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三.表语 表语的功能是表述主语的特征、状态、身份等。它也可以说是一种主语补语。它位 于联系动词之后,与之构成所谓的系表结构。在系表结构钟,联系动词只是形式上的 谓语,二真正起谓语作用的则是表语。可以作表语的词有:名词、代词、数词、形容 词、副词、不定式、动名词、分词、介词短语、从句等。 1.The wedding was that Sunday. 婚礼是在那个星期天举行的。(名词

) 2.So that’s that. 就是这样。(代词) 3.We are seven. 我们一共 7 人。(数词) 4.Are you busy? 你有空吗?(形容词) 5.Are you there? 你在听吗?(电话用语)(副词) Is anybody in? 里面有人吗? (副词) 6.All I could do was to wait. 我只能等待。(不定式) My answer to his threat was to hit him on the nose. 我对他的威胁的回答是照他的鼻子打去。(不定式) 7.Seeing is believing. 百闻不如一见 /眼见为实(动名词) 8.I was so much surprised at it. 我对此事感到很惊讶。(过去分词) I’m very pleased with what he has done. 我对他所做的很满意。(过去分 词) 9.She is in good health. 她很健康。(介词短语) The show is from seven till ten. 演出时间为 7 点至 10 点。(介词短语) 10.Is that why you were angry? 这就是你发怒的原因吗?(从句) 11.This is where I first met her. 这就是我初次与她会面的地方。(从句) 12. The reason why he didn't come to school is that he got ill. 他没有来上学的原因是他生病了。

13. What I want is what he has got. 补充: 除了系动词 be 外,还有些能做系动词的实义动词,也称为半系动词,其后也要接 形容词做表语: come , go , run, turn ,get , become , keep , stay , make (表 变化的动词) fell,sound ,smell , look , taste (感观动词) seem, appear (似乎,好像) 例如: 1.Our dream has come true. 我的梦想实现了。(Come 后常加 easy , loose, natural 等) 2. He fell sick. 他病了。 3. Keep fit.保重。 Keep 作为系动词还常接 quiet , calm , cool, warm , silent, clean,dry 3.The well ran dry. 这口井干枯了。(short , loose , wild , cold 等) 4.A thin person always seems to be taller than he really is. 一个瘦个子似乎比他的实际高度要高些。 四.宾语 宾语(object)在句中主要充当动作、行为、活动的对象、接受者或受影响者。因 此一般皆置于及物动词之后。如: Our team beat all the others. 我们的球队打败了所有其他球队。 可以用作宾语的有:名词、代词、数词、名词化的形容词、副词、不定式、动名词、 名词化的分词、从句等。 1.Do you fancy a drink? 你想喝一杯吗?(名词) 2.They won’t hurt us. 他们不会伤害我们。(代词)

3.If you add 5 to 5, you get 10. 5 加 5 等于 10。(数词)。 4.I shall do my possible. 我将尽力而为。(名词化形容词) 5.He left there last week. 他上个星期离开了那里。(副词) 6.Does she really want to leave home? 她真的要离开家吗?(不定式) 7. We do not allow / permit smoking in the kitchen. 我们不允许在厨房里 吸烟。(动名词) 8.He never did the unexpected. 他从不做使人感到意外的事。(名词化的分词) 9.Do you understand what I mean? 你明白我的意思吗?(从句) 10. He told me that he would go to the college the next year. 他告诉我他 明年上大学 11. I don’t know if there will be a bus any more. 我不知道是否还会有公 交车. 12. Nobody knew whether he could pass the exam.没人知道他是否会通过考试. 13. Do you know who has won Red Alert game? 的游戏? 14. Have you determined whichever you should buy ,a Motorola or Nokia cell phone? 你决定好是买诺基亚还是摩托罗拉的电话了吗? 15. He didn’t tell me when we should meet again. 他没有告诉我什么时候我 们能再见面 扩展 + 归纳: 一、宾语中有些动词需要两个同等的宾语,即直接宾语(direct object)与间接宾语 (indirect object)。直接宾语一般指动作的承受者,间接宾语指动作所向的或所为 的人和物(多指人),具有这种双宾语的及物动词叫做与格动词(dative verb), 常 你知道是谁赢得了红色警报

