必修 1 第一单元 Reading 阅读 ANNE’S BEST FRIEND Do you want a friend whom you could tell everything to, like your deepest feelings and thoughts? Or are you afraid that your friend would laugh at you,
or would not understand what you are going through? Anne Frank wanted the first kind, so she made her diary her best friend. 安妮最好的朋友 你想不想有一位无话不谈能推心置腹的朋友？或者你会不会担心你的朋友会嘲笑你，会不理 解你目前的困境呢？安妮?弗兰克想要的是第一种类型的朋友， 所以她把的日记视为自己最好 的朋友。 Anne lived in Amsterdam in the Netherlands during World War II. Her family was Jewish so the had to hide or they would be caught by the German Nazis. She and her family hide away for two years before they were discovered. During that time the only true friend was her diary. She said, ―I don’t want to set down a series of facts in a diary as most people do, but I want this diary itself to be my friend, and I shall call my friend Kitty.‖ Now read how she felt after being in the hiding place since July 1942. 在第二次世界大战期间，安妮住在荷兰的阿姆斯特丹。她一家人都是犹太人，所以他们不得 不躲藏起来，否则就会被德国的纳粹分子抓去。她和她的家人躲藏了 25 个月之后才被发现。 在那段时期，她的日记成了她唯一忠实的朋友。她说： “我不愿像大多数人那样在日记中记流 水账。我要把我的日记当作自己的朋友，我把我的这个朋友叫做基蒂。 ”现在，来看看安妮自 1942 年 7 月起躲进藏身处后的那种心情吧。 Thursday 15, June, 1944 Dear kitty, I wonder if it’s because I haven’t been able to be outdoors for so long that I’ve grown so crazy about everything to do with nature. I can well remember that there was a time when a deep blue sky, the song of the birds, moonlight and flowers could never have kept me spellbound. That’s changed since I was here. ?For example, when it was so warm, I stayed awake on purpose until half past eleven one evening in order to have a good look at the moon for once by myself. But as the moon gave far too much light, I didn’t dare open a window. Another time some months ago, I happened to be upstairs one evening when the window was open. I didn’t go downstairs until the window had to be shut. The dark, rainy evening, the wind, the thundering clouds held me entirely in their power; it was the first time in a year and a half that I’d seen the night face to face… ?Sadly…I am only able to look at nature through dirty curtains hanging before very dusty
windows. It’s no pleasure looking through these any longer because nature is one thing that really must be experienced. Yours, Anne 1944 年 6 月 15 日，星期四 亲爱的基蒂： 我不知道这是不是因为我太久无法出门的缘故，我变得对一切与大自然有关的事物都无比狂 热。我记得非常清楚，以前，湛蓝的天空、鸟儿的歌唱、月光和鲜花，从未令我心迷神往过。 自从我来到这里之后，这一切都变了。 ??比如说，有一天晚上天气很暖和，我故意熬到晚上 11 点半都不睡觉，为的就是能独自好 好地看看月亮。但是因为月光太亮了，我都不敢打开窗户。还有一次，就在五个月以前的一 个晚上，我碰巧在楼上，窗户是开着的，我一直呆到非关窗不可的时候才下楼去。漆黑的雨 夜，刮着大风，电闪雷鸣，乌云滚滚，我完全被这种景象镇住了。这是我一年半以来第一次 亲眼目睹的夜晚?? ??不幸的是??我只能透过那满是灰尘的窗帘下那脏兮兮的窗户看看大自然。只能隔着窗 户看那大自然实在没意思，因为大自然是需要真正体验的东西。 你的安妮 Using Language 语言运用 读与听
Reading and listening
1 Read the letter that Lisa wrote to Miss Wang of Radio for Teenagers and predict what Miss Wang will say. After listening, check and discuss her advice. Dear Miss Wang, I am having some trouble with my classmates at the moment. I’m getting along well with a boy in my class. We often do homework together and we enjoy helping each other. We have become really good friends. But other students have started gossiping. They say that this boy and I have fallen in love. This has made me angry. I don’t want to end the friendship, but I hate others gossiping. What should I do? Yours, Lisa 1 读读琳达为青少年写给电台王小组的这封信，然后王小姐可能会怎么说。听完录音之后， 核对并讨论她的建议。 亲爱的王小姐： 现在我同班上的同学有些麻烦事。我跟我们班里的一位男同学一直相处的很好。我们常常一 起做家庭作业，而且很乐意互相帮助。我们成了真正好朋友。可是，其他同学却在背后议论
起来，他们说我和这位男同学在谈恋爱，这使我很生气。我不想中断这段友谊，但是，我又 讨厌人家背后说闲话。我该怎么办呢？ 你的莉萨
Reading and writing
Miss Wang has received a letter from Xiaodong. He is also asking for some advice. Read the letter on the right carefully and help Miss Wang answer it. 王小姐收到小冬的一封来信。小冬是要征求一些意见。仔细阅读右边的信，然后帮王小姐回 复。 Dear Miss Wang, I’m a student from Huzhou Senior High School. I have a problem. I’m not very good at communicating with people. Although I try to talk to my classmates, I still find it hard to make good friends with them. So I feel quite lonely sometimes. I do want to change this situation, but I don’t know how. I would be grateful if you could give me some advice. Yours, Xiaodong 亲爱的王小姐： 我是湖州高中的一名学生，我有一个难题，我不大善于与人们交际。虽然我试着和班上的同 学交谈，但是，我还是很难跟他们成为好朋友。因此，有时候我感到十分的孤独。我确实想 改变这种现状，但是我却不知道怎么办。如果您能给我提些建议，我会非常感谢的。 你的小东
2 Decide which are the best ideas and put them into an order. Then write down your advice and explain how it will help. Each idea can make one paragraph. The following sample and the expressions may help you Dear Xiaodong, I’m sorry you are having trouble in making friends. However, the situation is easy to change if you follow my advice. Here are some tips to help you. First, why not…? If you do this,… Secondly, you could / can … Then / That way, … Thirdly, it would be a good idea if … By doing this, …
I hope you will find these ideas useful. Yours Miss Wang 2 决定哪些是最好并把它们按顺序组织起来。然后把你的建议写出来，并解释它为什么会 有所帮助。每个想法可以自成一个段落。下面的例子和表达可能对你有所帮助。 亲爱的小冬： 很遗憾听说你在交朋友的过程中遇到了困难。但是，如果你听听我的建议，这种情况是很容 易改变的。这些建议会对你有所帮助。 第一，为什么不??呢？ 如果你这样做?? 第二，你可以?? 这样的话?? 第三，如果??那将是个不错的主意。 通过做?? 我希望你会发现这些想法对你有所帮助。 你的王小姐 LEARNING TIP 学习建议 It’s a good habit for you to keep a diary. It can help you remember past events. You can express your feelings and thoughts in it. It will help you improve your English if you write your diary in English. Why not have a try?
写日记对你来说是一个好习惯。它可以帮你记住一些过去发生的事件。你还可以在日记中表 达你的情感和思想。如果你用英语写日记的话，还可以帮助你提高英语水平。为什么不试一 试呢？
第二单元 Reading 阅读 THE ROAD TO MODERN ENGLISH At the end of the 16th century, about five to seven million people spoke English. Nearly all of them lived in England. Later in the next century, people from England made voyages to conquer other parts of the world and because of that, English began to be spoken in many other countries. Today,
more people speak English as their first, second or foreign language than ever before. 通向现代英语之路 在 16 世纪末，大约有五至七百万人讲英语。几乎所有这些讲英语的人都住在英格兰。在其后 的一个世纪中，英格兰人为征服世界航海到了世界其他一些地方，结果世界的其他地方的人 们也开始说英语了。今天，把英语作为自己的第一语言、第二语言或外语来使用的人比以往 任何时候都多。 Native English speakers can understand each other even if they don’t speak the same kind of English. Look at this example: British Betty: Would you like to see my flat? American Amy: Yes, I’d like to come up to your apartment. 以英语作为母语的人，即使他们所讲不是同一种英语，他们也能彼此听懂。请看看这个例子： 英国人贝蒂：来看看我的公寓吗？ 美国人艾米：好的，我来看看你的公寓吧。 So why has English changed over time? Actually all languages change and develop when cultures meet and communicate with each other. At first the English spoken in England between about AD 450 and 1150 was very different from the English spoken today. It was based more on German than the English we speak at present. Then gradually between about AD 800 and 1150, English became less like German because those who ruled England spoken first Danish and later French. These new settlers enriched the English language and especially its vocabulary. So by the 1600’s Shakespeare was able to make use of a wider vocabulary than ever before. In 1620 some British settlers moved to America. Later in the 18th century some British people were taken to Australia too. English began to be spoken in both countries. 那么，随着时间的推移英语为什么发生了变化呢？实际上，当不同文化相互交流渗透时，所 有的语言都会有所发展和变化。开始，英格兰人在大约公元 450 年到 1150 年之间所说的英语 与我们今天所说的英语很不一样。当时的英语更多的是以德语为基础的，不像我们现在说的 英语。后来，大约在公元 800 年至 1150 年之间，英语慢慢变得不那么像德语，因为统治英格 兰的那些人开始是说丹麦语，后来说法语。这些新来的定居者丰富了英语语言，尤其是丰富 了英语词汇。 所以到 17 世纪初的时候， 莎士比亚能够得以使用比以往任何时候都丰富的词汇。 1620 年一些英国定居者来到了美洲，后来到了 18 世纪的时候，一些英国人还被带到了澳大 利亚。英语也就开始在这两个国家使用。 Finally by the 19th century the language was settled. At that time two big changes in English spelling happened: first Samuel Johnson wrote his dictionary and later Noah Webster wrote The American Dictionary of the English Language. The latter gave a separate identity to American English spelling. 最后到 19 世纪的时候，英语这种语言就变得稳定了。当时，英语的拼写发生了两个很大的变 化：先是塞缪尔·约翰逊编写了他的英语词典，后是诺亚·韦伯斯特出版了《美国英语词典》 。 后者使得美式英语的拼写有了其独特的个性。
English now is also spoken as a foreign or second language in South Asia. For example, India has a very large number of fluent English speakers because Britain ruled India from 1765 to 1947. During that time English became the language for government and education. English is also spoken in Singapore and Malaysia and countries in Africa such as South Africa. Today the number of people learning English in China is increasing rapidly. In fact, China may have the largest number of English learners. Will Chinese English develop its own identity? Only time will tell. 现在英语在南亚地区也被作为外语或第二语言使用。比如，印度就有很多人说英语说得很流 利，因为在 1765 年到 1947 年之间英国统治着印度。在此期间，英语成了印度政府和教育所 用的语言。在新加坡和马来西亚以及像非洲的南非，人们现在也说英语。当今，在中国学英 语的人数正在快速增加，事实上，中国可能是学英语人数最多的国家。中国式英语是否也能 发展成一种具有自己独特个性的语言？这还有待时间去证明。
STANDARD ENGLISH AND DIALECTS What is standard English? Is it spoken in Britain, the US, Canada, Australia, India and New Zealand? Believe it or not, there is no such thing as standard English. Many people believe the English spoken on TV and the radio is standard English. This is because in the early days of radio, those who reported the news were expected to speak excellent English. However, on TV and the radio you will hear differences in the way people speak. When people use words and expressions different form ―standard language‖, it is cal led a dialect. American English has many dialects, especially the midwestern, southern, African American and Spanish dialects. Even in some parts of the USA, two people from neighbouring towns speak a little differently. American English has so many dialects because people have come from all over the world. Geography also plays a part in making dialects. Some people who live in the mountains of the eastern USA speak with an older kind of English dialect. When Americans moved form one place to another, they took their dialects with them. So people from the mountains in the southeastern USA speak with almost the same dialect as people in the northwestern USA. The USA is a large country in which many different dialects are spoken. Although many Americans move a lot, they still recognize and understand each other’s dialects. 什么是标准英语？是在英国、美国、加拿大、澳大利亚、印度、新西兰所说的英语吗？信不 信由你， （世界上）没有什么标准英语。许多人认为，电视和收音机里所说的英语就是标准英 语，这是因为在早期的电台节目里，人们期望新闻播音员所说的英语是最好的英语。然而，
在电视和收音机里，你也会听出人们在说话时的差异。 当人们使用不同于“标准语言”的词语和表达时，那就叫做方言。美国英语有许多方言，特 别是中西部地区和南部地区的方言，以及美国黑人和西班牙人的方言。即使在美国有些地区， 两个相邻城镇的人所说的方言也可能稍有不同。美国英语之所以有这么多的方言是因为美国 人是来自世界各地的缘故。 地理位置对方言的形成也有所影响。住在美国东部山区的一些人说着比较古老的英语方言。 当美国人从一个地方搬到另一个地方时，他们也就把他们的方言随着带去了。因此，美国东 南部山区的人同美国西北部的人所说的方言就几乎相同。美国是一个大国，有着许许多多彼 此不同的方言。虽然许多美国人经常搬家，但是他们仍然能够辨别和理解彼此的方言。
Reading and speaking
1 Amy and her American friends are visiting London. They plan to visit Amy’s aunt and decide to go there by underground, but cannot find the nearest underground station. So she asks directions and then tells her friends. Read the dialogue and circle the words that mean the same. 1 艾米和她的美国朋友正在参观伦敦。她们计划去拜访艾米的姑妈，并决定乘地铁去，但 是她们找不到最近的地铁站。所以她问问了路，然后告诉她的朋友。读对话，然后圈出意思 相同的词。 AMY: Excuse me, Ma’ma. Could you tell me where the nearest subways is? LADY: Er...the underground? Well, go round the corner on your left-hand side, straight on and cross two streets. It’ll be on your right-hand side. AMY: Thanks so much. FRIENDS: What did she say, Amy? AMY: She told us to go around the corner on the left and keep going straight for two blocks. The subway will be on our right. 艾米：对不起，夫人，你能告诉我去最近的地铁站怎么走吗？ 夫人：呃??地铁？哦，往左边拐过去，一直往前走，走过两条街，地铁就是右边。 艾米：多谢了。 朋友：艾米，她说什么？ 艾米：她叫我们往左边拐过去，一直往前走，走过两条街，地铁就是右边。 【意思相同的词】 subway←→underground （地铁） right-hand side←→right （右边） street←→block 街道，街区
第三单元 Travel journal JOURNEY DOWN THE MEKONG 沿湄公河而下的旅行 PART 1 THE DREAM AND THE PLAN 第一部分 梦想与计划 My name is Wang Kun. Ever since middle school, my sister Wang Wei and I have dreamed about taking a great bike trip. Two years ago she bought an expensive mountain bike and then she persuaded me to buy one. Last year, she visited our cousins, Dao Wei and Yu Hang at their college in Kunming. They are Dai and grew up in western Yunnan Province near the Lancang River, the Chinese part of the river that is called the Mekong River in other countries. Wang Wei soon got them interested in cycling too. After graduating from college.we finally got the chance to take a bike trip. I asked my sister, "Where are we going?" It was my sister who first had the idea to cycle along the entire Mekong River from where it begins to where it ends. Now she is planning our schedule for the trip.
