 的多样化”的趋势,但试题的

难度将会有所控制。 一、定义:非谓语动词是在句子中充当除谓语以外的句子成分的动词形式 在句中可起名词,形容词,副词的作用,在句中充当主语,宾语,表语,补语,定语或状语.即动词的非 谓语形式除了不能独立作谓语外,可以承担句子的任何成分 3 种形式:不定式,分词(现在分词、过去分词) ,动名词 二、非谓语动词用法: (一)动词不定式: (to)+do,具有名词、形容词、副词的特征。 1.不定式的形式: (以动词 write 为例) 否定式:not + (to) do (1)一般式:不定式的一般式所表示的动作与谓语动词动作同时发生或发生在谓语动词动作 之后, 例如: I'm glad to meet you. He seems to know a lot. We plan to pay a visit. He wants to be an artist. The patient asked to be operated on at once. The teacher ordered the work to be done. (2)进行式:不定式的进行式所表示的动作与谓语动词动作同时发生,例如: The boy pretended to be working hard. He seems to be reading in his room. (3)完成式:不定式的完成式表示的动作发生在谓语动词动作之前,例如: I regretted to have told a lie. I happened to have seen the film. He is pleased to have met his friend. 2.不定式的句法功能: (1)作主语: To finish the work in ten minutes is very hard. To lose your heart means failure. 动词不定式短语作主语时,常用 it 作形式主语,真正的主语不定式置于句后,例如上面两句 可用如下形式: It is very hard to finish the work in ten minutes. It means failure to lose your heart. 常用句式有: It+be+名词+to do。 It takes sb.+some time+to do。 It+be+形容词+for sb.+to 1、 2、 3、 do。常用 careless,,clever,good,foolish,honest,kind,lazy,nice,right,silly,stupid,wise,等表示赞扬或批评的
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形容词,不定式前的 sb.可作其逻辑主语。 (2)作表语: Her job is to clean the hall. He appears to have caught a cold. (3)作宾语: 常与不定式做宾语连用的动词有:want, hope, wish, offer, fail, plan, learn, pretend, refuse, manage, help, agree, promise, prefer, 如果不定式(宾语)后面有宾语补足语,则用 it 作形式宾语, 真正的宾语(不定式)后置,放在宾语补足语后面,例如: Marx found it important to study the situation in Russia. 动词不定式前有时可与疑问词连用,如: He gave us some advice on how to learn English. (4)作宾语补足语: 在复合宾语中,动词不定式可充当宾语补足语,如下动词常跟这种复合宾语:want, wish, ask, tell, order, beg, permit, help, advise, persuade, allow, prepare, cause, force, call on, wait for, invite. 此外,介词有时也与这种复合宾语连用,如: With a lot of work to do, he didn't go to the cinema. 有些动词如 make, let, see, watch, hear, feel, have 等与不带有 to 的不定式连用, 但改为被动语 态时,不定式要加 to, 如: I saw him cross the road. He was seen to cross the road. (5)作定语: 动词不定式作定语,放在所修饰的名词或代词后。与所修饰名词有如下关系: ①动宾关系: I have a meeting to attend. 注意:不定式为不及物动词时,所修饰的名词如果是地点、工具等,应有必要的介词,如: He found a good house to live in. The child has nothing to worry about. What did you open it with? 如果不定式修饰 time, place, way,可以省略介词: He has no place to live. This is the best way to work out this problem. 如果不定式所修饰名词是不定式动作承受者,不定式可用主动式也可用被动式: Have you got anything to send? Have you got anything to be sent? ②说明所修饰名词的内容: We have made a plan to finish the work. ③被修饰名词是不定式逻辑主语(主谓关系) : He is the first to get here. (6)作状语: ①表目的: He worked day and night to get the money. She sold her hair to buy the watch chain. 注意不定式放句首时,逻辑主语与句子主语要一致: wrong:To save money, every means has been tried. right:To save money, he has tried every means. wrong:To learn English well, a dictionary is needed. right:To learn English well, he needs a dictionary. ②表结果:
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He arrived late to find the train gone. 常用 only 放在不定式前表示强调: I visited him only to find him out. ③表原因: They were very sad to hear the news. ④表程度: It's too dark for us to see anything. The question is simple for him to answer. (7)不定式的省略:保留 to 省略 do 动词。 If you don't want to do it, you don't need to. (8)不定式的并列:第二个不定式可省略 to。 He wished to study medicine and become a doctor. (二)动名词: 动名词既具有动词的一些特征,又具有名词的句法功能。 1.动名词的形式: 否定式:not + 动名词 (1)一般式: Seeing is believing. 眼见为实。 (2)被动式: He came to the party without being invited.他未被邀请就来到了晚会。 (3)完成式: We remembered having seen the film. 我们记得看过这部电影。 (4)完成被动式: He forgot having been taken to Guangzhou when he was five years old. 他忘记五岁时曾被带到广州去过。 (5)否定式:not + 动名词 I regret not following his advice. 我后悔没听他的劝告。 (6)复合结构:物主代词(或名词所有格)+ 动名词 He suggested our trying it once again. 他建议我们再试一次。 His not knowing English troubled him a lot. 他不懂英语给他带来许多麻烦。 2.动名词的句法功能: (1)作主语: Reading aloud is very helpful. 朗读是很有好处的。 Collecting stamps is interesting. 集邮很有趣。 当动名词短语作主语时常用 it 作形式主语。 It's no use quarrelling.争吵是没用的。 (2)作表语: In the ant city, the queen's job is laying eggs. 在蚂蚁王国,蚁后的工作是产卵。 (3)作宾语: They haven't finished building the dam. 他们还没有建好大坝。 We have to prevent the air from being polluted. 我们必须阻止空气被污染。 注意动名词既可作动词宾语也可作介词宾语,如上面两个例句。此外,动名词作宾语时,若 跟有宾语补足语,则常用形式宾语 it,例如: We found it no good making fun of others. 我们发现取笑他人不好。 要记住如下动词及短语只跟动名词作宾语:
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enjoy, finish, suggest, avoid(避免), excuse ,delay, imagine, keep, miss, consider, admit(承认) , deny(否认), mind, permit, forbid, practise, risk(冒险), appreciate(感激), be busy, be worth, feel like, can't stand, can't help(情不自禁地), think of, dream of, be fond of, prevent…(from),keep …from, stop… (from) ,protect…from, set about, be engaged in, spend…(in), succeed in, be used to, look forward to, object to, pay attention to, insist on, feel like (4)作定语: He can't walk without a walking-stick. 他没有拐杖不能走路。 Is there a swimming pool in your school? 你们学校有游泳池吗? (5)作同位语: The cave, his hiding-place is secret. 那个山洞,他藏身的地方很秘密。 His habit, listening to the news on the radio remains unchanged. 他收听收音机新闻节目的习惯仍未改变。 (三)现在分词: 现在分词既具有动词的一些特征,又具有形容词和副词的句法功能。 1、现在分词的形式: 否定式:not + 现在分词 (1)现在分词的主动语态:现在分词主动语态的一般式表示与谓语动词所表示的动作同时发 生,完成 式表示的动作在谓语动词所表示的动作之前发生,常作状语。例如: They went to the park, singing and talking. 他们边唱边说向公园走去。 Having done his homework, he played basket-ball. 做完作业,他开始打篮球。 (2)现在分词的被动语态:一般式表示与谓语动词同时发生的被动的动作,完成式表示发生 在谓语动词之前的被动的动作。 The problem being discussed is very important. 正在被讨论的问题很重要。 Having been told many times, the naughty boy made the same mistake. 被告诉了好几遍,这个淘气的孩子又犯了同一个错误。 2.现在分词的句法功能: (1)作定语:现在分词作定语,当分词单独做定语时,放在所修饰的名词前;如果是分词短 语做定语放在名词后。 In the following years he worked even harder. 在后来的几年中,他学习更努力了。 The man speaking to the teacher is our monitor's father. 正与老师谈话的那个人是我们班长的父亲。 现在分词作定语相当于一个定语从句的句法功能, in the following years 也可用 in the years 如: that followed; the man speaking to the teacher 可改为 the man who is speaking to the teacher. (2)现在分词作表语: The film being shown in the cinema is exciting. 正在这家上演的电影很棒。 The present situation is inspiring. 当前的形势鼓舞人心。 (3)作宾语补足语: 如下动词后可跟现在分词作宾语补足语: see, watch, hear, feel, find, get, keep, notice, observe, listen to, look at, leave, catch 等。例如: Can you hear her singing the song in the next room? 你能听见她在隔壁唱歌吗? He kept the car waiting at the gate. 他让小汽车在门口等着。 (4)现在分词作状语: ①作时间状语: (While) Working in the factory, he was an advanced worker. 在工厂工作时,他是一名先进工人。 ②作原因状语:
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Being a League member, he is always helping others. 由于是共青团员,他经常帮助他人。 ③作方式状语,表示伴随: He stayed at home, cleaning and washing. 他呆在家里,又擦又洗。 ④作条件状语: (If) Playing all day, you will waste your valuable time. 要是整天玩,你就会浪费宝贵的时间。 ⑤作结果状语: He dropped the glass, breaking it into pieces. 他把杯子掉了,结果摔得粉碎。 ⑥作目的状语: He went swimming the other day. 几天前他去游泳了。 ⑦作让步状语: Though raining heavily, it cleared up very soon. 虽然雨下得很大,但不久天就晴了。 (四)过去分词: 过去分词只有一种形式:规则动词由动词原形加词尾-ed 构成。不规则动词的过去分词没有统 一的规则要求,要一一记住。 过去分词的句法功能: 1.过去分词作定语: Our class went on an organized trip last Monday. 上周一我们班开展了一次有组织的旅行。 Those elected as committee members will attend the meeting. 当选为委员的人将出席这次会。 注意当过去分词是单词时,一般用于名词前,如果是过去分词短语,就放在名词的后面。过 去分词做定语相当于一个被动语态的定语从句。 2.过去分词作表语: The window is broken. 窗户破了。 They were frightened at the sad sight. 他们对眼前悲惨的景象感到很害怕。 有些过去分词是不及物动词构成的,不表示被动,只表示完成。如: boiled water(开水) fallen leaves(落叶) newly arrived goods(新到的货) the risen sun(升起的太阳) the changed world(变了的世界) 这类过去分词有:gone, come, fallen, risen, changed, arrived, returned, passed 等。 3.过去分词作宾语补足语: I heard the song sung several times last week. 上周我听见这首歌被唱了好几次。 有时过去分词做 with 短语中的宾语补足语: With the work done, they went out to play. 工作做完了,他们出去玩去了。 4.过去分词作状语: Praised by the neighbours, he became the pride of his parents. 受到邻居们的表扬,他成为父母的骄傲。 (表示原因) Once seen, it can never be forgotten. 一旦它被看见,人们就忘不了。 (表示时间) Given more time, I'll be able to do it better. 如果给予更多的时间,我能做得更好。 (表示条件) Though told of the danger, he still risked his life to save the boy. 虽然被告之有危险,他仍然冒生命危险去救那个孩子。 (表示让步) Filled with hopes and fears, he entered the cave. 心中充满了希望与恐惧,他走进山洞。 非谓语动词考点分析 1.The Olympic Games, ______ in 776 B.C,did’t include women players until 1919.