用的有:answer, bring, buy, do, find, get, give, hand, keep, leave, lend, make, offer, owe, pass, pay, play, promise, read, save, sell, send, show, sing, take 等,了一个职位。动词后面跟双宾语时可以采用两种结构: A、 动词+间接宾语(人)+直接宾语(物)。如:Please show me your passport. B、 动词+直接宾语+介词+间接宾语。注意,一般情况介词用 to, 如: Please show your passport to me. 但动词是 make, buy, get, cook, borrow, sing 时,介词用 for.如: Please make me a kite. = Please make a kite for me. C、还有少数动词+sb.+ of + sth。如: ① inform sb.of sth. ③ ⑤ ⑦ rid sb.of sth rob sb.of sth cure sb.of sth. ② remind sb.of sth. ④ warn sb.of sth. ⑥ cheat sb.of sth. ⑧ accuse/charge sb.of sth.

二、以下是需要强化记忆的: A:习惯上要接不定式作宾语且不能接动名词作宾语的动词有: afford 付得起 care 想要 determine 决心 manage 设法 promise 答应 agree 同意 choose 决定 expect 期待 apply 申请 decide 决定 help 帮助 arrange 安排 demand 要求 hope 希望 prepare 准备 wish 希望 ask 要求

desire 请求 intend 打算 pretend 假装 fail 失败

offer 主动提出 plan 计划 refuse 拒绝 want 想要

B:习惯上要接动名词作宾语且不能接不定式作宾语的动词有: admit 承认 激 suggest 建议 avoid 避免 consider 考虑 delay 推迟 deny 否认 stop 停止 advise 建议 allow 允许 appreciate 感

discuss 讨论 excuse 原谅 告 forgive 原谅

dislike 不喜欢 enjoy 喜爱 fancy 设想 finish 完成

escape 逃脱 forbid 禁止

risk 冒险 report 报

give up 放弃

imagine 想像 miss 没赶上 prevent 阻止

keep 保持 pardon 原谅 prohibit 禁止

put off 推迟

mention 提及 mind 介意 permit 允许 practise 练习

请看以下典型用例: I admit breaking the window. 我承认窗子是我打破的。 I appreciate being given this opportunity. 非常感谢给了我这个机会。 I avoided mentioning the subject in case he should be offended. 我回避提及 这个问题,以免触犯他。 He suggested taking the children to the zoo. 他提议带孩子们去动物园。 【说明】advise, allow, forbid, permit 等动词之后,虽然不能直接跟不定式作宾 语,但可接不定式作宾语补足语。如: The doctor advised me to stay in for a few days. 医生嘱我在家休息几天。 The nurse allowed him to remain there, though it was not permitted. 护士让 他留在那儿,而按规定那是不许可的。 而有些动词(如 consider, understand, discuss)则可接“疑问词+不定式”作宾语。 如: Have you considered how to get there? 你是否考虑过如何到那儿去? She doesn’t understand how to look after him. 她不知道应如何照顾他。 We discussed what to do and where we should go. 我们讨论了该怎么办及到哪里 去。

C:既可接不定式也可接动名词作宾语、两者意思基本相同,有时甚至可以互换的动词 主要有: 有的动词既可后接不定式作宾语,也可后接动名词作宾语, like 喜欢 begin 开始 bother 麻烦 love 喜欢 start 开始 intend 打算 hate 憎恨 prefer 宁可