I am fond of my sister but she has one serious shortcoming. She can be really stubborn. Although she didn't know the best way of getting to places, she insisted that she organize the trip properly. Now, I know that the proper way is always her way. I kept asking her, "When are we leaving and when are we coming back?" I asked her whether she had looked at a map yet. Of course, she hadn't; my sister doesn't care about details. So I told her that the source of the Mekong is in Qinghai Province. She gave me a determined look—the kind that said she would not change her mind. When I told her that our journey would begin at an altitude of more than 5,000 metres, she seemed to be excited about it. When I told her the air would be hard to breathe and it would be very cold, she said it would be an interesting experience. I know my sister well. Once she has made up her mind, nothing can change it. Finally, I had to give in. Several months before our trip,Wang Wei and I went to the library. We found a large atlas with good maps that showed details of world geography. From the atlas we could see that the Mekong River begins in a glacier on a Tibetan mountain. At first the river is small and the water is clear and cold. Then it begins to move quickly. It becomes rapids as it passes through deep valleys, travelling across western Yunnan Province. Sometimes the river becomes a waterfall and enters wide valleys. We were both surprised to learn that half of the river is in China. After it leaves China and the high altitude,the Mekong becomes wide，brown and warm. As it enters Southeast Asia, its pace slows. It makes wide bends or meanders through low valleys to the plains where rice grows. At last, the river
delta enters the South China Sea. 沿湄公河而下的旅行 第一部分 梦想与计划 我的名字叫王坤。从高中起，我姐姐和我就一直梦想作一次伟大的自行车旅行。两年前， 她买了一辆价钱昂贵的山地自行车，然后她还说服我也买了一辆。去年她去看望了我们的表 兄弟—在昆明读大学的刀伟和宇航。他们是傣族人，在云南省西部靠近澜沧江的地方长大， 湄公河在中国境内的这一段叫澜沧江，流经其他国家后就叫湄公河。很快，王薇使表兄弟也 对骑车旅行产生了兴趣。到大学毕业后，我们终于有了作一次骑车旅行的机会。我问姐姐： “我们要去哪里？”首先想到要沿湄公河从源头到终点骑车旅行的是我的姐姐。现在，她正 为这次旅行制订计划。 我很喜欢我姐姐，但是她有一个严重的缺点，她有时确实很固执。尽管她对到某些地方 的最佳路线并不清楚，她却坚持要把这次旅行安排的尽善尽美。现在我知道了这个尽善尽美 的方式总是她的方式。我老是问她： “我们什么时候动身？什么时候回来？”我问她是否已经 看过地图。当然她并没有看过，我的姐姐是不会考虑细节的。于是我告诉她湄公河的源头在 青海省。她给了我一个坚定的眼神—这种眼神表明她是不会改变主意的。当我告诉她我们的 旅行将从 5000 多米的的高地出发时，她似乎显得很兴奋。当我告诉她那里空气稀薄，呼吸会 很困难，而且天气会很冷时，她却说这将是一次很有趣的经历。我非常了解我的姐姐，她一 旦下了决心，就什么也不能使她改变。最后，我只好让步了。 在我们旅行前的几个月，王薇和我去了图书馆。我们找到了一本大型的地图册，里面有 一些世界地理的明细图。我们从图上可以看到，湄公河源于西藏一座山上的冰川。起初，河 很小，河水清澈而冷冽，然后它开始快速流动。它穿过深谷时就变成了急流。流经云南西部。 有时，这条河形成瀑布进入宽阔的峡谷。我们惊奇的发现这条河有一半是在中国境内。当流 出中国，流出高地后，湄公河就变宽，变暖了。河水也变成了黄褐色。而当它进入东南亚以 后，流速减慢，河水变宽慢慢地穿过低谷，到了长着稻谷的平原。最后，湄公河三角洲的各 支流流入中国南海。
Reading and discussing PART 2 A NIGHT IN THE MOUNTAINS 第二部分 山中一宿
Although it was autumn, the snow was already beginning to fall in Tibet.Our legs were so heavy and cold that they felt like blocks of ice. Have you ever seen snowmen ride bicycles? That's what we looked like! Along the way children dressed in long wool coats stopped to look at us. In the late
afternoon we found it was so cold that our water bottles froze.However,the lakes shone like glass in the setting sun and looked wonderful.Wang Wei rode in front of me as usual.She is very reliable and I knew I did't need to encourage her.To climb the mountains was hard work but as we looked around us,we were surprised by the view.We seemed to be able to see for miles.At one point we were so high that we found ourselves cycling through clouds.Then we began going down the hills.It was great fun especially as it gradually became much warmer.In the valleys colourful butterflies flew around us and we saw many yaks and sheep eating green grass.At this point we had to change our caps,coats,gloves and trousers for T-shirts and shorts. In the early evening we always stop to make camp.We put up our tent and then we eat.After supper Wang Wei put her head down on her pillow and went to sleep but I stayed awake.At midnight the sky became clearer and the stars grew brighter. It was so quiet.There was almost no wind-only the flames of our fire for company.As I lay beneath the stars I thought about how far we had already travelled. We will reach Dali in Yunnan Province soon,where our cousins Dao Wei and Yu Hang will join us.We can hardly wait to see them! 虽然是秋天，但是西藏已经开始下雪了。我们的腿又沉又冷，感觉就像大冰块。你看到 过雪人骑自行车吗？我们看上去就像那样。一路上，一些身着羊毛大衣的孩子们停下来看着 我们。下午晚些时候，我们发现由于天冷我们的水壶都冻上了。然而，湖水在落日的余晖下 闪亮如镜，景色迷人。像往常一样，王薇在我的前面，她很可靠，我知道我用不着给她鼓劲 儿。上山很艰难，但是当我们环顾四周，（眼前的）景色让我们感到惊奇，我们似乎能看到 几百里以外的地方。在某个时刻，我们发现自己置身高处，彷佛骑车穿越云层。然后我们开 始下山，这非常有趣，特别是天气逐渐变得暖和多了。在山谷里，五彩斑斓的蝴蝶翩翩飞舞 在我们身旁，我们还看到牦牛和羊群在吃草。这时，我们不得不把帽子、外衣、手套和长裤 脱掉，换成 T 恤衫和短裤。 一到傍晚，我们通常就停下来宿营，（于是），我们先把帐篷支起来，然后吃饭。晚饭 后，王薇把头放在枕头上就睡觉了，而我却醒着。半夜里，天空变得清朗了，星星更亮了。 （夜晚）非常安静——几乎没有风，只有篝火的火焰和我们做伴。当我躺在星空下，我想着 我们已经走了多远。 我们很快就要到达云南的大理。在那里，我们的表兄弟刀卫和宇航将加入我们的行列。我们 迫不及待地想要见到他们！ Unit 4 Earthquakes 第四单元 地震
Reading A NIGHT THE EARTH DIDN'T SLEEP 地球的一个不眠之夜 Strange things were happening in the countryside of northeast Hebei.For three days the water in the village wells rose and fell,rose and fell.Farmers noticed that the well walls had deep cracks in them.A smelly gas came out of the cracks.In the farmyards,the chickens and even the pigs were too nervois to eat.Mice ran out of the fields looking for places to hide.Fish jumped out of their bowls and ponds.At about 3:00 am on july 28,1976,some people saw bright lights in the sky.The sound of planes could be heard outside the city of Tangshan even when no planes were in the sky.In the city,the water pipes in some buildings cracked and burst.but the one million people of the city,who thiught little of these events,were asleep as usual that night. At 3:42 am everything began to shake.It seemed as if the world was at an end!Eleven kilometres directly below the city the greatest earthquake of the 20th century had begun.It was felt in Beijing,which is more than two hundred kilometres away.One-third of the nation felt it.A huge crack that was eight kilometres long and thirty metres wide cut across houses,roads and canals.Steam burst from holes in the ground.Hard hills of rock became rivers of dir.In fifteen terrible seconds a large city lay in ruins.The suffering of the people was extreme.Two-thirds of them died or were left without parents.The number of people who were killed or injured reached more than 400,000. But how could the survivors believe it was natural?Everywhere they looked nearly everything was destroyed.All of the city's hospitals,75%of its factories and buildings and 90% of its homes were gone.Bricks covered the ground like red autumn leaves.No wind,however,could blow them away.Two dams fell and most of the bridges also fell or were not safe for travelling.The railway tracks were now useless pieces of steel.Tens of thousands of cows would never give milk again.Half a million oigs and millions of chickens were dead.Sand now filled the wells instead of water.People were shocked.Then,later that afternoon,another big quake which was almost as strong as the first one shook Tangshan.Some of the rescue workers and doctors were trapped under the ruins.More buildings fell down.Water,food,and electricity were hard to get.people begab to wonder how long the disaster would last. All hope was not lost.Soon after the quakes,the army sent 150,000 soldiers to Tangshan to help the rescue workers.Hundreds of thousands of people were helped.The army organized teams to dig out those who were trapped and to bury the dead.To the north of the city,most of the 10,000 miners
were rescued from the coal mines there.Workers built shelters for survivors whose homes had been destroyed.Fresh water was taken to the city bu train,truck and plane.Slowly,the city began to breathe again. 河北省东北部的农村不断有些怪事发生：三天来，村子里的井水升升降降，起起伏伏。 农夫注意到，水井的井壁上有深深的裂缝，裂缝里冒出臭气。农家大院里的鸡,甚至猪都紧张 得不想吃食。老鼠从田地里跑出来找地方藏身。鱼缸和池塘里的鱼会往外跳。在 1976 年 7 月 28 日凌晨 3 点左右，有些人看到天上一道道明亮的光。即使天空没有飞机，在唐山城外也可 以听到飞机声。在市内，有些建筑物里的水管爆裂开来。但是，唐山市的一百万居民几乎都 没有把这些情况当一回事，当天晚上照常睡着了。 在凌晨 3 点 42 分，一切都开始摇晃起来。世界似乎到了末日！二十世纪最大的一次地震 就在唐山市正下方 11 公里处发生了。100 公里以外的北京市都感到了地震，全国 1 / 3 的地方 都有震感。一条 8 公里长 30 米宽的巨大裂缝横穿房舍、马路和渠道。地上一些洞穴冒出了蒸 气。石头山变成了泥沙河，在可怕的 15 秒钟内，一座大城市就沉沦在一片废墟之中。人们遭 受的灾难极为深重。2/3 的人在地震中死去或受伤。成千上万个家庭遇难，许多孩子变成了孤 儿。死伤的人数达到 40 多万。 幸存的人们又怎么能相信这是自然现象呢？人们无论朝哪里看，哪里的一切都几乎被毁 了。所有的市内医院、75%的工厂和建筑物、90%的家园都消失了。残砖就像秋天的红叶覆 盖着大地，然而它们是不可能被风刮走的。两座大坝垮了，多数桥梁不是塌了就是无法安全 通行了。铁轨如今成了一条条废钢。好几万头牛再也挤不出奶来。50 万头猪和几百万只鸡全 都死了。井里满是沙子，而不是水。人们惊呆了。接着，在下午晚些时候，又一次和第一次 一样的强烈的地震震撼着唐山。有些医生和救援人员被困在废墟下面。更多的房屋倒塌了。 水、电和食物都很难弄到。人们开始纳闷，这场灾难还会持续多久。 不是所有的希望都破灭了。地震后不久，部队派了 15 万名战士到唐山来协助救援人员，数十 万的人得到了救助。部队人员组成小分队，将受困的人们挖出来，将死者掩埋。在唐山市的 北边，有一个万名矿工的煤矿，其中多数人得救了。援救人员为那些家园被毁的幸存者盖起 了避难所，用火车、卡车和飞机向市内运来了水。慢慢地、慢慢地，这座城市又开始出现了 生机。 Reading and speaking Office of the City Government Tangshan,Hebei China
July5,2007 Dear____, Congratulations!We are pleased to tell you that you have won the high school speaking competition about new Tangshan. Your speech was heard by a group of five judges, all of whom agreed that it was the best one this year. Your parents and your school should be very proud of you! Next month the city will open a new park to honour those who died in the terrible disaster. The park will also honour those who helped the survivors. Our office would like to have you speak to the park vistors on July 28 at 11:00 am. As you know,this is the day the quake happened thirty-____years ago. We invite you to bring your family and friends on that special day. Sincerely, Zhang Sha 唐山市政府办公室 亲爱的______________： 恭喜你！我们很高兴地告诉你，你在以新唐山为主题的中学演讲比赛中获得第一名。评 委会的五位评委听了你的演讲，他们都认为你的演讲是今年最好的。你的父母亲和你的学校 会为你而骄傲！ 下个月我们市将开放一个新公园，以纪念在那次可怕的灾难中死去的人们，并向那些曾 经为幸存者提供过帮助的人们致敬。我们办公室想请你在 7 月 28 日上午 11 点给来公园的参 观者进行演讲。你知道，三十（）年前的这一天正是唐山发生地震的日子。 在这个特殊的日子里，我们邀请你把家人和朋友一起带来。 诚挚的 张沙 Unit 5 第五单元 纳尔逊·曼德拉—— 一位当代英雄 ELIAS ' STORY 伊莱亚斯的故事
My name is Elias. I am a poor black worker in South Africa. The time when I first met Nelson Mandela was a very difficult period of my life. I was twelve years old. It was in 1952 and Mandela was the black lawyer to whom I went for advice. He offered guidance to poor black people on their legal problems. He was generous with his time, for which I was grateful. I needed his help because I had very little education. I began school at six. The school where I studied for only two years was three kilometers away. I had to leave because my family could not continue to pay the school fees and the bus fare. I could not read or write well. After trying hard, I got a job in a gold mine. However, this was a time when one had got to have a passbook to live in Johannesburg. Sadly I did not have it because I was not born there, and I worried about whether I would become out of work. The day when Nelson Mandela helped me was one of my happiest. He told my how to get the correct papers so I could stay in Johannesburg. I became more hopeful about my future. I never forgot how kind Mandela was. When he organized the ANC Youth League, I joined it as soon as I could. He said: “The last thirty years have seen the greatest number of laws stopping our rights and progress, until today we have reached a stage where we have almost no rights at all.‖ It was the truth. Black people could not vote or choose their leaders. They could not get the jobs they wanted. The parts of town in which they had to live were decided by white people. The places outside the towns where they were sent to live were the poorest parts of South Africa. No one could grow food there. In fact as Nelson Mandela said: “?we were put into a position in which we had either to accept we were less important or fight the government. We chose to attack the laws. We first broke the law in a way which was peaceful; when this was not allowed…only then did we decide to answer violence with violence. As a matter of fact, I do not like violence…but in 1963 I helped him blow up some government buildings. It was very dangerous because if I was caught I could be put in prison. But I was happy to help because I knew it would help us achieve our dream of making black and white people equal. 我的名字叫伊莱亚斯。我是南非的一个穷苦的黑人工人。第一次见到纳尔逊·曼德拉的 时候，是我一生中非常艰难的时期。（当时）我才 12 岁，那是在 1952 年，曼德拉是我寻求 帮助的一位黑人律师。他为那些穷苦黑人提供法律指导。他十分慷慨地给予我时间，我为此 非常感激。
由于我所受的教育很少，所以我需要他的帮助。我六岁开始上学，我仅仅在那里读了两 年的学校有三公里远。我不得不辍学，因为我的家庭无法继续支付学费和交通费。我既不太 会读，也不怎么会写。几经周折，我才在一家金矿找到一份工作。然而在那个时候，你要想 住在约翰内斯堡就非得要有身份证不可。糟糕的是我没有这个证件，因为我不是在那里出生 的，我很担心我是不是会失业。 纳尔逊·曼德拉给予我帮助的那一天是我一生中最高兴的日子。他告诉我要想在约翰内 斯堡立住脚，应当如何获取所需证件。我对自己的未来又充满了希望。我永远也忘记不了他 对我的恩情，当他组织了非国大青年联盟时，我马上就参加了这个组织。他说：“过去 30 年 来所出现的大量法律剥夺我们的权利，阻挡我们的进步，一直到今天，我们还处在几乎什么 权利都没有的阶段。” 他说的是真话。当时黑人没有选举权，他们无权选择他们的领导人。他们不能做自己想 要做的工作。他们所能住的城区都是由白人决定的。他们被打发去住的城外地区是南非最贫 穷的地区。在那儿，没有人能够种庄稼。事实上，就像拉尔逊·曼德拉所说的： “??我们被置于这样一个境地：要么我们被迫接受低人一等的现实，要么跟政府作斗 争。我们选择向法律进攻。首先我们用和平的方式来破坏法律，而当这种方式也得不到允许 时，??只有到这个时候，我们才决定用暴力反抗暴力。” 事实上，我并不喜欢暴力，??但是在 1963 年的时候，我帮助他炸毁了一些政府大楼。那是 很危险的事情，因为如果我被抓住了，可能就会被关进监狱。但是，我乐于帮忙，因为我知 道，这是为了实现我们的黑人和白人平等的梦想。 THE REST OF ELIAS' STORY You cannot imagine how the name of Robben Island made us afraid. It was a prison from which no one escaped. There I spent the hardest time of my life. But when I got there Nelsom Mandela was also there and he helped me. Mr Mandela began a school for those of us who had little learning. He taught us during the lunch breaks and the evenings when we should have been asleep. We read books under our blankets and used anything we could find to make candles to see the words. I became a good student. I wanted to study for my degree but I was not allowed to do that. Later, Mr Mandela allowed the prison guards to join us. He said they should not be stopped from studying for their degrees. They were not cleverer than me , but they did pass their exams. So I knwe I could get a degree too. That made me feel good about myself. When I finished the four years in prison, I went to find a job. Since I was better educated, I got a job working in an office. However, the police found out and told my boss that I had been in prinson for
blowing up government buildings. So I lost my job. I did not work again for twenty years until M r Mandela and the ANC came to power in 1994. All that time my wife and children had to beg for good and help from relatives or friends. Luckily Mr Mandela remembered me and gave me a job taking tourists around my old prison on Robben Islannd. I felt bad the first time I talked to a group. All the terror and fear of that time came back to me. I remembered the beatings and the cruelty of the guards and my friends who had died. I felt I would not be able to do it, but my family encouraged me. They said that the job and the pay from the new South African government were my reward after working all my life for equal rights for the Blacks. So now at 51 I am proud to show visitors over the prison, for I helped to make our people free in their own land.