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A.first playing B.to be first played C.first played D.to be first playing 析:根据题干,必须选表示被动的选项,故排除 A、D;因 B 选项表“将要被举行”意,不合 题干之用,只有 C 选项(相当于 which was first played)才合用。 2.European football is played in 80 countries, ______ it the most popular sport in the world. A.making B.makes C.made D.to make 析:B、C 是谓语动词,在此不可用。D 项 to make 或表目的,或表“将要使得”,这都不合题 干情景。只有 A.making,可作状语,表结果。再举一现在分词作结果状语例: The bus was held up by the snowstorm,causing the delay.公共汽车被大风雪所阻,因而耽误了。 3.Little Jim should love ______ to the theatre this evening. A.to be taken B.to take C.being taken D.taking 析:根据 this evening,应选表示将来义的选项,C、D 应排除。Take 后无宾语,必然要用被动 式,故答案为 A。 4.John was made ______ the truck for a week as a punishment. A.to wash B.washing C.wash D.to be washing 析:根据 be made to do sth.句式,可定答案为 A。 5.The patient was warned ______ oily food after the operation. A.to eat not B.eating not C.not to eat D.not eating 析:根据 warn sb.(not)to do sth.句式,可排除 B、D 两项;又根据非谓语动词的否定式 not 总 是在首位的规律,又可排除 A,而定 C。 6.——I usually go there by train. ——Why not ______ by boat for a change? A.to try going B.trying to go C.to try and go D.try going 析:此题可根据 why not 后直接跟原形动词规律而一举确定正确答案为 D。若将 B 项改为 try to go,则要根据其与 try going 意义之别来确定答案。依据题干对话内容,乙方是建议甲方尝试乘 船变变花样,所以答案仍为 D。 7.______ a reply,he decided to write again. A.Not receiving B.Receiving not C.Not having received D.Having not received 析:非谓语动词的否定式 not 应置于首位,B、D 皆为错误形式。A 项不能表达先于 decided 的动作,只有选 C 项才表没收到信在先,决定再写信在后,所以 C 为正确答案。 8.Charles Babbage is generally considered ______ the first computer. A.to invent B.inventing C.to have invented D.having mvented 析: consider 表“考虑”意时, 其后动词用 doing 形式, 此处不表“考虑”, 而表“认为”, 这时 consider 后作宾语补足语或主语补足语多为 to do,to have done,to be 等形式。据此可排除 B、D 两个选项。 又因 A 表“要发明”意,不合题用,只有 C 表“发明了”意,才合题用,故选 C。 9.Most of the artists ______ to the party were from South Africa. A.invited B.to invite C.being invited D.had been invited 析:“被邀请参加晚会”,应选表被动意的选项,B 不可用。D 项少引导词 who,也应排除。 又因短暂动词的现在分词被动式不可作定语,C 也应排除,只有 A.invited(=who were invited)才是 正确答案。 10.The murderer was brought in,with his hands ______ behind his back. A.being tied B.having tied C.to be tired D.tied 析:B 表主动意,应排除。C 表“将要被捆绑”,A 表“正在被捆绑”都不合题意,只有 D 项填 入空白才能表达“双手被反绑着”这一意思, 符合题干情景。 再看一类似例句: He came in,(with)his head held high.他昂首走了进来。 非谓语动词专练 1.______ more attention,the trees could have grown better. A.To give B.Having given C.Given D.Giving 2.The first textbooks ______ for teaching English as a foreign language came out in the 16th century.