continue 继续 can’t bear 不能忍受 attempt 试图 cease 停止

请看以下典型用例: They continued to meet [meeting] daily. 他们继续每天都见面。 I like keeping [to keep] everything tidy. 我喜欢将每件东西都保持整洁。 She never ceased complaining [to complain] about prices. 她没完没了地抱怨物 价。 【注意】当 like, love, hate, prefer 与 would, should 连用时,其后习惯上只能 接不定式,不能接动名词。 D、既可接不定式也可接动名词作宾语、两者意思不相同的动词主要有: (1) remember(记得),forget(忘记),regret(后悔)后接不定式指该不定式所表示的 动作还未发生,后接动名词(有时可用完成式),则指该动名词所表示的动作已经发生。 比较: Remember to turn out the lights before you go to bed. 临睡前别忘了关灯。 I remember reading about the earthquake in the papers. 我记得在报纸上看过关 于这次地震的消息。 Don’t forget to turn down the gas after an hour or so. 别忘了过一小时左右 把煤气关小点儿。 I shall never forget seeing the Great Wall for the first time. 我永不会忘记 第一次看见长城的情景。

I regret to say the job has been filled. 十分抱歉,那个工作已经有人做了。 I regret saying what I said. I shouldn’t have said it. 我懊悔讲了我讲的话。 我是不应当这样讲的。 (2) try 后接不定式表示设法做某事,接动名词表示做某事试试(看有什么效果)。如: You shouldn’t try to leave the restaurant without paying. 你不应该试图不付 账就离开饭店。 You really must try to overcome your shyness 你确实需要努力克服你的腼腆。 (3) mean 后接不定式表示打算(想要)做某事,接动名词表示意味着(要)做某事。如: To mean to do something and to actually do something are two different things. 打 算做一件事和实际上做一件事完全是两回事。 If we mean to catch the early bus, that means getting up before five. 要想 赶早班车,我们就得在 5 点钟以前起床。 (4) stop 后接动名词表示停止做某事,接不定式表示停下正在做的事去做另一事(注 意:后接不定式时,不定式不是宾语,而是目的状语)。如: He stopped speaking, and there was not a sound in the room. 他停止讲话,房 里一点声音也没有了。 The bus stopped to take on more passengers. 公共汽车停下让乘客上车。 (5) can't help 后接动名词表示禁不住去做某事,接不定式表示不能帮助做某事。如: She’s a funny girl, but yet you can’t help liking her. 她是一个奇怪的姑娘, 但你禁不住会喜欢她。 The medicine can't help to get rid of your cold. 这药不能帮你治好感冒。(from www.nmet168.com) (6) go on 后接不定式表示做完某事后接着做另一事,接动名词表示继续做正在做的 事。如:

The minister went on talking for two hours. 部长一连谈了两个小时。 The minister went on to talk about foreign policy. 部长接着就谈外交政策。 【专项训练】 06. She imagined ______ into the office and ______ everyone what she thought of them. A. walking, telling walking, to tell 07. Peter, who had been driving all day, suggested ______ at the next town. A. to stop stopped 08. It annoys me when people forget ______ thank you. A. saying have said 09. I forgot ______ a pen. Can you lend me one? A. bringing have brought 10. If you’re writing to your mother, don’t forget ______ something about her coming to stay. A. to put in having put in 11. We regret ______ passengers that the l4.50 train for Cardiff will leave about 37 minutes late. A. to inform informed B. informing C. informed D. having B. putting in C. to gave put in D. B. to bring C. having brought D. to B. having saying C. to say D. to B. stopped C. stopping D. having B. to walk, to tell C. to walk, telling D.

12. She stopped ______ about her illness and went on ______ us about all her other problems. A. talking, telling tell B. to talk, to tell C. talking, to

D. to talk, telling

13. He began by ______ us where the island was and went on ______ us about its climate. A. showing, telling show, telling 14. — Robert is indeed a wise man. — Oh, yes. How often I have regretted ______ his advice! A. to take not taking 15. — Can I smoke here? — Sorry. We don’t allow ______ here. A. people smoking smoking 【参考答案】 06—10 ACCBA 11—15 ACCDD B. people smoke C. to smoke D. B. taking C. not to take D. B. to show, to tell C. showing, to tell D. to


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