必修 2 unit1 高中英语必修 2 第一单元 文物 Cultural Relics
IN SEARCH OF THE AMBER ROOM
Frederick William Ⅰ，the King of Prussia , could never have imagined that his greatest gift to the Russian people would have such an amazing history . This gift was the Amber Room , which was given this name because several tons of amber were used to make it . The amber which was selected had a beautiful yellow-brown colour like honey . The design of the room was in the fancy style popular in those days . It was also a treasure decorated with gold and jewels , which took the country's best artists about ten years to make . In fact , the room was not made to be a gift . It was designed for the palace of Frederick Ⅰ. However, the next King of Prussia , Frederick William Ⅰ,to whom the amber room belonged, decided not to keep it. In 1716 he gave it to Peter the Great. In return , the Czar sent him a troop of his best soldiers. So the Amber Room because part of the Czar's winter palace in St Petersburg.About four metres long, the room served as a small reception hall for important visitors . Later,Catherine Ⅱ had the Amber Room moved to a palace outside St Petersburg where she spent her summers. She told her artists to add more details to it .In 1770 the room was completed the way she wanted . Almost six hundred candles lit the room ,and its mirrors and pictures shone like gold. Sadly , although the Amber Room was considered one of the wonders of the world , it is now missing .
In September 1941, the Nazi army was near St Petersburg . This was a time when the two countries were at war . Before the Nazis could get to the summer palace , the Russians were able to remove some furniture and small art objects from the Amber Room . However , some of the Nazis secretly stole the room itself . In less than two days 100,000 pieces were put inside twenty-seven woooden boxs . There is no doubt that the boxs were then put on a train for Konigsberg, which was at that time a German city on the Baltic Sea . After that, what happened to the Amber Room remains a mystery . Recently , the Russians and Germans have built a new Amber Room at the summer palace . By studying old photos of the former Amber Room , they have made the new one look like the old one .In 2003 it was ready for the people of St Petersburg when they celebrated the 300th birthday of their city . 普鲁士国王腓特烈· 威廉一世绝不可能想到他送给俄罗斯人民的厚礼会有一段令人惊讶的 历史。 这件礼物就是琥珀屋,它之所以有这个名字,是因为造这间房子用了近几吨琥珀,被选择的琥珀 色彩艳丽,呈黄褐色,像蜜一样。屋子的设计当时流行的极富艺术表现力的建筑风格。琥珀屋这 件珍品还镶嵌著黄金和珠宝,全国最优秀的艺术家用了是年的时间才完成它。 事实上,琥珀屋并不是作为礼物而建造的。它是作为腓烈特一世的宫殿而建造的。然而,下 一位普鲁士国王,腓烈特· 威廉一世,这个琥珀屋的主人却决定不再要它了。1716年,他把它送给 了彼得大帝。作为回馈,沙皇则送给他一队自己最好的士兵。所以,琥珀屋就成了沙皇在圣彼得 堡东宫的一部分。琥珀屋长约4米,被用作接待重要来宾的小型会客室。 后来、叶卡捷琳娜二世派人把琥珀屋搬到了圣彼得堡郊外避暑的宫殿中。她让艺术家们 给它增添了更多的装饰。1770年,这间琥珀屋按她要求的方式完工了。将近600支蜡烛照亮了 这个房间,里面的镜子和图画就像金子一样闪闪发光。 不幸的是,虽然琥珀屋被认为是世界奇迹 之一,可是现在它却下落不明。 1941年9月,纳粹德国的军队逼近了圣彼得堡。这是两国交战的时期。在纳粹分子能够到达 夏宫之前,俄国人只来得及把琥珀屋里的一些家具和小型艺术饰品搬走。可是琥珀屋本身却被 一些纳粹分子秘密地头运走了。在不到两天的时间里,琥珀屋被拆成10万块装进了27个木箱 里。毫无疑问,这些箱子后来被装上火车运往哥尼斯堡,当时它是波罗的海的海边的一个城市。 从那以后,琥珀屋的最终归宿就成了一个谜。最近俄国人和德国人已经在夏宫建立起了一个新 的琥珀屋,通过研究前琥珀屋的照片,他们使得新的琥珀屋的样子与原来的非常相像。2003年, 在圣彼得堡人民庆祝他们的城市建立300周年的时候,它已经完工了。
Reading and listening
A FACT OR AN OPINION?
What is a fact? Is it something that people believe? No. A fact is anything that can be proved. For example, it can be proved that China has more people than any other country in the world. This is a fact. Then what is an opinion? An opinion is what someone believes is true but has not been proved. So an opinion is not good evidence in a trial. For example, it is an opinion if you say ―Cats are better pets than dogs‖. It may be true, but it is difficult to prove. Some people may not agree with this opinion but they also cannot prove that they are right. In a trial, a judge must decide which eyewitnesses to believe and which not to believe. The judge does not consider what each eyewitness looks like or where that person lives or works. He/she only cares about whether the eyewitness has given true information, which must be facts rather than opinions. This kind of information is called evidence. 什么是事实？是一些人们相信的东西吗？不！事实是可以被证明的任何事。例如，可以 证明中国人口比世界上任何其他国家的人口都要多。这是一个事实。 那么什么是一个观点？一个观点是人们相信那是真的但还没有被证明的。所以一个观点 在一个审判中不是一个好的证据。例如，如果你说―猫是比狗好的宠物‖这会是一个观点。这 可能是真的，不过很难去证明。一些人可能不同意这个观点不过他们也不能去证明他们是对 的。 在一场审批中，一个审判官一定要去决定相信哪个目击者哪个目击者不应该相信。这个 审判官不会去考虑每个目击者的长相或人们在哪里居住或工作。他/她只关心目击者是否会提 供真是的信息，信息一定是事实而不是观点。这类的信息被称为证据。
Unit 2 第二单元奥林匹克运动会 AN INTERVIEW 一个采访
Pausanias, who was a Greek writer about 2,000 years ago, has come on a magical journey on March 18th 2007 to find out about the present-day Olympic Games. He is now interviewing Li Yan, a volunteer for the 2008 Olympic Games. P: My name is Pausanias. I lived in what you call ―Ancient Greece‖ and I used to write about the
Olympic Games a long time ago. I’ve come to your time to find out about the present -day Olympic Games because I know that in 2004 they were held in my homeland. May I ask you some questions about the modern Olympics? L: Good heavens! Have you really come from so long ago? But of course you can ask any questions you like. What would you like to know? P: How often do you hold your Games? L: Every four years. There are two main sets of Games-the Winter and Summer Olympics, and both are held every four years on a regular basis. The Winter Olympics are usually held two years before the Summer Games. Only athletes who have reached the agreed standard for their event will be admitted as competitors. They may come from anywhere in the world. P: Winter Games? How can the runners enjoy competing in winter? And what about the horses? L: Oh no! There are no running races or horse riding events. Instead there are competitions like skiing and ice skating which need snow and ice. That’s why they’re called the Winter Olympics. It’s in the Summer Olympics that you have the running races, together with swimming, sailing and all the team sports. P: I see. Earlier you said that athletes are invited from all over the world. Do you mean the Greek world? Our Greek cities used to compete against each other just for the honour of winning. No other countries could join in, nor could slaves or women! L: Nowadays any country can take part if their athletes are good enough. There are over 250 sports and each on has its own standard. Women are not only allowed, but play a very important role in gymnastics, athletics, team sports and … P: Please wait a minute! All those events, all those countries and even women taking part! Where are all the athletes housed? L: For each Olympics, a special village is built for them to live in, a main reception building, several stadiums for competitions, and a gymnasium as well. P: That sounds very expensive. Does anyone want to host the Olympic Games?
L: As a matter of fact, every country wants the opportunity. It’s a great responsibility but also a great honour to be chosen. There’s as much competition among countries to host the Olympics as to win Olympic medals. The 2008 Olympics will be held in Beijing, China. Did you know that? P: Oh yes! You must be very proud. L: Certainly. And after that the 2012 Olympics will be held in London. They have already started planning for it. A new village for the athletes and all the stadiums will be built to the east of London. New medals will be designed of course and … P: Did you say medals? So even the olive wreath has been replaced! Oh dear! Do you compete for prize money too? L: No, we don’t. it’s still all about being able to run faster, jump higher and throw further. That’s the motto of the Olympics, you know-―Swifter, Higher and Stronger.‖ P: Well, that’s good news. How interesting! Thank you so much for your time. 大约 2000 年前的一个希腊作者帕萨尼亚斯(P)， 在 2007 年 3 月 18 日踏上了一段魔幻的旅 程去查明关于现代的奥林匹克运动会。他正在采访一个 2008 年奥林匹克运动会志愿者李岩 (L)。 P:我是帕萨尼亚斯。我住在你们所说的―古希腊‖而且在很久之前我常常写以一些关于奥林匹 克运动会的事情。 我来到你的时代是为了解关于现代奥林匹克运动会因为我知道 2004 年奥林 匹克运动会会在我家乡举办。我可以问你一些关于现代奥林匹克运动会的问题么？ L:真是极为愉快的事!你真的来自那么久远的时代么？不过当然你可以问你想问的问题。你想 知道什么？ P:你们多久会举办一次运动会？ L:四年一次。 有两种主要的运动会形式--冬季和夏季奥运会，并且在一个有规律的基础上他们 都是四年举办一次的。冬季奥运会一般会在夏季奥运会前两年举办。只有达到该项目既定的 标准的运动员才会被容许成为竞争者。他们可以来自世界各地。 P:冬季奥运会？田径运动员如何在冬季享受比赛？还有马术又怎样？ L:哦不!冬季奥运会没有赛跑和骑马的项目。反而会有一些像滑雪和溜冰这些需要雪和冰的项 目。这就是为什么他成为冬季奥运会。只有在夏季奥运会会有你说赛跑，同时还有游泳，帆 船运动和所有团队运动。
P:我懂了。之前你说那些运动员都被邀请来自世界各地。你了解希腊世界么？我们希腊城过 去互相竞赛只为胜利的荣誉。没有其他的地区可以参加，奴隶和妇女也不可以。 L:现在只要他们的运动员够好的话任何国家都可以参加。有超过 250 种项目并且每一种都有 它自己的标准。妇女不仅允许参加比赛，并且她们在体操比赛，竞技比赛，团队比赛和其他 各种比赛中都扮演着重要的角色。 P:麻烦稍等一下！所有的这些项目，所有的国民甚至妇女都可以参加！那么这些运动员们居 住在哪里？ L:在每一场奥运会前，一座特别的村庄会被建来给他们居住，还有一座主要的接待建筑，几 个用来比赛的体育场和一座体育馆等 P:那听起来很贵。有哪个国家会想要举办奥运会么？ L:事实上，每个国家都想要这个机会。这是一个很大的责任同样是一个很大的荣誉如果被挑 选到。在国家之间有很多竞争去为举办奥运会就像去赢得奥林匹克奖牌一样。2008 年的奥运 会将会在北京举行。这你知道么？ P:哦是的！你一定非常自豪。 L:当然。之后的 2012 年奥运会将在伦敦举行。他们早就开始为这个做准备了。一座让运动员 居住的村庄和所有的运动场将会被建在东伦敦。当然新的奖牌会被设计...... P:你是说奖牌么？所以甚至是橄榄花圈也已经被取代了！ 哦亲爱的！ 你们比赛也为了奖金么？ L:不我们不。现在仍然想要跑得更快跳的更高扔得更远。正如你知道的奥运会的格言-―更快 更高更强‖。 P:好吧，那是个好消息。多么有趣啊！耽搁你的时间，谢谢了。
THE STORY OF ATLANTA
Atlanta was a Greek princess. She was very beautiful and could run faster than any man in Greece. But she was not allowed to run and win glory for herself in the Olympic Games. She was so angry that she said to her father that she would not marry anyone who could not run faster than her. Her father said that she must marry, so Atlanta made a bargain with him. She said to him,"These are my rules. When a man says he wants to marry me, I will run against him. If he cannot run as fast as me, he will be killed. No one will be pardoned." Many kings and princes wanted to marry Atlanta, but when they heard of rules they knew it was hopeless. So many of them sadly went home, but others stayed to run the race. There was a man called Hippomenes who was amazed when he heard of Atlanta's rules,"Why are these men so
foolish?" he thought. "Why will they let themselves be killed because they cannot run as fast as this princess?" However, when she saw Atlanta come out of her house to run, Hippomenes changed his mind."I will marry Atlanta--or die!" he said. The race started and although the man ran very fast, Atlanta ran faster. As Hippomenes watched he thought, "How can I run as fast as Atlanta?" He went to ask the Greek Godness of Love for help. She promised to help him and gave him three golden apples. She said," Throw an apple in front of Atlanta when she is running past. When she stops to pick it up, you will be able to run past her and win." Hippomenes took the apples and went to the King. He said," I want to marry Atlanta ." The King was sad to see another man die, but Hippomenes said," I will marry her------or die!" So the race began. 亚特兰大是一个希腊公主。她很漂亮并且可以跑得比希腊的任何一个男人都快。不过她 不被允许在奥运会上跑步去为她自己赢得荣誉。她很生气因此她跟她父亲说她不会嫁任何跑 不过她的男人。她父亲说她必须要嫁，所以亚特兰大与她父亲定下一个条件。她对她父亲说， ―这是我的原则。如果有男人说想要嫁我，我会跟她赛跑。如果他跑不赢我，他会被杀。没有 人能被例外。‖ 很多国王和王子想要娶亚特兰大，不过当他们听到这个规定的时候他们就知道自己没希 望了。所以他们当中的很多人都伤心地回家了，不过其他的人都留着去赛跑。一个叫做希波 墨涅斯的男人听到亚特兰大的消息后感到非常惊奇，他想―为什么这些男的都这么愚蠢 呢？‖―为什么他们会因为跑不过这个公主而让自己被杀呢？‖然而，当他看到亚特兰大从她的 房子出来跑步的时候，希波墨涅斯改变了他的心意。他说，―我会娶亚特兰大或者死！‖ 赛跑开始的时候虽然男人们都跑得很快，但是亚特兰大总是会更快。希波墨涅斯边看边 想，―我要怎样才能赢过亚特兰大呢？‖他去向希腊的爱神求助。爱神答应帮他并给了他三个 金苹果。她说，―在亚特兰大跑过你的时候扔一个在亚特兰大面前。当亚特兰大停下来去捡苹 果的时候，你就可以跑过她并赢得比赛。‖希波墨涅斯拿着苹果并跑去找国王。他说，―我想 娶亚特兰大。‖国王伤心地看着又一个男人要死，不过希波墨涅斯说，―我会娶她或者死！‖然 后赛跑开始了。 Unit 3 第三单元 电脑 Computers WHO AM I ?我是谁
Over time I have been changed quite a lot. I began as a calculating machine in France in 1642.