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A.to be written B.written C.being written D.having written 3.The missing boys were last seen ______ near the river. A.to play B.play C.to be playing D.playing 4.______ in thought,he almost ran into the car in front of him. A.To lose B.Lost C.Having lost D.Losing 5.When passing me he pretended ______ me. A.to see B.not having seen C.to have not seen D.not to have seen 6.The children insisted ______ there on foot. A.they going B.they would go C.on their going D.going 7.He still remembers ______ to Shanghai when he was very young. A.taking B.being taken C.taken D.having taken 8.______ the railway station,we had a break,only ______ the train had left. A.Arriving at;to find B.Coming to;discovering that C.On arriving at;finding out D.Hurrying to;to have found out 9.With the boy ______ the way,we had no trouble ______ the way ______ to Zhongshan Park. A.leading;finding;leading B.to lead;found;to lead C.led;finding;led D.leading;found;led 10.______ these pictures,I couldn’t help thinking of those days when I was in Being and ______ from the top of a thirty-storeyed building,Beijing looks more beautiful. A.Seeing;seen B.Seen;seeing C.Seeing;seeing D.Seen;seen 11.I can hardly imagine Peter ______ across the Atlantic Ocean in five days. A.to have sailed B.to sail C.sailing D.sail 12.If you wave your book in front of your face,you can feel the air ______ against your face. A.moved B.moving C.moves D.to move 13.______ is known to all,China will be an ______ and powerful country in 20 or 30 years’ time. A.That;advancing B.This;advanced C.As;advanced D.It;advancing 14.While shopping,people sometimes can’t help ______ into buying something they don’t really need. A.persuade B.persuading C.being persuaded D.be persuaded 15.There was terrible noise ______ the sudden burst of light. A.followed B.following C.to be followed D.being followed 16.Please excuse my ______ in without ______ . A.come;permitted B.coming;permitted C.comimg;being permitted D.to come;being permitted 17.______ his head high,the manager walked into the room to attend the meeting ______ then. A.Holding;being held B.Held;holding C.Having held;held D.Held;to be held 18.——Did you hear her ______ this pop song this time the other day? ——Yes,and I heard this song ______ in English. A.sing;singing B.sung;sung C.sung;singing D.singing;sung 19.The question ______ now at the meeting is not the question ______ yesterday. A.discussed;discussed B.discussing;had discussed C.being discussed;discussed D.discussing;discussing 20.With the cooking ______ ,I went on ______ some sewing. A.done;to do B.being done;doing C.to be done;doing D.to have done;doing 21.It is no use ______ your past mistakes. A. regretting B. regret C. to regret D. regretted 22.Her husband died in 1980 and had nothing ______ to her,only ______ her five children. A.left;to leave B.leaving;leaving C.leaving;left D.left;leaving 23.I am very busy.I have a very difficult problem ______ . A.to work B.to work out C.to be worked out D.to work it out
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24.I would appreciate ______ back this affernoon. A.you to call B.you call C.your calling D.you’re calling 25.Climbing mountains was ______ ,so we all felt ______ . A.tiring;tired B.tired;tiring C.tiring;tiring D.tired;tired 26.I saw some villagers ______ on the bench at the end of the room. A.seating B.seat C.seated D.seated themselves 27.She was glad to see her child well ______ care of. A.take B.to be taken C.taken D.taking 28.It is one of the important problems ______ tomorrow. A.to solve B.to be solved C.solved D.solving 29.______ maps properly,you need a special pen. A.Drawn B.Drawing C.To draw D.Be drawing 30.There is a river ______ around our school. A.to run B.run C.running D.to be running 31.How about the two of us ______ a walk down the garden? A.to take B.take C.taking D.to be taken 32.I was fortunate to pick up a wallet ______ on the ground on the way back home, but unfortunately for me,I found my colour TV set. ______ when I got home. A.lying;stolen B.laying;stealing C.lay;stolen D.lying;stealing 33.Whth the kind-hearted boy ____ me with my work,I’m sure I’ll be able to spare time ___ with your work. A.to help;help you out B.helping;helping you C.helped;to help you out D.to help;to help you 34.Greatly movedd by her words, ______ . A.tears came to his eyes B .he could hardly hold back his tears C. tears could hardly be held back D. his eyes were filled with tears. 35.——I hope the children won’t touch the dog. ——I’ve warned them ______ . A.not B.not to C.not touch D.not do 36.I would love ______ to the party last night but I had to work extra hours to finish a report. A.to go B.to have gone C.going D.having gone 37.When ______ why he walked in without permission,he just stared at us and said nothing. A.been asked B.asked C.asking D.to be asked 38.The man kept silent in the room unless ______ . A.spoken to B.spoke to C.spoken D.to speak 39.He was often listened ______ in the next room. A.sing B.sung C.to sing D.to to sing 40.Rather than ______ on a crowded bus,he always prefers ______ a bicycle. A.ride;ride B.riding;ride C.ride;to ride D.to ride;riding 41.The boy wanted to ride his bicycle in the street,but his mother told him ______ . A.not to B.not to do C.not do it D.do not to 42.What’s troubling them is ______ enough experienced workers. A.that they have to B.they have not C.their not having D.not their having 43.