Although I was young I could simplify difficult sums. I developed very slowly and it took nearly two hundred years before I was built as an analytical machine by Charles Babbage. After I was programmed by an operator who used cards with holes, I could ―think‖ logicall y and produce an answer quicker than any person. At that time it was considered a technological revolution and the start of my ―artificial intelligence‖. In 1936 my real father, Alan Turing, wrote a book about how I could be made to work as a ―universal machine‖ to solve any difficult mathematical problem. From then on, I grew rapidly both in size and in brainpower. By the 1949s I had grown as large as a room, and I wondered if I would grow any larger. However, this reality also worried my designers. As time went by, as was make smaller. First as a PC(personal computer) and then as a laptop, I have been used in offices and homes since the 1970s. These changes only became possible as my memory improved. First it was stored in tubes, then on transistors and later on very small chips. As a result I totally changed my shape. As I have grown older I have also grown smaller. Over time my memory has developed so much that, like an elephant, I never forget anything I have been told! And my memory became so large that even I couldn’t believe it! But I was always so lonely standing there by myself, until in early 1960s they gave me a family connected by a network. I was able to share my knowledge with others through the World Wide Web. Since the 1970s many new applications have been found for my. I have become very important in communication, finance and trade. I have also been put into robots and used to make mobile phones as well as help with medical operations. I have even been put into space rockets and sent to explore the Moon and Mars. Anyhow, my goal is to provide humans with a life of high quality. I am now truly filled with happiness that I am a devoted friend and helper of the human race! 随着时间的推移我被改变了很多。在 1642 年的法国，我是作为一个计算机器而开始的。 虽然我很年轻我可以简化一些计算题。在我被 Charles Babbage 改造成分析机器之前我很慢的 发展了接近两百年。之后我被一个操作员用带洞的卡调制成了可以合逻辑地思考并且比任何 人都快地得出一些问题的答案。那是一个被成为技术改革的时候并且开始了我的人造智能。 在 1936 年我真正的父亲 Alan Turing 写了一本关于我如何像普遍的机器一样去解决任何困难 的数学问题的书。从那起，我在体积和智能方面快速的发展。在 1940 年我变得像一个房间一 样大，并且我想知道我是否还能变得更大。然而，事实也在困扰着我的设计者。随着时间的 推移，我被制的更小。首先是个人电脑再到后来的手提电脑，在 1970 年我已经开始被用在办 公室和家里。 这些变化只因为我记忆力的增强。开始记忆被存放于电子管里，然后是晶体管和后来更 小的晶片。因此我改变了我的整个外型。随着我慢慢变老我也慢慢的变小。随着时间推移我 的记忆力发展的那么快，像头大象，我不会忘记任何我曾被告知的东西！而且我的记忆力变
得如此的大以至于我都不敢相信!不过我总是自己那么孤单的站在那里，直到 1960 年他们通 过网络给了我一个家庭关系。我能够通过万维网和其他的电脑分享我的知识。 从 1970 年起很多新的应用为我而被发明。我在交流，金融和贸易方面变得重要。我同样 被放进遥控装置中被用来制造移动电话也帮助医学手术。我已经被放进太空火箭并被送去探 测月亮和火星。即使如此，我的目的是为人们提供高质量的生活。我现在充满快乐应为我成 为了人类种族中的一个忠心的朋友和帮助者。 ANDY – THE ANDROID 机器人-Andy
I’m part of an android football team. About once a year we are allowed to get together to play a game of football. I’m as big as a human. It fact, I look like one too. On the football team I’m a striker so I have to be able to run very fast. My computer ships help me to move and think like a human. For example, I have learned to signal to my teammates in computer language to give me the ball when I am open and have a good for a goal. My first football competition was in Nagoya, Japan several years ago. Last year our team went to Seattle, Washington in the USA. We won second place. Personally, I think the team that won first place cheated. They had developed a new type of program just before the competition. So we need to encourage our programmer to improve our intelligence too. We are determined to create an even better system. In a way our programmer is like our coach. She programs us with all the possible moves she has seen while watching human games. Then she prepares reliable moves to use if a new situation arises. In this way I can make up new moves using my ―artificial intelligence‖. I could like to play against a human team, for I have been programmed to act just like them. After all, with the help of my electronic brain which never forgets anything, using my intelligence is what I’m all about! 我是一个机器人球队的一份子。我们被允许在一齐踢足球大约一年了。我像一个人类一 样高大。事实上，我长得也像人类。在球队里我是前锋因此我要跑得非常快。我的电脑芯片 帮助我移动并且像人类一样思考。例如，我已经学会了当我要开动去射一个好球的时候用电 脑语言向我的队友发信号让他们把球传给我。 我的第一场足球比赛是在几年前在日本的名古屋。去年我们球队去了美国华盛顿和西雅 图。我们胜利的第二个地方。就我个人观点，我认为我们球队第一次赢的地方是作弊的。他 们已经在比赛之前一种新的程序类型。所以我们也要促进我们的程序去提高我们的智能。我 们决心要去一种甚至更好的标志。一定程度上说我们的程序就像我们的教练。她训练我们所 有在人类比赛中她能看到的所有可能的动作。如果一种新情况出现她会准备可靠的动作去运 用。用这种方式我可以用我的―人造只能‖去制造新的动作。我能够被编程成像人类一样的表
Unit 4 第四单元 保护野生动物 Wildlife protection HOW DAISY LEARNED TO HELP WILDLIFE Daisy 如何学习去帮助野生动物 Daisy had always longed to help endangered species of wildlife. One day she woke up and found a flying carpet by her bed. ―Where do you want to go?‖ it asked. Daisy responded immediately. ―I’d like to see some endangered wildlife,‖ she said. ―Please take me to a distant land where I can find the animal that gave fur to make this sweater.‖ At once the carpet flew away and took her to Tibet. There daisy saw and antelope looking sad. It said, ―We’re being killed for the wool beneath our stomachs. Our fur is being used to make sweaters for people like you. As a result, we are now an endangered species.‖ At that Daisy cried, ―I’m sorry I didn’t know that. I wonder what is being done to help you. Flying carpet, please show me a place where there’s some wildlife protection.‖ The flying carpet traveled so fast that next minute they were in Zimbabwe. Daisy turned around and found that she was being watched by and elephant. ―Have you come to take my photo?‖ it asked. In relief Daisy burst into laughter. ―Don’t laugh,‖ said the elephant, ―We used to be an endangered species. Farmers hunted us without mercy. They said we destroyed their farms, and money from tourists only went to the large tour companies. So the government decided to help. They allowed tourists to hunt only a certain number of animals if they paid the farmers. Now the farmers are happy and our numbers are increasing. So good things are being done here to save local wildlife.‖ Daisy smiled, ―That’s good news. It shows the importance of wildlife protection, but I’d like to help as the WWF suggests.‖ The carpet rose again and almost at once they were in a thick rainforest. A monkey watched them as it rubbed itself. ―What are you doing?‖ asked Daisy. ―I’m protecting myself from mosquitoes,‖ it replied. When I find a millipede insect, I rub it over my body. It contains a powerful drug which affects mosquitoes. You should pay more attention to the rainforest where I live the appreciate how the animals live together. No rainforest, no animals, no drugs.‖ Daisy was amazed. ―Flying carpet, please take me home so I can tell WWF and we can begin producing this new drug. Monkey, please come and help.‖ The monkey agreed. The carpet flew home. As they landed, things began to disappear. Two minutes later everything had gone-the monkey, too. So Daisy was not able to make her new drug. But what an experience! She had learned so much! And there was always WWF…
Daisy 常常渴望去帮助濒临灭绝的种类的野生动物。一天她醒来发现一个正在飞行的飞毯 在她包里。―你想去哪里？‖它问。Daisy 立刻回答它。―我想去看那些濒临灭绝的动物，‖她说。 ―请带我去那个我可以找到供给皮毛去制造这件毛衣的动物的一个遥远的地方。‖飞毯立刻带 她飞去了西藏。在那里 Daisy 看到了一支看起来很伤心的羚羊。它说，―我们被杀是为了我们 肚子下的毛。我们的皮毛被人类用来制造像你这样的毛衣。因此，现在我们是一种濒临灭绝 的种类。‖然后 Daisy 哭喊着，―我很抱歉我不知道那些。我想知道什么可以被做来帮助你们。 飞毯，请带我去一个有一些野生动物保护区的地方。‖ 飞毯飞得如此的快以至于他们下一分钟就在 Zimbabwe。Daisy 转来转去然后发现她被一 头大象盯着。―你过来跟我照相了么？‖它问。Daisy 松了口气突然笑起来。―不要笑，‖大象说， ―我们曾经是濒临灭绝的品种。农民好不仁慈地猎杀我们。他们说我们破坏了他们的天地，和 来自那些只游览大工厂的游客的钱。所以政府决定去帮助。他们允许游客给钱农民然后可以 去猎杀确定数量的动物。现在农民很高兴而且我们的数量在增加。所以好事情正被做于营救 当地的野生动物。‖ Daisy 微笑了。―那是个好消息。它展示了野生动物保护的重要性，不过我喜欢去帮助像 WWF 这样的建议。‖飞毯再次升起然后几乎同一时间他们在一个阴霾的热带雨林。一支猴子 看着他们就像它摩擦它自己。―你在干什么？‖Daisy 问。―我在保护自己不受蚊子的伤害，‖它 回答。―当我找到一只千足虫昆虫，我会在我身上摩擦它。它包涵了一种强大的可以影响蚊子 的药物。你应该更加注意那些我居住的热带雨林并好好鉴赏动物们如何居住在一齐。没有雨 林，没有动物，没有药物。‖ Daisy 很惊讶。―飞毯，请带我回家这样我可以联系 WWF 并开始保护这种新的药物。猴 子，请过来帮忙。‖那猴子同意了。飞毯飞回家了。当他们降落时，事物开始消失了。两分钟 后所有东西都消失了-那只猴子也是。所以 Daisy 不能去制造她的新药物。不过如此的一段经 历！她已经学习了那么多东西！而且还有 WWF...... RENDING AND LISTENING 动物灭绝
Many animals have disappeared during the long history of the earth.The most famous of these animals are dinosaurs.They lived on the earth tens of millions of years ago, long before humans came into being and their future seemed secure at that time. There were many different kinds of dinosaur and a number of them used to live in China.The eggs
of twenty-five species have been found in Xixia,County,Nanyang, Henan Province.Not long ago a rare new species of bird-like dinosaur was discovered in Chaoyang County,Liaoning Province.When scientists inspeacted the bones,they were surprised to find that these dinosaurs could not only run like the others but also climb trees.They learned this from the way the bones were joined together. Dinosaurs died out suddenly about 65 million years ago. Some scientists think it came after an unexpected incident when a huge rock from space hit the earth and put too much dust into the air.Others think the earth got too hot for the dinosaurs to live on any more.Nobody knows for sure why and how dinosaurs disappeared from the earth in such a short time. We know many other wild plants, animals,insects and birds have died out more recently.According to a UN report,some 844 animals and plants have disappeared in the last 500 years.The dodo is one of them.It lived on the Island of Mauritius and was a very friendly animal.Please listen to a story of the dodo and how it disappeared frome the earth. 在地球漫长的历史中许多动物都消失了。其中最有名的动物是恐龙。他们几千万年前生活在 地球上，远远早于人类的出现，在当时他们的未来似乎是安全的。有许多不同种类的恐龙， 并且大量的恐龙以前生活在中国。已经有 25 种恐龙蛋在河南省南阳市西峡县被发现了。不久 前一种稀有的像鸟类的恐龙在辽宁省朝阳县被发现。当科学家们考察了骨头，他们惊讶地发 现，这些恐龙不仅可以像其它类恐龙那样跑，而且也能爬树。他们是从骨头的连接方式了解 到一点的。 约 65 万年前恐龙突然灭绝了。一些科学家认为它是突然到来的，当时一块太空巨石撞击 了地球并扬起了太多灰尘遮蔽了天空。也有人认为地球变得太热以至于不再适于恐龙生活。 没有人确切知道为什么和怎样恐龙在这么短的时间从地球上突然消失。 我们知道很多其他野生植物，动物，昆虫和鸟类最近已经灭绝。据联合国报告，在过去的 500 年大约 844 种动植物消失了。渡渡鸟是其中之一。它生活在毛里求斯岛，是一个非常友好的 动物。请听一个渡渡鸟故事，以及它是如何从地球上消失的。 Unit 5 第五单元 音乐 THE BAND THAT WASN'T 并非乐队的乐队 Have you ever wanted to be part of a band as a famous singer or musician? Have you ever dreamed of playing in front of thousands of people at a concert, at which everyone is clapping and appreciating your music? Do you sing karaoke and pretend you are a famous singer like Song Zuying or Lin Huan? To be honest, a lot of people attach great importance to becoming rich and
famous. But just how do people form a band? Many musicians meet and form a band because they like to write and play their own music. They may start as a group of high-school students, for whom practicing their music in someone’s hours is the first step to fame. Sometimes they may play to passers-by in the street or subway so that they can earn some extra money for themselves or to pay for their instruments. Later they may give performances in pubs or clubs, for which they are paid in cash. Of course they hope to make records in a studio and sell millions of copies to become millionaires! However, there was one band hat started in a different way. It was called the Monkees and began as a TV show. The musicians were to play jokes on each other as well as play music, most of which was based loosely on the beatles. The TV organizers had planned to find four musicians who could act as well as sing. They put an advertisement in a newspaper looking for rock musicians, but they could only find one who was good enough. They had to use actors for the other three members of the band. As some of these actors could not sing well enough, they had to rely on other musicians to help them. So during the broadcasts they just pretended to sing. Anyhow their performances were humorous enough to be copied by clubs in order to get more familiar with them. Each week on TV, the Mondees would play and sing songs written by other musicians. However, after a year or so in which they became more serious about their work, the Monkees started to play and sing their own songs like a real band. Then they produced their own records and started touring and play their own music. In the USA they became even more popular than the Beatles and sold even more records. The band broke up about 1970, but happily the reunited in the mid-1980s. they produced a new record in 1996, with which they celebrated their former time as a real band. 你曾经想过要成为一个乐队里有名的歌手或音乐家吗？你是否曾梦想过在音乐会上面对成千 上万的观众演唱，观众欣赏你的歌唱为你鼓掌吗？你唱卡拉 OK 时是否假装自己就是像宋祖 英或刘欢一样著名的歌星吗？说实在的，很多人把名和利看得很重。那么，人们又是怎样一 起组成乐队的呢？ 许多音乐家聚在一起组成乐队，是因为他们喜欢自己作曲，演奏自己的音乐。他们开始可 能是一组中学生，在某个人家里排练音乐是成名的第一步。有时他们可能在街上或地铁里为 过路人演奏，这样他们可以为自己或自己要买的乐器多挣一些钱。后来，他们可能在酒吧或 者俱乐部里演出，这样他们可以得到现金。当然，他们希望在录音棚里录音，然后卖掉上百 万张碟，从而成为百万富翁。 然而，也有一个用不同方式组建起来的乐队。这支乐队叫―门基乐队‖，它开始时是以电视 节目表演的形式出现的。组成乐队的音乐人演奏音乐，还彼此打趣都笑。这些玩笑和音乐大
多都在模仿―甲壳虫‖乐队。电视制作人原计划想寻找四位会唱又会表演的乐手。他们在报纸 上登了一则广告，想招摇滚乐手，但他们只招到一个满意的。乐队的其他三人只能用演员来 代替。 因为这些演员中有些人唱得不是很好，他们不得不依靠队里的其他人帮助。所以在演出 的时候他们只是假唱。不管怎样，他们的表演非常幽默以至于其他的乐队也开始模仿。他们 非常走红使得歌迷们为了更加熟悉他们而成立了俱乐部。门基乐队每个星期都要在电视上演 唱由别的音乐家创作的歌曲。然而，经过大约一年以后，门基乐队逐渐对自己的工作认真起 来，他们开始像一支真正的乐队那样演唱自己创作的歌曲。然后他们录制自己的唱片，并且 开始巡回表演他们自己的音乐。在美国，他们甚至比―甲壳虫‖乐队还要受欢迎，出售的录音 专辑还要多。―门基乐队‖大约在 1970 年左右解散，但是令人高兴的是，到 80 年代中期他们 再次聚首。在 1996 年，他们推出了一张新的专辑，像真正的乐队一样以此来庆祝他们以往的 时光。 FREDDY THE FROG(II) Not long after Freddy and the band became famous,they visited Britain on a brief tour.Fans showed their devotion by waiting for hours to get tichkets for their concerts.Freddy was now quite confident when he went into a concert hall.He enjoyed singing and all the congratulations afterwards!His most exciting invitation was to perform on a programme called "Top of the Pops."He had to go to London,wear an expensive suit and give a performance to a TV camera.It felt very strange.But as soon as the programme was over,the telephones which were in the same room started ringing.Everybody was asking when they could see Freddy and his band again. They were truly stars. Then things went wrong.Freddy and his band could not go out anywhere without being followed.Even when they wore sunglasses or beards people recognized them. Fans found them even when they went into the toilet.They tried to hide in the reading rooms of libraries,but it was useless.Someone was always there!Their personal life was regularly discussed by people who did not know them but talked as if they were close friends. At last feeling very upset and sensitive,Freddy and his band to which they were never to return,and went back to the lake. 在弗雷迪和乐队成名不久后,他们去英国旅游,年轻人都跑来看他们.歌迷们为了买到他们演唱 会的票等了几小时.现在当弗雷迪一走进礼堂时就觉得很自信,他爱好唱歌及接下来的喝彩！ 他 最冲动的一次邀请是在一个叫―风行之颠‖的节目里唱歌.那时他要去伦敦,穿贵西服在摄影机 前表演.那让人感到很奇怪,但节目一完,房里电话响了,人人都问何时再与弗雷迪和乐队见面, 他们真成明星了。
然而事情不是这样.若无人处处跟随,弗雷迪与乐队也不会离开.即使他们戴太阳镜或胡须 别人也能认出他们他们就是去厕所也会被歌迷发明.他们想藏在图书馆阅览室也没用,那里总 有人！ 他们的隐私常被陌生人谈论,但谈论起来好像他们是好朋友一样.弗雷迪和他的乐队终于 明白,他们应在还未觉得太痛苦之前就离开英国.所以他们离开英国再也不想回来他们又回到 湖里
必修 3 unit1 第一单元 Festivals around the world Festivals and celebrations 节日和庆典 Festivals and celebrations of all kinds have been held everywhere since ancient times.Most ancient festivals would celebrate the end of cold weather,planting in spring and harvest in autumn.Sometimes celebratewould be held after hunters had caught animals.At that time people would starve if food was difficult to find,especially during the cold winter months.Today’s festivals have many origins ,some religious,some seasonal, and some for special people or events. Festivals of the Dead Some festivals are held to honour the dead or to satisfy the ancestors,who might return either to help or to do harm.For the Japanese festival.Obon,people should go to clean graves and light incense in memory of their ancestors.They also light lamps and play music because they think that this will lead the ancestors back to earth.In Mexico,people celebrate the Day of the Dead in early November.On this impoutant feast day,people eat food in the shape of skulls and cakes with‖bones‖on them.They offer food,flowers and gifts to the dead.The Western holiday Halloween also had its origin in old beliefs about the return of the spirits of dead people. It is now a children’s festival,when they can dress up and to to their neighbours’homes to ask for sweets.Ifthe neighbours do not give any sweets,the children might play a trick on them. Festivals to Honour People Festivals can also be held to honour famous people .The Dragon Boat Festival in China honours the famous ancient poet,Qu Yuan.In the USA Columbus Day is in memory of the arrival of Christopher Columbus in New World.India has a national festival on October 2 to honour Mohandas Gandhi,the leader who helped gain India’s independence from Britain.
Harvest Festivals Harvest and Thanksgiving festivals can be very happy events.People are grateful because their food is gathered for the winter and the agricultural work is over.In European countries,people will usually decorate churches and town halls with flowers and fruit,and will get together to have meals.Some people might win awards for their farm produce,like the biggest watermelon or the most handsome rooster.China and Japan have mid-autumn festivals,when people admire the moon and in China,enjoy mooncakes. Spring Festivals The most energetic and important festivals are the ones that look forward to the end of winter and to the coming of spring.At the Spring Festival in China,people eat dumplings,fish and meat and may give children lucky money in red paper.There are dragon dances and carnivals,and families celebrate the Lunar New Year together.Some Western countries have very exciting carnivals,which take place forty days before Easter,usually in February.These carnivals might include parades,dancing in the streets day and night,loud music and colourful clothing of all kinds.Easter is an important religious and social festival for Christians aroud the world.It celebrates the return of Jesus from the dead and the coming of spring and new life.Japan’s Cherry Blossom Festival happens a little later.The country, covered with cherry tree flowers, looks as thought it is covered with pink snow. People love to get together to eat , drink and have fun with each other.Festivals let us enjoy life,be proud of our customs and forget our work for a little while 自古以来，世界各地就有各种各样的节目和庆典。大多数古老的节日总是庆祝严寒的结 束，春季的种植和秋天的收割。有时，在猎人捕获猎物后，也举行庆祝活动。在那个时代， 如果食物难以找到，特别是在寒冷的冬月，人们就会挨饿，现在的节日有很多由来，一些是 宗教上的，一些是季节性的，一些是纪念特殊的人和事件的。 亡灵节 些节目是为了纪念死者，或使祖先得到满足，因为祖先们有可能回到世上（给人们）提 供帮助，也有可能带来危害。在日本盂兰盆节，人们要扫墓、烧香，以缅怀祖先。人们还点 起灯笼，奏响乐曲，因为他们一位这样做可以把祖先引到世上。在墨西哥，亡灵节是在月初。 在这个重要的节日里，人们会吃制成颅骨形状的食物，和装点有 ―骨头‖的蛋糕。他们向亡者 祭献食物、鲜花和礼品。西方的万圣节也源自人们古老的信念，以为亡者的灵魂会返回人间。 万圣节如今成了孩子们的节目，这天他们可以乔装打扮上邻居家要糖吃。如果邻居什么糖也
不给，那么孩子们就可以捉弄他们了。 纪念名人的节目 也有纪念名人的节目。中国的端午节（龙舟节） ，是纪念古代著名诗人屈原的。美国的哥 伦布日是纪念克里托斯．哥伦布发现―新大陆‖的日子。印度在 10 月 2 日有个全国性的节目， 纪念莫汉达斯．甘地，他是帮助印度脱离英国而独立的领袖。 庆丰收的节日 收获与感恩节是非常喜庆的节目。越冬的粮食收集起来了，农活结束了，人们都心怀感 激。在欧洲国家，人们通常用花果来装饰教堂和市政厅，在一起聚餐。有些人还可能因为他 们的农产品（参加各种评选）而获奖，比如最大的西瓜或最帅的公鸡。中国和日本都有中秋 节，这时，人们会赏月。在中国，人们还品尝月饼。 春天的节日 最富生气的而又最重要的节日，就是告别冬天，迎来春天的日子。中国人过春节要吃饺 子、鱼和肉，还要给孩子们送红纸包着的压岁钱。 （他们）舞龙灯、狂欢，全家人聚在一起欢 庆阴历年。在一些西方国家有激动人心的狂欢节，通常在二月，复活节前的四十天。狂欢节 期间，人们身着各种艳丽的节日盛装，伴随着鼓噪的音乐，在街头游行，昼夜跳舞。复活节 是全世界基督教徒的一个重要的宗教和公众节日。它庆祝耶稣复活，也庆祝春天和新生命的 到来。在晚些时候，日本就迎来了樱花节， （节日里）整个国度到处是盛开的樱花，看上去就 像是覆盖了一层粉红色的雪。 人们喜欢聚在一起吃、喝、玩耍。节日让我们享受生活，让我们为自己的习俗而自豪， 还可以暂时忘掉工作中的烦恼。
A SAD LOVE STORY 一段伤心的爱情故事
Li Fang was heart-broken.It was Valentine’s Day and Hu Jin had said she would meet him at the coffee shop after work. But she didn’t turn up. She could be with her friends right now laughing at him.She said she would be there at seven o’clock, and he thought she would keep her word. He had looked forward to meeting her all day, and now he was alone with his roses and chocolates, like a fool. Well, he was not going to hold his breath for her to apologize. He would drown his sadness in coffee. It was obvious that the manager of the coffee shop was waiting for Li Fang to leave-he wiped the tables, then sat down and turned on the TV-just what Li Fang needed! A sad Chinese story about
lost love. The granddaughter of the Goddess of Heaven visted the earth. Her name was Zhinü ,the weaving girl. While she was on earth she met the herd boy Niulang and they fell in love.(―Just like me and Hu Jin,‖thought Li Fang.)They got married secretly, and they were very happy.(―We could be like that,‖thought Li Fang.)When the Goddess of Heaven knew that her granddaughter was married to a human, she became very angry and made the weaving girl return to Heaven.Niulang tried to follow her, but the river of stars,the Milly Way, stopped him.Finding that Zhinü was heart-broken, her grandmother finally decided to let the couple cross the Milky Way to meet once a year. Magpies make a bridge of their wings so the couple can cross the river to meet on the seventh day of the seventh lunar month. People in China hope that the weather will be fine on that day, because if it is raining, it means that Zhinü is weeping and the couple won’t be able to meet. The announcer said,‖This is the story of Qiqiao Festival.When foreigners hear about the story, they call it a Chinese Valentine’s story.It’s a fine day today, so I hope you can all meet the one you love.‖ As Li Fang set off for home, he thought,‖I guess Hu Jin doesn’t love me .I’ll just throw these flowers and chocolates away. I don’t want them to remind me of her.‖ So he did. As he sadly passed the tea shop on the corner on his way home, he heard a voice calling him. There was Hu Jin waving at him and calling , ―why are you so late?I’ve been waiting for you for a long time!And I have a gift for you!‖ What would he do? He had thrown away her Valentine gifts!She would never forgive him. This would not be a happy Valentine’s Day! 李方的心都碎了。这天是情人节，胡瑾说她下班后会在咖啡馆和他见面的。可现在她却 不见人影。也许她这会儿跟朋友在一起，正在取笑他呢。她说她会 7 点到达，他（李方）认 为她会守信用的。他一整天都期盼着见到她，而现在他拿着玫瑰花和巧克力独自一人守候着， 像个傻瓜一样。他不想屏息等她来道歉，他要用咖啡来解愁。 很明显，咖啡馆里的经理在等李方离开——他擦好桌子，然后坐下来，打开电视机。这 正合了李方的意！正在播出的是流传在中国的一个悲伤的爱情故事。 王母娘娘的外孙女下凡来到人间。她的名字叫织女，做纺织活的女孩。她在人间遇到了 牛郎，两人相爱了。 （李方想：―这正像我和胡瑾。‖）于是他们秘密结了婚，并且生活得非常 幸福。 （李方想：―我们也可以像他们那样幸福的。‖）当王母娘娘知道自己的外孙女跟一个世
上的凡人结了婚，她勃然大怒，强行把织女带回到天宫。牛郎试图追随上去，却被银河阻挡 住了。看到织女伤心的欲绝，最后王母娘娘决定让这对夫妻每年跨过银河相会一次。阴历七 月七日，喜鹊们会展翅搭桥，让这对恋人过河相会。中国人都希望这天天气晴朗，因为如果 碰到下雨，这就意味着织女在哭泣，两个恋人不能见面。 支持人说道：―这就是乞巧节的故事。外国朋友听到这个故事就将它称作中国的情人节故 事。今天天气晴朗，我希望你们都能见到所爱的人。‖ 李方动身往家走，心里想：―我想胡瑾是不爱我了，就把这些鲜花和巧克力都扔了吧。我 不想因它们想起她来。‖于是他把花和巧克力都扔了。 在回家的路上，他神情失落地走过拐角处的一家茶馆，听到有人叫他的名字。那是胡瑾 在向他招手，她喊道：―你为什么这么晚才来呢？我在这等你好久了！我有礼物送给你！‖ 他怎么办呢？他把情人节的礼物都扔了！她恐怕永远也不会原谅他了。这个情人节快乐不起 来啦！
必修 3 UNIT2 第二单元 Healthy eating
COME AND EAT HERE (1) 到这儿来用餐吧（1）
Wang Peng sat in his empty restaurant feeling very frustrated. It had been a very strange morning. Usually he got up early and prepared his menu of barbecued mutton kebabs, roast pork, stir-flied vegetables and fried rice. Then by lunchtime they would all be sold. By now his restaurant ought to be full of people. But not today! Why was that? What could have happened? He thought of his mutton, beef and bacon cooked in the hottest, finest oil. His cola was sugary and cold, and his ice cream was made of milk, cream and delicious fruit. "Nothing could be better," he thought. Suddenly he saw his friend Li Chang hurrying by. "Hello, Lao Li," he called. "Your usual?" But Li Chang seemed not to hear. What was the matter? Something terrible must have happened if Li Chang was not coming to eat in his restaurant as he always did. Wang Peng followed Li Chang into a new small restaurant. He saw a sign in the window. Tired of all that fat? Want to lose weight? Come inside Yong Hui’s slimming restaurant. Only slimming foods served here.