______ his telephone number,she had some difficulty getting in touch with Bill. A.Not knowing B.Knowing not C.Not having known D.Having not know 44.Bamboo is used ______ houses in some places . A.to build B.to building C.to be built D.being built 45.Go on ______ the other exercise after you have finished this one. A.to do B.doing C.with D.to be doing
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46.The day we looked forward to ______ . A.come B.coming C.has come D.have come 47.Whom would you rather ______ the work? A.to have to do B.to have do C.have to do D.have do 48.Do you think it any good ______ with him again? A.to talk B.talking C.to talking D.having talked 49.Sometimes new ideas have to be tested many times before ______ . A.accepting fully B.being fully accepted C.fully accepting D.fully being accepted 50.The government forbids ______ such bad books. A.published B.to publish C.publish D.publishing 非谓语动词专练答案 1―5 C B D B D 6―10 C B A A A 11―15 C B C C B 16―20 C A D C A 21―25 A D B C A 26―30 C C B C C 31―35 C A D B B 36―40 B B A D C 41―45 A C A A A 46―50 C D A B D 非谓语动词 非谓语动词是指分词(包括现在分词和过去分词) 、不定式、动名词等三种形式,即: doing , done , to do , doing 。当然它们有各自不同的变化形式,如: 现在分词 doing : 有 being done(被动式) ; having done (完成式); having been do ne (完成被动式) 不定式 to do : 有 to be done (被动式); to have done (完成式); to be doing(进行式) 动名词 doing : 有 having done(完成式); being done(被动式) ; 非谓语动词的特点:三种非谓语动词都具有动词的特征,虽然它们没有人称和数的变化,但 是它们都能带自己的状语或有时跟宾语。它们都有各自的特征:分词具有形容词和副词的特征; 动名词具有名词的特征;不定式具有名词、形容词和副词的特征。具体来讲:分词在句子中可以 做定语、表语、状语或补足语等;动名词在句子中可以做主语、宾语、表语等;不定式在句子中 可以做主语、宾语、表语、补足语或状语。 下面分别对三种非谓语动词进行讲解: 一. 动词不定式 先看几个例句,判断不定式在句中的成分。 1.To learn a foreign language is difficult . 2. His wish is to be a driver . 3.Tom wanted to have a cup of beer . 4.The teacher told us to do morning exercises . 5.I have nothing to say . 6.They went to see their aunt . 7.It’s easy to see their aunt. 8.I don’t know what to do next . 9.I heard them make a noise . 说明:1.动词不定式作主语, 2.动词不定式作表语,3.动词不定式作宾语,4.动词不定式作宾语 补足语,5.动词不定式作定语,6.动词不定式作目的状语,7.动词不定式作真正主语,it 代替动 词不定式,作形式主语。8.带有连接代词的动词不定式作宾语,9.不带 to 的动词不定式作宾语 补足语。 掌握动词不定式应注意的几个问题: 1. “to” 是不定式符号还是介词,下列短语中的 to 都是介词。 agree to object to close to , come to , lead to , refer to , equal to , familiar to , point to , thank to , devote to , next to , belong to , be used to , look forward to 2. 带 to 还是不带 to I have no choice but to give in
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I cannot do anything but give in I saw him enter the classroom . ( 但是: He was seen to enter the classroom .) 3. 动词不定式逻辑主语是由 for 作为标记的。但是有时用 of . It’s necessary for you to study hard . It’s foolish of him to do it . 与 of 连用的形容词有: good, kind , nice , wise ,clever , foolish , right , wrong , careful , careless , polite , possible 4.后接不定式作宾语的动词有: want , hope , wish , like , begin , try , need , forget , agree , know , promise , teach , refuse , help , arrange , dare , decide , determine , fail , manage , offer , prepare , continue , ask , mean , choose , expect etc. 需要宾语补足语的动词不能用动词不定式直接做介词的宾语,而要用 it 做形式宾语。例如: 通常不说 We think to obey the laws is important . 而说 We think it important to obey the laws . 5.不定式的省略。下列短语中,如果意义明确,常常省略到 to 。 want to , wish to ,hope to , like to , hate to , plan to , try to , love to , have to , o ught to , need to , used to , be able to 6.不定式作定语,应注意两种关系: 1)动宾关系: He has a lot of meeting to attend . Please lend me something to write with . He is looking for a room to live He is looking for a room to live in . He has no money and no place to live ( in ) . I think the best way to travel ( by ) is on foot . There is no time to think ( about ) . 2)主谓关系: She is always the last ( person) to speak at the meeting . ----I’m going to the post office , for I have a letter to post . ( 逻辑主语是 I ) -------Thank you. But I have no letters to be posted now ( 逻辑主语不是 I ) 7.不定式作状语,可以有以下几种意义: 1) 原因 He is lucky to get here on time . 这种结构中常用的形容词有: happy , glad , delighted , pleased , sorry , eager , anxious . lucky , fortunate , proud , angry surprised , frightened , disappointed , ready , clever , foolish , worthy 2) 目的 He came to help me with my maths . 3) 结果 I hurried to get there only to find him out . The book is too hard for the boy to read . He is old enough to go to school . 8 . 不定式作补足语 I saw him play in the street just now . 能跟不带 to 的不定式作补足语的动词有: see , feel , hear , listen to , look at , watch , let , have make, observe, notice 注: 当这些词为被动式时,不定式要带 to , 如:
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He was seen to play in the street just now. 二.动名词 Learning English is very difficult . 学英语非常困难。 His job is driving a bus . 他的工作是开车。 I enjoy dancing . 我喜欢跳舞。 I have got used to living in the country . 我已经习惯了住农村。 Take some sleeping tablets , and you will soon fall asleep . 吃点安眠药,你很快就会入睡。 注意以下几种结构: 1.There’s no telling what will happen . =It’s impossible to tell what will happen . = No one can tell what will happen . 2.It’s no use talking with him . It’s no good speaking to them like that . 3.There’s some difficulty ( in ) doing … 在此句型中,difficulty 可以由以下单词替换: trouble , problem , fun , pleasure , a good time , a hard time 注意以下几个问题: 1.下列动词后跟不定式与跟动名词作宾语意义有区别, forget to do … 忘记要做某事 forget doing… 忘记做了某事 remember to do…记住要做某事 remember doing …记着做了某事 mean to do … 有意要做某事 mean doing … 意味着做了某事 regret to do … 对要做的事表示后悔 regret doing … 对做过去的事后悔 can’t help to do…不能帮助做某事 can’t help doing … 情不自禁做某事 try to do … 尽力去做某事 try doing 试着做某事 learn to do … 学着去做某事 learn doing … 学会做某事 stop to do … 停下来去做(另一件事) stop doing … 停止做某事 go on to do … 接着做(另外一件事) go on doing … 继续做某事 used to do … 过去做某事 be used to doing … 习惯做某事 2.动名词作定语与现在分词作定语意义有区别 动名词作定语表达 n+ for doing 的含义 现在分词作定语表达 n+which(who) be doing 的含义 如:a sleeping car = a car for sleeping a running horse = a horse which is running
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前者是动名词 , 后者是现在分词 又如: drinking water , walking stick running water , sleeping boy 3. 动名词的逻辑主语: 动名词的逻辑主语为代词或名词的所有格形式。 例如:His coming made us very happy . 4.动名词的语态和时态 5. 动名词主动形式表被动的情况: need doing , want doing , require doing 例如: This room needs painting . 这个房间需要粉刷。 6.只能跟动名词作宾语的动词: admit , avoid , advise , consider , delay , deny , enjoy , escape , excuse , fancy , finish , complete , forbid , imagine , mind , miss , permit . practise , require , suggest , risk , keep, take to , look forward to , get down to , feel like , can’t help , can’t stand , be used to ,insist on , succeed in , set about, give up , include , 三. 分词 1 The story is interesting . I’m interested in it . 这个故事有兴趣,我对这个故事感兴趣。 2 . This is a moving film . 这是一部动人的电影。 3. The secretary worked late into the night , preparing a long speech for the president . 秘书工作到深夜,为主席准备一篇长篇演讲稿。 4. Given more time , I’ll do it well . 如果给我多一点时间,我会做的更好。 When he passed the back of the street , he saw the thief stealing some money from the bank . 当他后街时,看到小偷正从银行偷钱。 应注意的几个问题: 1.现在分词与过去分词的区别 Do you know the woman talking to Tom ? = Do you know the woman who is talking to Tom ? The soldier wounded in the war has become a doctor. = The soldier who was wounded in the war has become a doctor. China is a developing country and America is a developed country. 2.分词作表语 The news sounds encouraging . They got very excited . 1)现在分词与过去分词作表语的区别: The news is interesting . He is interested in the news . doing 作表语,主语与表语是主谓关系 ;done 作表语,主语与表语是动宾关系。 2)表语与被动式的区别: The blackboard was broken by Xiao Ming .(强调动作) The blackboard is broken . You’d better have it repaired.(强调状态) 3)常作表语的过去分词: amused , injured , covered , known , dressed , lost , broken , gone , delighted, excited , pleased , satisfied , married , worried , surprised , interested , burnt , shut , crowded , wounded , drank , done 3.现在分词、动名词 现在进行时的区别 The situation in our country is encouraging . (表语) The situation in our country is encouraging the people . ( 现在进行时)
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My job is looking after the little baby . (动名词) 能回答 how-question 的是现在分词, 能回答 what-question 的动名词, 即不能回答 how-question 也不能回答 what-question 的是现在进行时。 例如: How is the situation in our country ? It is encouraging . What is your job ? My job is looking after the little baby . 4.注意的四种结构: have something to do 有某事要做 have something done 使某事被做 have somebody do something 使某人做某事 have something doing 让某事一直做着 5. 需要跟反身代词作宾语的动词: seat , prepare , hide , dress 如:I seated myself on the chair . I was seated on the chair . 6.分词做状语与不定式的区别: 分词做状语表示时间、原因、让步、条件、方式、伴随等;而不定式表示目的和结果。 Having finished the homework , I went home . ( 时间) Being a Party member , I should work hard . (原因) Given more time ,I can do my work better . ( 条件 ) He ran out of the classroom ,shouting at the boy. ( 伴随) To get more knowledge , we must work harder and harder . ( 目的 ) He is old enough to join the army . ( 结果) 7.分词、动名词和不定式作定语的区别 a running horse 现在分词 = a horse that is running a fallen leaf 过去分词 = a leaf that has already fallen a walking stick 动名词 = a stick for walking something to do 不定式 = something that I should do 8.不定式被动式、分词的被动式和过去分词的区别: I have a problem to be discussed at the meeting . ( 将来) The building being built on the river is the Science Museum . (正在进行) The building completed three years ago is now in bad conditions . ( 过去) 9.分词做状语需要注意的一个问题: 分词与句子主语的逻辑关系 Seeing from the hill , the city looks beautiful .( 错误 ) Seen from the hill , the city looks beautiful . ( 正确) Seeing 与 the city 不是主谓关系;seen 与 city 是动宾关系 练习 I .单项选择 1.Most of the people _____ to the party were famous scientists. A. invited B. to invite C. being invited D. inviting 2. ______ many times, but he still couldn’t understand it . A. Having being told B. Though had been told C. He was told D. Having told 3. She reached the top of the hill and stopped _____ on a big rock by the side of the path . A.to have rested B. testing C. to rest D. rest 4. The next morning she found the man ______ in bed , dead . A. lying B. lie C. lay D. laying 5. The purpose of new technologies is to make life easier , _______ it more difficult . A. to make B. not to make C. not making D. to not make