Make yourself thin again! Curiosity drove Wang Peng inside. It was full of people. The hostess, a very thin lady, came forward. "Welcome," she said. "My name is Yong Hui. I'll help you lose weight and be fit in two weeks if you eat here every day." Then she gave a menu to Wang Peng. There were few choices of food and drink on it: just rice, raw vegetables served in vinegar, fruit and water. Wang Peng was amazed at this and especially at the prices. It cost more than a good meal in his restaurant! He could not believe his eyes. He threw down the menu and hurried outside. On his way home he thought about his own menu. Did it make people fat? Perhaps he should go to the library and find out. He could not have Yong Hui getting away with telling people lies! He had better do some research! At the library Wang Peng was surprised to find that his restaurant served far too much fat and Yong Hui’s far too little. Even though her customers might get thin after eating Yong Hui’s food, they were not eating enough energy-giving food to keep them fit. They would become tired very quickly. Wang Peng felt more hopeful as he drove back home. Perhaps with a discount and a new sign he could win his customers back. So he wrote: Want to feel fit and energetic? Come and eat here! Discounts today! Our food gives you energy all day! The competition between the two restaurants was on! 到这里来用餐吧（1） 王鹏做在他那空荡荡的餐馆里，感到很沮丧。这个上午真是怪的很。通常他很早就起床， 准备他的菜肴—烤羊肉串、烤猪肉、炒菜和炒饭。然后到午饭时分，这些菜都会卖完。到了 这个时候，他的餐馆本该宾客盈门的，但今天却不是！为什么会这样？发生了什么事？他想 起了他用滚烫的精制油烹制的羊肉串、牛排和腊肉。他的可乐又甜又冷，冰激凌用牛奶、奶 油和水果制成的。他想： “再没有比这些更好吃的了” 。突然间，他看到自己的朋友李昌匆匆 地走过。 他喊道， “喂， 老李！ 你还是吃老一套的吧？” 可是李昌似乎没有听到。 怎么会事呢？ 要是李昌不像往常那样到他店里吃饭，那问题一定严重了。 王鹏跟着李昌来到街尾一家新开张的小餐馆。窗子上的标牌写着这样一些字： “肥腻的东 西吃厌了吧！想变瘦吗？请到雍慧减肥餐馆来。此地只供应减肥食品，让你恢复苗条！ ” 王鹏受到好奇心的驱使，走了进去。里面坐满了人。店老板，一个清瘦的女人走上前来 说道： “欢迎光临！我叫雍慧。您要是每天来这儿用餐，我可以保证在两周内去掉您的全部脂 肪， ”然后，她递给王鹏一张菜谱，菜谱上有很少几样食物和饮料：米饭、蘸醋吃的生蔬菜、 水果和水。王鹏对此感到吃惊，特别是对它们的价格。这比在他的餐馆里吃一顿好饭花的钱 还要多。他几乎不能相信他的眼睛！他甩了菜谱就急急往外走。在回家的路上，他想起了自
己的菜谱。那些菜让人发胖了吗？也许他该去图书馆查查看。他可不能让雍慧哄骗人们后跑 掉。他最好做一番调查！ 在图书馆，王鹏很惊讶地发现，他餐馆的食物脂肪含量太高，而雍慧餐馆的食物脂肪含 量又太低。尽管顾客吃她的餐馆里的饭会变得苗条，但他们摄取不到足够的热量来保持健康， 很快就会感到疲乏。开车回家时，王鹏觉得又有了希望。也许写个新的标牌、打点折，能够 帮他赢回顾客！于是他写下了他的标牌： “想保持苗条、健康又精力旺盛吗？ 到这里来用餐吧！今天打折！ 我们的食物能够给您提供一整天所需的热量！ ” 这两家餐馆之间的竞争开始了！
COME AND EAT HERE(2) A week later, Wang Peng' s restaurant was nearly full and he felt happier. Perhaps he would be able to earn his living after all and not have to close his restaurant. He did not look forward to being in debt because his restaurant was no longer popular. He smiled as he welcomed some customers warmly at the door but the smile left his face when he saw Yong Hui walking in. She did not look happy but glared at him. " May I ask what you were doing in my restaurant the other day? I thought you were a new customer and now I know that you only came to spy on me and my menu," she shouted. " Please excuse me," he calmly explained," I wanted to know where all my customers had gone last week. I followed one of them and found them in your restaurant. I don' t want to upset you, but I found your menu so limited that I stopped worrying and started advertising the benefits of my food. Why don' t you sit down and try a meal?" Yong Hui agreed to stay and soon they were both enjoying dumplings and breast of chicken cooked with garlic. When they were served the ice cream,Yong Hui began to look ill. "I feel sick with all this fat and heavy food,"she said,"I miss my vegetables and fruit. "Wang Peng was enjoying a second plate of dumplings so he sighed. " Yes," he added," and I would miss my dumplings and fatty pork. Don't you get tired quickly?""Well,I do have to rest a lot,"admitted Yong Hui. "But don't you think it would be better if you were a bit thinner? I’m sure you ' d feel much healthier. " They began to talk about menus and balanced diets. " According to my research, neither your restaurant nor mine offers a balanced diet," explained Wang Peng. " I don' t offer enough fibre and you don' t offer enough body-building and energy-giving food. Perhaps we ought to combine our
ideas and provide a balanced menu with food full of energy and fibre. " So that is what they did. They served raw vegetables with the hamburgers and boiled the potatoes rather than frying them. They served fresh fruit with the ice cream. In this way they cut down the fat and increased the fibre in the meal. Their balanced diets became- such a success that before long Wang Peng became slimmer and Yong Hui put on more weight. After some time the two found that their business cooperation had turned into a personal one. Finally they got married and lived happily ever after! 到这里来用餐吧（2） 一周后，王鹏的餐馆几乎坐满了人，他感到高兴些了。也许他仍然能够谋生，而不至于 关闭自己的餐馆。他不希望由于餐馆不受欢迎而负债。他微笑地站在门口热情地迎接他的客 人。但他一见到雍慧走进来，脸上的笑容马上就消失了。雍慧瞪着他，看上去不太高兴。 “请 问你那天到我餐馆里来干什么？”她大声问道， “我本来以为你是一位新顾客，现在我才发现 你只是过来打探我和我的菜谱的。 ”王鹏心平气和地解释说， “很对不起，上周我想知道我的 顾客是上哪儿吃饭去了。我并不想让你心烦，不过我发现你的菜谱上的菜太少了，所以我也 就不着急了，我也开始宣传我餐馆食物的好处。你为什么不坐下吃顿饭呢？” 雍慧同意留下来。没过一会，他们两人就津津有味地吃起饺子和蒜蓉及胸。当要吃冰激 凌时，雍慧开始感到不舒服了。她说， “吃了这么多油腻的、难消化的食物，我都觉得恶心了。 我想吃我的蔬菜和水果。 ”这时候，王鹏正在吃第二盘饺子，他叹了一口气，说道， “同样地， （如果在你的餐馆）我还想吃我的饺子和肥肉呢。你不觉得自己很容易疲乏么？” “是的，我 的确经常需要休息； ”雍慧承认了， “不过，难道你不认为你瘦一点更好么？我相信，那样你 会觉得更健康些。 ” 他们开始谈论菜谱和平衡膳食的问题。王鹏解释道， “我的研究表明，你我两家所提供的 都不是平衡膳食。我没有提供足够的纤维食物，而你提供的食物没有足够的营养和热量。也 许我们应该把我们的想法综合起来，作出一份富于营养、热量和纤维的平衡食谱。 ”于是，他 们就照此做了。他们用生蔬菜配汉堡包，煮土豆不是油炸土豆，还拿新鲜水果配上冰激凌。 这样，他们减少了饭菜中的脂肪含量，增加了纤维素。他们的平衡食谱非常有效，王鹏很快 就瘦了，而雍慧却胖了，过了不久，这两个人发现，他们生意上的合作变成了私人的合作了。 最后，他们结了婚，过上了幸福美满的生活。
必修 3 Unit 3 第三单元 The Million Pound Bank Note
THE MILLION POUND BANK NOTE 百万英镑
Act I, Scene 3 NARRATOR: It is the summer of 1903. Two old and wealthy brothers, Roderick and Oliver, have made a bet. Oliver believes that with a million pound bank note a man could survive a month in London. His brother Roderick doubts it. At this moment, they see a penniless young man wandering on the pavement outside their house. It is Henry Adams, an American businessman, who is lost in London and does not know what he should do. RODERICK: HENRY: RODERICK: OLIVER: HENRY: SERVANT: OLIVER: RODERICK: HENRY: OLIVER: HENRY: RODERICK: HENRY: RODERICK: HENRY: RODERICK: HENRY: RODERICK: HENRY: OLIVER: HENRY: OLIVER: HENRY: Young man, would you step inside a moment, please? Who? Me, sir? Yes, you. Through the front door on your left. (A servant opens a door) Thanks. Good morning, sir. Would you please come in? Permit me to lead the way, sir. (Henry enters) Thank you, James. That will be all. How do you do, Mr ... er ...? Adams. Henry Adams. Come and sit down, Mr Adams. Thank you. You're an American? That's right, from San Francisco. How well do you know London? Not at all, it's my first trip here. I wonder, Mr Adams, if you'd mind us asking a few questions. Not at all. Go right ahead. May we ask what you're doing in this country and what your plans are? Well, I can't say that I have any plans. I'm hoping to find work. As a matter of How is that possible? Well, you see, back home I had my own boat. About a month ago, I was Well, go on. Oh, yes. Well, towards nightfall I found myself carried out to sea by a strong
fact, I landed in Britain by accident.
sailing out of the bay ... (his eyes stare at what is left of the brother's dinner on table)
wind. It was all my fault. I didn't know whether I could survive until morning. The next morning I'd just about given myself up for lost when I was spotted by a ship. OLIVER: HENRY: And it was the ship that brought you to England. Yes. The fact is that I earned my passage by working as an unpaid hand, which
accounts for my appearance. I went to the American embassy to seek help, but ... (The brothers smile at each other.) RODERICK: Well, you mustn't worry about that. It's an advantage. HENRY: HENRY: HENRY: OLIVER: HENRY: I'm afraid I don't quite follow you, sir. I worked for a mining company. Could you offer me some kind of work here? Well, to be honest, I have none. (happily) What luck! Brother, what luck! (claps his hands together) Well, it may seem lucky to you but not to me! On the contrary, in fact. If this RODERICK: Tell us, Mr Adams, what sort of work did you do in America? RODERICK: Patience, Mr Adams. If you don't mind, may I ask you how much money you have?
is your idea of some kind of joke, I don't think it's very funny. (Henry stands up to leave) Now if you'll excuse me, I think I'll be on my way. RODERICK: OLIVER: HENRY: RODERICK: HENRY: HENRY: Mr Adams out. OLIVER: HENRY: SERVANT: HENRY: Good luck, Mr Adams. Well, why don't you explain what this is all about? This way, sir. Promise. Goodbye. Please don't go, Mr Adams~ You mustn't think we don't care about you. Oliver, Yes, the letter. (gets it from a desk and gives it to Henry like a gift) The letter. (taking it carefully) For me? For you. (Henry starts to open it) Oh, no, you mustn't open it. Not yet. You can't Oh, this is silly. Oh, no. I don't want your charity. I just want an honest job. give him the letter.
open it until two o'clock. RODERICK: Not silly. There's money in it. (calls to the servant) James? RODERICK: We know you're hard-working. That's why we've given you the letter. James, show
RODERICK: You'll soon know. (looks at the clock) In exactly an hour and a half. RODERICK: Mr Adams, not until 2 o'clock. Promise?
THE MILLION POUND BANK NOTE Act I, Scene 4 (Outside a restaurant Henry looks at the envelope without opening it and decides to go in. He sits down at a table next to the front window.) OWNER: (seeing Henry's poor appearance) That one's reserved. This way, please. (to the waiter)
Take this gentleman's order, Horace. HENRY: WAITER: HENRY: WAITER: HOSTESS: OWNER: HENRY: WAITER: HENRY: WAITER: OWNER: WAITER: HENRY: WAITER: OWNER: HENRY: OWNER: customers. HENRY: (looking at the clock on the wall again) Well, I see it's two o'clock. (he opens the envelope and holds a million pound bank note in his hands. Henry is surprised but the owner and waiter are shocked) I'm very sorry. But ... I ... I don't have anything smaller. OWNER: genuine? HOSTESS: OWNER: Oh, dear, I don't know. I simply don't know. Well, I did hear that the Bank of England had issued two notes in this amount ... (still shocked and nervous) Well .. er ... just one moment. Maggie, look! (the hostess screams, the other customers look at her and she puts a hand to her mouth) Do you think it's (after sitting down and putting the letter on the table) I'd like some ham and eggs and dessert. Right, sir. I'm afraid it'll cost a large amount of money. I understand. And I'll have a large glass of beer. OK. (The waiter leaves and soon returns with all the food.) My goodness! Why, look at him. He eats like a wolf. We'll see if he's clever as a wolf, eh? (having just finished every bit of food) Ah, waiter. (waiter returns) Same thing again, Again? Everything? Yes, that's right. (sees the look on the waiter's face) Anything wrong? No, not at all. (to the owner) He's asked for more of the same. Well, it is well-known that Americans like to eat a lot. Well, we'll have to take a (reading the bill after the meal) All right. That's two orders of ham and eggs, two extra (looking at the clock on the wall) Would you mind waiting just a few minutes? (in a rude manner) What's there to wait for? All right, Horace. I'll take care of this. (to owner) That was a wonderful meal. It's amazing how much pleasure you get out of Yes, very interesting. Now perhaps, sir, if you pay your bill I can help the other a nice big steak. Make it extra thick. I'd also like a cup of coffee and a pineapple
please. Oh, and another beer.
chance. Go ahead and let him have it. thick steaks, two large glasses of beer, two cups of coffee and two desserts.
tile simple things in life, especially if you can't have them for a while.
Anyway, I don't think it can be a fake. People would pay too much attention to a bank note of this amount. No thief would want that to happen. HOSTESS: But he's in rags! OWNER: Perhaps he's a very strange, rich man. (as if he has discovered something for the first time) Why, yes! That must be it!