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6 . The Olympic Games , _____ in 776 B.C., did not include women plays until 1912 . A.first playing B.to be first played C. first played D. to be first playing 7 . ---You were brave enough to raise objections at the meeting . ---- Well , now I regret ____________that . A. to do B. to be doing C. to have done D. having done 8 . The visiting Minister expressed his satisfaction with talks , ___that he had enjoyed his stay here . A. having added B. to add C. adding D. added 9 . _______ a reply , he decided to write again . A. Not receiving B. Receiving not C. Not having received D. Having not received 10.The speaker raised his voice, but he still couldn’t make himself ________ . A. hear B. to hear C. hearing D. heard Robert is said ___ abroad , but I don’t know what country be studied in . to have studied B. to study C. to be studying D. to have been studying II . 用动词的正确形式填空 1. Little Tom should love ________ ( take ) to the theatre this evening . 2. Paul doesn’t have to be made _______ ( learn ) . He always works hard . 3. The computer centre , ______ ( open )last year , is very popular among the students in this school . 4. Go on _____( do ) the other exercise after you have finished this one . 5. How about two of us ______ ( take ) a walk down the garden . 答案: I 1.A 2.C 3.C 4.A 5.B 6.C 7.D 8.C 9.C 10.D II 1.to be taken ; 2.to learn ; 3.opened ;4.to do ; 5.taking

非谓语动词
1〖03 北京〗My advisor encouraged ____ a summer course to improve my writing skills. A. for me taking B. me taking C. for me to take D. me to take 2〖03 北京〗The teacher asked us ______so much noise. A. don’t make B. not make C. not making D. not to make 3〖03 北京〗____ time,he’ll make a first-class tennis player. A .Having given B.To give C. Giving D. Given 4〖03 北京〗Mr Smith, ____ of the ____ speech,started to read a novel. A.tired,boring B.tiring,bored C.tired,bored D.tiring,boring 5〖03 上海〗Generally speaking, ______ according to the directions, the drug has no side effect. A. when taking B. when taken C. when to take D. when to be taken 6 03 上海〗 army spokesman stressed that all the soldiers had been ordered ____ clear warning before 〖 An firing any shot. A. to issue B. being issued C. to have issued D. to be issued 7〖03 上海春〗_____ the meeting himself gave them a great deal of encouragement. A.The president will attend B. The president to attend C.The president attended D.The president’s attending 8 〖03 年京皖春〗 man we followed suddenly stopped and looked as if _____whether he was going in The the right direction. A seeing B. having seen C. to have seen D. to see 9【2012 届河北省普通高考模拟】The 30th Olympic Games,officially ________as“London 2012 Olympic Games” ,will take place from July 27 to August 12. A. know B. to know C. known D. knowing 10【2012 届保定市高三第一次模拟】Prices began to climb noticeably last year,____a historical high in November. A. hit B. to hit C. hitting D. being hit
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11【2012 届北京海淀区高三一模】Some seemingly harmless blogs might become harmful when _____ on the Internet by millions of people. A. to read B. reading C. read D. being read 12【2012 届北京海淀区高三一模】 ______ the housing price, several measures have been adopted in the last two years. A. Lowering B. Having lowered C. To lower D. To have lowered 13 【2012 届江西省上饶市第一次高考模拟】 wish that the elderly would live in comfort without worry I or health problems in the years they have . A.left B.leaving C.to leave D.being left 14【2012 届四川省成都石室中学高三二诊模拟】Friends are like leaves, ___ everywhere, but true friends are like diamonds, precious and rare. A.to find B.finding C.found D.being found 15【2012 届四川省成都石室中学高三二诊模拟】It's reported that 289 more trains were added ___ passengers on Sunday to meet the needs of those ___ home for the Spring Festival. A.to take; returning B.taking; returning C.taken; to return D.take: returned 16【2012 届河南省郑州市高三第二次质量预测】 Shanghai Disneyland Park, _______ in 2015 , will attract tourists from all over China then. A. to have been completed B. being completed C. completed D. to be completed 17 【2012 届江西省六校联考】 ______up early in the morning to have a walk, I am sure, you are likely to feel active all day. A.Get B.Having got C.Getting D.To get 18【2012 届河北省邯郸市高三第一次模拟考试】I appreciated ______the opportunity to study abroad two years ago. A. to have given B. to have been given C. having given D. having been given 19【2012 届河北省邯郸市高三第一次模拟考试】 Joe won the first prize on Sunday and, tears rolling down his cheeks, _____it a turning point for him. A. called B. calling C. having called D. to call 20 【2012 届甘肃省高三第一次高考诊断】 Chinadaily. com. cn is the largest English portal site in China, ______news, business information and learning materials. A.to