HOSTESS: (hits her husband's arm) And you put him in the back of the restaurant! Go and see him at once. OWNER: HENRY: OWNER: HENRY: OWNER: HENRY: OWNER: (to Henry) I'm so sorry, sir, so sorry, but I cannot change this bank note. But it's all I have on me. Oh, please, don't worry, sir. Doesn't matter at all. We're so very glad that you even Well, that's very kind of you. Kind, sir? No, it's kind of you. You must come whenever you want and have whatever Forget it? Well ... thank you very much. That's very nice of you. Oh, it's for us to thank you, sir and I do, sir, from the bottom of my heart. (The owner,
entered our little eating place. Indeed, sir, I hope you'll come here whenever you like.
you like. Just having you sit here is a great honour! As for the bill, sir, please forget it.
hostess and waiter all bow as Henry leaves.) 第一幕，第 3 场 旁白：1903 年的夏天。一对年老又富有的兄弟，罗德里克和奥利弗，打了一个赌。奥利弗认 为，一个人靠一张百万英镑的钞票在伦敦能活一个月。他的兄弟罗德里克对此表示怀疑。这 时，他们看见一个身无分文的年轻人在房子外面的人行道上游荡。他叫亨利．亚当斯，一个 美国商人，在伦敦迷了路，不知道该怎么办。 罗德里克：年轻人，请进来一会儿，好吗？ 亨 利：先生，你叫谁来呀？是叫我吗？ 罗德里克：是的，就是你。 奥利弗：从你左侧的前门进来。 亨 利： （仆人给他打开门）谢谢。 仆 人：早上好，先生，请进。先生，请让我来带路吧。 奥利弗： （亨利走进来）谢谢你，詹姆斯，没你的事了。 罗德里克：你好，先生，你贵姓？ 亨 利：亚当斯，亨利．亚当斯。 奥利弗：来，请坐，亚当斯先生。 亨 利：谢谢。 罗德里克：你是美国人？ 亨 利：是的，从旧金山来。
罗德里克：你对伦敦熟悉吗？ 亨 利：一点儿也不熟，这是我第一次来伦敦。 罗德里克：亚当斯先生，不知你是否介意我们问几个问题？ 亨 利：不介意，请问吧。 罗德里克：可不可以问问，你在这个国家干点儿什么？你的计划又是什么呢？ 亨 利：嗯，谈不上有什么计划，我希望能找到工作。事实上，我在英国上岸是偶然的。 奥利弗：这怎么可能呢？ 亨 利：嗯，你看，在美国的时候，我有我自己的船。大约一个月前，我开船驶出海湾……（他 的眼睛盯着兄弟俩留在餐桌上的残羹剩菜上） 。 罗德里克：往下说呀。 亨 利：哦，好的。嗯，傍晚时分我发现我被一阵大风刮到海上去了。这都是我的错。我不知 道是否能活到早晨。第二天早上，我正感到绝望的时候，一艘海船发现了我。 罗德里克：正是那艘船把你带到了英国。 亨 利：是的。事实上我靠做义工来顶替船费。这就是我为什么衣冠不整的原因了。我上美国 大使馆求助，但是……（兄弟俩相顾而笑） 。 罗德里克：嗯，这一点你倒不必担心，这还是优点呢。 亨 利：对不起，先生，你的话我没有听懂。 奥利弗：亚当斯先生，请你告诉我们，你在美国干哪个行当？ 亨 利：我在一家矿业公司工作。你们能不能给我提供一份工作呢？ 罗德里克：耐心点儿，亚当斯先生，如果你不介意，我能不能问问，你手头儿有多少钱？ 亨 利：嗯，老实说，我一分钱都没有了。 奥利弗： （高兴地）老兄，真走运！真有运气！ （鼓起掌来） 亨 利：嗯，这对你们来说可能是运气，但对我来说可不是。事实上，正好相反。如果你们认 为这是一个笑话，我可不觉得很好笑。 （亨利起身准备走）好了，请原谅，我想我该上路了。 罗德里克：亚当斯先生，请别走。你千万不要以为我们不在意你的感受。奥利弗，把信给他。 奥利弗：是，那封信。 （从桌上把信拿起来，像送礼品一样递给亨利）给你信。
亨 利： （小心翼翼地接过信）是给我吗？ 罗德里克：是给你的。 （亨利要拆信）啊，别拆，你不要拆，现在不是时候，到两点钟你才能 打开。 亨 利：噢，这真可笑。 罗德里克：这不可笑，这里边有钱呢。 （叫仆人）詹姆斯？ 亨 利：噢，不，我不需要你们的施舍，我只要一份老老实实的工作。 罗德里克：我们知道你工作是很卖力的，这正是我们给你这封信的原因。詹姆斯，请送亚当 斯先生出去。 奥利弗：祝你好运，亚当斯先生。 亨 利：嗯，怎么不给我讲讲，这究竟是什么回事呢？ 罗德里克：你很快就会明白的， （看看钟）一个半小时以后。 仆 人：请这边走，先生。 罗德里克：亚当斯先生，两点钟以前不要拆信，答应吗？ 亨 利：答应，谢谢。再见！ — — Using Language — — 第一幕，第 4 场 （在餐馆外边，亨利看了看那封信的信封，没有打开，然后决定走进餐馆。他在靠近前边 窗户的一张桌子旁坐了下来） 店 主： （看看亨利的那幅穷酸相）那张桌子有人订了。请到这边来。 （对服务员）霍勒斯，来 等先生点菜。 亨 利： （坐定之后，把信放在桌上）我要火腿加鸡蛋，还来一块大牛排，要特厚的。我还要 一杯咖啡，一份菠萝甜点。 服务员：好的，先生。恐怕这得花费一大笔钱。 亨 利：我明白。我还要一大杯啤酒。 服务员：行。 （服务员离开了，很快把所有的食物端上来） 女老板：天哪！你看他，吃起东西来就像头狼。
店主：瞧着吧，看他是不是像狼一样机灵？ 亨利： （刚吃完了所有的东西）喂，服务员。 （服务员过来了）同样的东西请再来一份，呃， 再来一大杯啤酒。 服务员：每样东西都再来一份吗？ 亨利：是，没错。 （看着服务员脸上的神色）有什么不对吗？ 服务员：不，没什么不对。 （对店主）他再要一份同样的食物。 店主：嗯，许多美国人喜欢吃得多，这是大家都知道的。哦，我们得冒点儿风险。去吧，让 他吃吧。 服务员： （饭后念账单）好了。两份火腿家鸡蛋，两份特厚的牛排，两大杯啤酒，两杯咖啡和 两份甜点。 亨利： （望着墙上的挂钟）请等几分钟号码？ 服务员： （很不耐烦地）还等什么？ 店主：霍勒斯，行啦，这儿由我来照应。 亨利： （对店主）这餐饭吃得真棒。从生活中如此简单的东西之中竟能得到这么大的乐趣，真 是令人吃惊，特别是当你暂时吃不到这些东西的时候。 店主：是的，很有意思。如果你现在能付账的话，我就可以去照顾别的顾客了。 亨利： （又望着墙上的挂钟）好了，我看两点钟到了。 （他把信封拆开，那车一张百万英镑的 钞票。亨利感到吃惊，店主和服务员惊呆了）很抱歉，我……我……我没有小一点儿的钞票。 店主： （还在发呆，而且有点儿紧张）好……嗯……，等一会儿。玛吉，来瞧瞧！ （女老板尖 叫起来，其他顾客都望着她，于是，她用手捂住了嘴巴）你看这张钞票是真的吗？ 女老板：天哪，我不知道。我真不知道。 店主：嗯，我确实听说过英格兰银行发行了两张这样面值的钞票……不管怎样，我觉得这不 可能是假钞。这么大面值的钞票会特别引人注意的。小偷可不想引起别人的注意。 女老板：但是他穿得破破烂烂的！ 店主：也许他十一哥非常怪异而富有的人。 （如梦初醒似的）啊，对了，一定是这样的。 女老板： （在她丈夫的手臂上打了一下）是你把他带到餐厅后面去的，还不马上去看看他。
店主： （对亨利）先生，对不起，非常对不起，这张钞票我们找不开。 亨利：而我身上就只带了这张钞票。 店主：哎呀，先生，请别着急，一点儿也没关系。我们非常高兴你能走进我们这家小吃店。 先生，真的，我希望您随时光临。 亨利：这，你太好了。 店主：我太好了？不，先生，是您太好了。您什么时候想来就来，想吃什么就吃什么。您就 是在这儿坐一下也是我们莫大的荣幸！至于说账单嘛，先生，请把它忘了吧。 亨利：忘了它？喔……，那就太谢谢了。你太好了。 店主：啊，先生，该是我们谢谢您呢。先生，我从心底里感谢您。 （当亨利离开的时候，店主、女老板和服务员都一齐向他鞠躬）
必修 3 Unit 4 第四单元 Astronomy:the science of the stars
HOW LIFE BEGAN ON THE EARTH 地球上生命的起源
No one knows exactly how the earth began, as it happened so long ago. However, according to a widely accepted theory, the universe began with a "Big Bang" that threw matter in all directions.After that, atoms began to form and combine to create stars and other bodies. For several billion years after the "Big Bang", the earth was still just a cloud of dust. What it was to become was uncertain until between 4.5 and 3.8 billion years ago when the dust settled into a solid globe. The earth became so violent that it was not clear whether the shape would last or not. It exploded loudly with fire and rock. They were intime to produce carbon, nitrogen, water vapour and other gases, which were to make the earth's atmosphere. What is even more important is that as the earth cooled down, water began to appear on its surface. Water had also appeared on other planets like Mars but, unlike the earth, it had disappeared later. It was not immediately obvious that water was to be fundamental to the development of life. What many scientists believe is that the continued presence of water allowed the earth to dissolve harmful gases and acids into the oceans and seas. This produced a chain reaction, which made it possible for life to develop. Many millions of years later, the first extremely small plants began to appear on the surface of the
water. They multiplied and filled the oceans and seas with oxygen, which encouraged the later development of early shellfish and all sorts of fish. Next, green plants began to grow on land. They were followed in time by land animals. Some were insects. Others, called amphibians, were able to live on land as well as in the water. Later when the plants grew into forests, reptiles appeared for the first time. They produced young enerally by laying eggs. After that, some huge animals, called dinosaurs, developed. They laid eggs too and existed on the earth for more than 140 million years. However,65 million years ago the age of the dinosaurs ended. Why they suddenly disappeared still remains a mystery. This disappearance made possible the rise of mammals on the earth. These animals were different from all life forms in the past, because they gave birth to young baby animals and produced milk to feed them. Finally about 2.6 million years ago some small clever animals, now with hands and feet, appeared and spread all over the earth. Thus they have, in their turn, become the most important animals on the planet. But they are not looking after the earth very well. They are putting too much carbon dioxide into the atmosphere, which prevents heat from escaping from the earth into space. As a result of this, many scientists believe the earth may become too hot to live on. So whether life will continue on the earth for millions of years to come will depend on whether this problem can be solved. 没有人确切知道地球是怎样开始形成的，因为在很早很早以前它就形成了。然而，一种 普通为人们所接受的理论是：宇宙起源于一次大爆炸，这次大爆炸将物质投射到四面八方。 然后，原子开始形成并结合成恒星和其他天体。 大爆炸后好几十亿年过去了，但地球还只是一团尘埃。随后它会变成什么没人能知道， 直到 38-45 亿年前，这团尘埃才慢慢地形成一个固体的球状物。地球（开始）变得激烈动荡， 不知道这个固体形状是否会继续存在下去。它（地球）猛烈的爆炸喷出了烈火与岩石。最终 产生了碳、氮气、水蒸气和其他多种气体，从而形成了地球的大气层。更为重要的是，地球 冷却了下来，地球的表面就开始出现了水。 在火星这些其他行星上都出现了水，但和地球不同的是，这些水后来都消失了。水会对 生命的发展起关键作用，这一点在当时并不明显。很多科学家相信，由于地球表面上长期有 水存在，它使得地球得以把有害气体和酸性物质溶解在海洋里。这就产生了一系列的反应， 使得生命就有可能开始发展了。 好几百万年以后，水的表面开始出现了极小的植物。它们繁殖起来就使得早期的海洋充 满了氧气，这为早期的贝类及其他各种鱼类的发育进一步创造了条件。接着，绿色是植物开 始出现在陆地上。随后，陆地上出现了动物，其中有一些是昆虫，另外一些叫两栖动物，它 们一般是通过孵蛋而繁衍后代的。再后来一些叫做恐龙的巨型动物出现了。它们也生蛋，在
地球上生存了一亿四千多年。然而，六千五百万年前，恐龙时代结束了。它们为什么会突然 灭绝至今仍是个谜。恐龙的灭绝使地球上哺乳动物的产生有了可能。哺乳动物不同于以往所 有的生物形式，因为它们能从体内生产出幼仔并给幼仔哺乳。 最后，大约 260 万年前，一些小巧聪明、长着手脚的动物出现了，它们散布在地球的各个地 方。于是，他们接着成为了这个行星上最重要的动物。然而，他们对地球却并不怎么在意。 它们把过多的二氧化碳释放到大气层中，这使得地球上的热不能释放到太空中去。因此很多 可科学家相信地球可能会因此变得太热而不适合生物的生存。所以，在未来的数百万年中， 生命能否在地球上延续取决于这个问题能否得到解决。 A VISIT TO THE MOON 月球之旅
Last month I was lucky enough to have a chance to make a trip into space with my friend Li Yanping, an astronomer. We visited the moon in our spaceship! Before we left, Li Yanping explained to me that the force of gravity would change three times on our journey and that the first change would be the most powerful. Then we were off. As the rocket rose into the air, we were pushed back into our seats because we were trying to escape the pull of the earth's gravity. It was so hard that we could not say anything to each other. Gradually the weight lessened and I was able to talk to him. "Why is the spaceship not falling back to the earth? On the earth if I fall from a tree I will fall to the ground." I asked. "We are too far from the earth now to feel its pull," he explained, "so we feel as if there is no gravity at all. When we get closer to the moon, we shall feel its gravity pulling us, but it will not be as strong a pull as the earth's." I cheered up immediately and floated weightlessly around in our spaceship cabin watching the earth become smaller and the moon larger. When we got there, I wanted to explore immediately. "Come on," I said. "If you are right, my mass will be less than on the earth because the moon is smaller and I will be able to move more freely. I might even grow taller if I stay here long enough. I shall certainly weigh less!" I laughed and climbed down the steps from the spaceship. But when I tried to step forward, I found I was carried twice as far as on the earth and fell over. "Oh dear," I cried, "walking does need a bit of practice now that gravity has changed." After a while I got the hang of it and we began to enjoy ourselves. Leaving the moon's gravity was not as painful as leaving the earth's. But returning to the earth was very frightening. We watched, amazed as fire broke out on the outside of the spaceship as the earth's gravity increased. Again we were pushed hard into our seats as we came back to land. "That was very exhausting but very exciting too," I said. "Now I know much more about gravity! Do you think we could visit some stars next time?" "Of course," he smiled, "which star would you like to go to?"