provide B.providing C.provided D.which provide 21【2012 届贵州师大附中高三年级检测】When the customer caught the shop owner ______ him, she stopped ______ things there and started dealing with another shop. A. cheating; to buy B. to cheat; buying C. cheating; buying D. to cheat; to buy 22【2012 届山西太原五中 4 月月考】--- Whom did you ________ the wall? --- Jack. There______ masses of things for him to do, but he managed to finish the work as required. A. have painted; was B. have paint; were C. have to paint; were D. have paint; was 23【2012 届山西太原五中 4 月月考】 ---Where is Mom? --- She is downstairs ______ prepared for the tea party. A. to get B. getting C. to be getting D. having got 24【2012 届山西太原五中 4 月月考】During the days ______, he made great progress in learning English. A. following B. followed C. to follow D. that followed 25【2011 届江苏省苏、锡、常、镇四市高三调研测试(一) As workers and as citizens, we need to 】 be able to think beyond our own self-interest and _________ what is right under the circumstances. A. doing B. to do C. have done D. done 26【2011 届江苏省苏、锡、常、镇四市高三调研测试(一) _______________, I can see that those 】 terrible events shaped me into the person I am today. A. Having looked back B. Looking back
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C. Being looking back D. To be looking back 27 2011 届江苏省苏、 常、 【 锡、 镇四市高三调研测试 (一)--- I don’t think it’s __________ to the ceiling 】 very securely. --- Don’t worry. It won’t_________. A. fixing; drop B. fixed; drop C. fixing; be dropped D. fixed; be dropped 28【2012 届吉林省吉林市高三第二次模拟】Mary had to go to a meeting,so she left her children _________ at home. A. playing B. played C. to play D. having played 29 2012 届山东省菏泽重点高中高三下学期 4 月模拟】 the light turned green, I stood for a moment, 【 As not _________, and asked myself what I was going to do. A. moved B moving C. to move D. being moved 30 【2012 届广西桂林市、 崇左市、 百色市、 防城港市高考联合调研】 Don’t you think the 29th Olympic Games _______in Beijing in 2008 was a great success? A.hold B.holding C.held D.to be held 31【河南省郑州市 2012 届英语信息卷(三) 】The celebration gathering____ the10th anniversary of Macao's return to the motherland were held here on Sunday. A. to mark B. marks C. marking D. marked 32 【2012 届浙江杭州重点高中原创模拟】 1863, President Lincoln issued a declaration calling for the In last Thursday of November_______ as a day of thanksgiving. A. being observed B. observed C. observing D. to be observed 33 2012 届浙江杭州重点高中原创模拟】 You may make more mistakes if your paper is left_______. 【 ----- Thanks a lot. And would you give me some advice on how to polish it? A. being unchecked B. to be unchecked C. to check D. unchecked 34【2011·江苏省四市第一次调研】_______________, I can see that those terrible events shaped me into the person I am today. A. Having looked back B. Looking back C. Being looking back D. To be looking back 35 【2011·天津十二所重点学校联考】A strong earthquake ____ widespread destruction in the city center hit New Zealand South Island city of Christchurch. A.caused B.to cause C.causing D.to have caused 36【2011·东北三校第二次联考】The noise from the top floor, loud and constant, of the meeting-room _____can be clearly heard in our classroom. A.being decorated B.having been decorated C.to be de decorated D.decorated 37(北京朝阳 2011 届高三二模)—Will you please make yourself _____to us, please? ——I’ m the honorary chairman of the committee. A. know B. to know C. knowing D. known 38(绍兴市高三 2011 届高三质检二)Liu Xiang won the gold medal of men’s 110m hurdles at the 16th Asian Games, _______ the title of the event with 13.09 seconds. A.claimed B.claiming C.has claimed D.to claim 39(郑州一中 2011 届高三二模)The Spanish football team won the South Africa World Cup on July 13th, _____ it the 8th country to have won the World Cup. A. made B. making C. to make D. to have made 40 宝鸡市 2011 年高三教学质量检测 ( (二) —英语) After playing in the park for a few hours, the pupils gathered under trees _______shade and _______down to eat their picnic lunch. A.provided, sit B.providing; sitting C.providing; sat D.provided; sat 41 (东北三省三校 2011 届高三下学期第一次联合模拟考试) Cao Cao’s tomb is reported ________ in China, which attracts nationwide attention.
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A. being found B. to be found C. having been found D. to have been found 42 福建省龙岩市 2011 届高三第一次质量检查) ( ______in the leg made it impossible for me to walk as fast as usual. A. Being injured B. To be injured C. Having injured D. Injured 43(山东省济南市 2011 届高三年级第一次模拟考试英语试题)alone in the large house, the little boy had to learn to survive by himself. A.To leave B.Leaving C.Left D.Being left 44 (福建省四地六校 2011 届高三第三次联考)Living in the dormitory means _____to take care of yourself, understand each others ' differences and share ______interests. A、to learn, common. B、learning, ordinary C、to learn, ordinary D、learning, common 45 合肥市 2011 年高三第一次教学质量检测) ( Time should be made good use of _____our lessons well. A. to learn B. learning C. learn D. learnt

参考答案 1——5 DDDAB 6——10 ADDCC 11——15 CCACA 16——20 DCDAB 21-25 CBBDB 26——30 BBABC 31——35 CDDBC 36——40 ADBBC 41——45 DACDA

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