我的朋友李彦平是一位宇航员。上个月我有幸得到一个机会同他一起去太空旅行。我们 乘宇宙飞船参观了月球。 在启程以前，李彦平向我解释说，在我们的航行中会有三次引力的改变，而第一次的改 变将是最强的。随后我们就起航了。随着火箭徐徐升空，我们慢慢逃离地球的引力。但这种 引力太强了，把我们重重地向后推在座位上，以至于我们彼此间都不能说话了。随后，这个 力量慢慢减小， 我才能够同他讲话。 我问道： ―为什么太空船不会向后朝地球的方向落下去呢？ 在地球上的时候，如果我从书上掉下来，总会朝地上落下去的。 ‖李彦平解释说：―现在我们 离地球太远了，感觉不到地球的拉力，所以我们好像一点儿也感觉不到地球引力了。当我们 更接近月球时，就会感到月球的引力在拉我们。但是，月球的引力不像地球的引力那么大。‖ 我立刻感到很高兴，由于失重我在太空舱里飘来飘去，我望着（身后的）地球越来越小，而 （前方的）月球越来越大。 我们到达月球时，我就想立即进行探测。―来吧，‖我说，―要是你讲得对，我的重量就会 比地球小，而我就能够更自由地活动了。如果我在月球上呆的时间足够长的话，我甚至可能 长得更高，我的体重肯定也会变得更轻！‖我笑着从火箭的阶梯上爬下来。而当我试着向前迈 步的时候，我发觉我被送出去很远，步子的跨度竟然是在地球上的两倍，因而我摔倒了。―天 哪，‖我大声说，―重力改变了，看来走路也的确需要练一练了。‖过了一会儿，我才掌握了走 路的诀窍，这才开始感到自如了。 摆脱月球引力不想摆脱地球引力那样痛苦。但是返回到地球的经历却是非常吓人的。我 们惊奇地看着，随着丢引力的增加，宇宙飞船的外层燃烧起火。当我们回到地面时，我们又 感到被重重地推到在座位上。我说道：―真是精疲力竭了，但也很激动人心。关于引力，我现 在就懂得更多了。你认为下次我们可以上星球上去参观吗？‖―当然可以，‖他笑着说，―你想 到那颗星球上去呢？‖ 必修 3 Unit 5 Canada-"The True North" A TRIP ON "THE TRUE NORTH"―真北方‖之旅 Li Daiyu and her cousin Liu Qian were on a trip to Canada to visit their cousins in Montreal on the Atlantic coast. Rather than take the aeroplane all the way, they decided to fly to Vancouver and then take the train west to east across Canada. The thought that they could cross the whole continent was exciting. Their friend, Danny Lin, was waiting at the airport. He was going to take them and their baggage to catch "The True North", the cross-Canada train. On the way to the station, he chatted
about their trip. "You're going to see some great scenery. Going eastward, you'll pass mountains and thousands of lakes and forests, as well as wide rivers and large cities. Some people have the idea that you can cross Canada in less than five days, but they forget the fact that Canada is 5,500 kilometres from coast to coast. Here in Vancouver, you're in Canada's warmest part. People say it is Canada's most beautiful city, surrounded by mountains and the Pacific Ocean. Skiing in the Rocky Mountains and sailing in the harbour make Vancouver one of Canada's most popular cities to live in. Its population is increasing rapidly. The coast north of Vancouver has some of the oldest and most beautiful forests in the world. It is so wet there that the trees are extremely tall, some measuring over 90 metres." That afternoon aboard the train, the cousins settled down in their seats. Earlier that day, when they crossed the Rocky Mountains, they managed to catch sight of some mountain goats and even a grizzly bear and an eagle. Their next stop was Calgary, which is famous for the Calgary Stampede. Cowboys from all over the world come to compete in the Stampede. Many of them have a gift for riding wild horses and can win thousands of dollars in prizes. After two days' travel, the girls began to realize that Canada is quite empty. At school, they had learned that most Canadians live within a few hundred kilometres of the USA border, and Canada's population is only slightly over thirty million, but now they were amazed to see such an empty country. They went through a wheat-growing province and saw farms that covered thousands of acres. After dinner, they were back in an urban area, the busy port city of Thunder Bay at the top of the Great Lakes. The girls were surprised at the fact that ocean ships can sail up the Great Lakes. Because of the Great Lakes, they learned, Canada has more fresh water than any other country in the world. In fact, it has one-third of the world's total fresh water, and much of it is in the Great Lakes. That night as they slept, the train rushed across the top of Lake Superior, through the great forests and southward towards Toronto. 李黛予和她表妹刘倩要去加拿大大西洋海岸的蒙特利尔市看望她们的表兄妹们。她们不 想一路乘飞机，她们决定飞到温哥华，再从西海岸乘火车横穿加拿大到达东海岸。要横贯整 个大陆的想法很是令人兴奋。 她们的朋友林丹尼在机场等候她们。他要带着她们和行李到火车站乘坐横穿加拿大的―真 北方‖号列车。在去火车站的路上，林丹尼聊起了她们的旅程：―你们沿途将会看到美丽壮阔 的风景。向东一直走，你们会经过一座座山脉，上千个湖泊、森林，还有宽阔的河流和许多 大城市。有人想在不到五天的时间里横穿加拿大，他们忘了加拿大从东海岸到西海岸共有 5， 500 公里。这儿，温哥华，是加拿大最温暖的地方。人们说温哥华是加拿大最美丽的城市， 被大山和太平洋环抱。落基山可以滑雪，海港供你扬帆，这些使得温哥华成为加拿大最受欢 迎的居住城市之一。这个城市的人口增长很快。在温哥华北面的海岸上保存了最古老、最美
丽的森林。那儿的湿度很大，所以树都长得特别高，一些高达 90 多米。‖ 那天下午表姐俩才登上了火车落了座。火车先是穿越落基山脉，她们设法看到了野山羊， 甚至还看到了一只大灰熊和一只鹰。 她们的下一站就是卡尔加里， 这个城市因―大西部赛马会‖ 而闻名。来自世界各地的牛仔们来参加赛马会比赛。他们中许多人都有骑野马的本领，他们 能赢得几千美元的奖金。 两天以后，她们开始意识到加拿大人烟稀少。他们在学校学过，大多数加拿大人定居在 靠近美国几百英里的边境地带，加拿大的人口也就是三千万多一点儿。但是现在看到这么空 旷的国家，她们很惊讶。火车穿过一个种植小麦的省份，她们看到了面积有数千英亩的农场。 晚饭后她们又回到城市，位于五大湖区顶端的繁忙的港口城市桑得贝。巨大的海轮可以开到 五大湖，让表姐妹俩感到吃惊。她们知道，因为有五大湖，加拿大的淡水比世界上任何其他 国家都多。事实上，加拿大拥有全世界三分之一的淡水量，其中大部分都蓄在五大湖泊里。 那天夜里她们睡着了，火车越过苏必利尔湖，穿过大森林，朝南向多伦多飞驰着。 “THE TURE NORTH‖FROM TORONTO TO MONTREAL 多伦多—蒙特利尔的―真北方‖列车
The next morning the bushes and maple trees outside their windows were red, gold and orange, and there was frost on the ground, confirming that fall had arrived in Canada. Around noon they arrived in Toronto, the biggest and most wealthy city in Canada. They were not leaving for Montreal until later, so they went on a tour of the city. They went up the tall CN Tower and looked across the lake. In the distance, they could see the misty cloud that rose from the great Niagara Falls, which is on the south side of the lake. The water flows into the Niagara River and over the falls on its way to the sea. They saw the covered stadium, home of several famous basketball teams. As they walked north from the harbour area, Li Daiyu said, "Lin Fei, one of my mother's old schoolmates, lives here. I should phone her from a telephone booth." They met Lin Fei around dusk in downtown Chinatown, one of the three in Toronto. Over dinner at a restaurant called The Pink Pearl, the cousins chatted with Lin Fei, who had moved to Canada many years earlier. "We can get good Cantonese food here," Lin Fei told them, "because most of the Chinese people here come from South China, especially Hong Kong. It's too bad you can't go as far as Ottawa, Canada's capital. It's approximately four hundred kilometres northeast of Toronto, so it would take too long." The train left late that night and arrived in Montreal at dawn the next morning. At the
station, people everywhere were speaking French. There were signs and ads in French, but some of them had English words in smaller letters. "We don't leave until this evening," said Liu Qian. "Let's go downtown. Old Montreal is close to the water." They spent the afternoon in lovely shops and visiting artists in their workplaces beside the water. As they sat in a buffet restaurant looking over the broad St Lawrence River, a young man sat down with them. "Hello, my name is Henri. I'm a student at the university nearby," he said, "and I was wondering where you are from." The girls told him they were on a train trip across Canada and that they had only one day in Montreal. "That's too bad," he said. "Montreal is a city with wonderful restaurants and clubs. Most of us speak both English and French, but the city has French culture and traditions. We love good coffee, good bread and good music." That night as the train was speeding along the St Lawrence River toward the Gulf of St Lawrence and down to the distant east coast, the cousins dreamed of French restaurants and red maple leaves. 第二天早上，在她们的车窗外到处是灌木丛和枫树，挂满朱红、赤金和橘黄色的叶子， 地面覆盖上一层薄霜，表明秋天已经来到了加拿大。中午时分，她们来到多伦多—加拿大最 大、最富有的城市。她们要晚些时候才动身去蒙特利尔，因此就在多伦多市内游览了一番。 她们登上了高高的加拿大国家电视塔，俯瞰着下面的湖水。远处，她们可以看到湖的南边尼 亚加拉大瀑布上方升腾着的雾霭。湖水流入尼亚加拉河，再经过大瀑布，流向大海。 她们看到了加顶的大型运动场，那是几支著名的篮球队的驻地。当她们从港口区向北走 的时候，李黛予说：―我妈妈的老同学林菲住在这里，我该到电话亭去给她打个电话。‖ 大约黄昏时分，她们在市区的中国城遇到了林菲，这时多伦多三个中国城中的一个。在 一个名叫―海珠酒楼‖的餐馆里用餐时，表姐妹和许多年前就移居加拿大的林菲闲聊了起来。 林菲告诉她们： ―我们在这里可以吃到很好的广东菜， 因为这里的大多数中国人来自中国南方， 尤其是香港。很可惜你们不能一只走到建安大的首都渥太华。它在多伦多东北方约 400 公里， 要去那儿花时间就太多了。‖ 火车在那夜晚些时候起程了，第二天黎明到达了蒙特利尔。火车站里，人们到处说的是 法语。指示牌和广告也都是法文的，但有些标注了小字体的英文。刘倩说：―我们要到傍晚才 动身，不如到市区去走走。‖整个下午她们穿梭于布局可爱的商店，还摆放了水边工作坊里的 艺术家。当她们坐在咖啡馆里眺望广阔的圣劳伦斯河时，一个年轻人坐在了她们的身边。 ―你们好，我叫亨利，是这里的大学生。‖他说：―请问你们从哪里来？‖姑娘们告诉他，她 们是坐火车来旅游的，要横穿加拿大，在蒙特利尔只待一天。他说：―这太糟糕了，蒙特利尔 这个城市有极好的餐馆和俱乐部。我们大多数人既说英语也说法语，但是这座城市具有法国
文化和传统。我们喜欢好咖啡，好面包和好音乐。‖ 那天晚上，火车沿着圣劳伦斯河疾驰，朝圣劳伦斯湾驶去，一直开到远方的东海岸，姐 妹两个做梦都在想着法国餐馆和红色枫叶。
必修 4 Unit 1 第一单元 女人的成就
A STUDENT OF AFRICAN WILDLIFE 非洲野生动物研究者 It is 5:45 am and the sun is just rising over Gombe National Park in East Africa. Following Jane's way of studying chimps, our group are all going to visit them in the forest. Jane has studied these families of chimps for many years and helped people understand how much they behave like humans. Watching a family of chimps wake up is our first activity of the day. This means going back to the place where we left the family sleeping in a tree the night before. Everybody sits and waits in the shade of the trees while the family begins to wake up and move off. Then we follow as they wander into the forest. Most of the time, chimps either feed or clean each other as a way of showing love in their family. Jane warns us that our group is going to be very tired and dirty by the afternoon and she is right. However, the evening makes it all worthwhile. We watch the mother chimp and her babies play in the tree. Then we see them go to sleep together in their nest for the night. We realize that the bond between members of a chimp family is as strong as in a human family. Nobody before Jane fully understood chimp behaviour. She spent years observing and recording their daily activities. Since her childhood she had wanted to work with animals in their own environment. However, this was not easy. When she first arrived in Gombe in 1960, it was unusual for a woman to live in the forest. Only after her mother came to help her for the first few months was she allowed to begin her project. Her work changed the way people think about chimps. For example, one important thing she discovered was that chimps hunt and eat meat. Until then everyone had thought chimps ate only fruit and nuts. She actually observed chimps as a group hunting a monkey and then eating it. She also discovered how chimps communicate with each other, and her study of their body language helped her work out their social system. For forty years Jane Goodall has been outspoken about making the rest of the world understand and respect the life of these animals. She has argued that wild animals should be left in the wild and not used for entertainment or advertisements. She has helped to set up special places where they can live safely. She is leading a busy life but she says: "Once I stop, it all comes
crowding in and I remember the chimps in laboratories. It's terrible. It affects me when I watch the wild chimps. I say to myself, 'Aren't they lucky?" And then I think about small chimps in cages though they have done nothing wrong. Once you have seen that you can never forget ..." She has achieved everything she wanted to do: working with animals in their own environment, gaining a doctor's degree and showing that women can live in the forest as men can. She inspires those who want to cheer the achievements of women. 清晨 5 点 45 分，太阳刚从东非的贡贝国家公园的上空升起。我们一行人准备按照简研究 黑猩猩的方法去森林里拜访它们。简研究这些黑猩猩家族已经很多年了，她帮助人们了解了 黑猩猩跟人类的行为是多么的相似。 我们当天的首项任务就是观察黑猩猩一家是如何醒来的。 这意味着我们要返回前一天晚上我们离开时黑猩猩一家睡觉的大树旁。大家坐在树荫下等待 着，这时候猩猩们睡醒了，准备离开。在大部分的时间里，黑猩猩或互相喂食，或彼此擦身， 这在它们家族里是表达爱的方式。简预先提醒我们，到下午的时候我们就会又脏又累。她说 对了，但是到傍晚的时分我们就觉得这一切都是值得的。我们看到黑猩猩妈妈跟它们的幼子 们在树上玩耍，后来看见他们一起回窝睡觉了。我们明白了猩猩家族成员之间的联系像人类 家庭一样紧密。 在简之前没有人全面了解黑猩猩的行为。她花了多年的时间来参观记录黑猩猩的日常活 动。从孩童时代起，简就想在动物生活的环境中研究它们。但是，这不是一件简单的事。当 她 1960 年最初到贡贝时，对女性来说，住进大森林还是很稀罕的事情。她母亲头几个月来帮 过她的忙，这才使她得以开始了自己的计划。她的工作改变了人们对黑猩猩的看法。比方说， 她的一个重要发现是黑猩猩猎食动物，在此之前，人们一直认为黑猩猩只吃水果和坚果。她 曾经亲眼看到过一群黑猩猩捕杀一只猴子，然后把它吃掉。她还发现了黑猩猩之间是如何交 流的，而她对黑猩猩身势语的研究帮助她勾勒出黑猩猩的社会体系。 40 年来，简. 古道尔一直在呼吁是世人了解并尊重这些动物的生活。她主张应该让野生动 物留在野外生活，而不能用于娱乐或广告。她还为黑猩猩建起了可以安全生活的专门的保护 区。她的生活是忙忙碌碌的，然而正如她所说的： “我一旦停下来，所有的一切都会涌上心头。我就会想起实验室的黑猩猩。太可怕了。 每当我看着野生黑猩猩时，这个念头总是萦绕着我。我会对自己说＂难道它们不幸运吗？＂ 然后我就想起那些没有任何过错却被关在笼子里的小黑猩猩。一旦你看到这些，你就永远不 会忘记??” 简已经得到了她所想要得到的一切：在动物的栖息地工作：获得博士学位：还向世人证 明女人和男人一样能够在森林生活。她激励着人们为妇女们的成就而欢呼喝彩。 WHY NOT CARRY ON HER GOOD WORK? 为什么不继续她的事业？
I enjoyed English, biology, and chemistry at school, but which one should I choose to study at university? I did not know the answer until one evening when I sat down at the computer to do some research on great women of China. By chance I came across an article about a doctor called Lin Qiaozhi, a specialist in women's diseases. She lived from 1901 to 1983. It seemed that she had been very busy in her chosen career, travelling abroad to study as well as writing books and articles. One of them caught my eye. It was a small book explaining how to cut the death rate from having and caring for babies. She gave some simple rules to follow for keeping babies clean, healthy and free from sickness. Why did she write that? Who were the women that Lin Qiaozhi thought needed this advice? I looked carefully at the text and realized that it was intended for women in the countryside. Perhaps if they had an emergency they could not reach a doctor. Suddenly it hit me how difficult it was for a woman to get medical training at that time. That was a generation when girls' education was always placed second to boys'. Was she so much cleverer than anyone else? Further reading made me realize that it was hard work and determination as well as her gentle nature that got her into medical school. What made her succeed later on was the kindness and consideration she showed to all her patients. There was story after story of how Lin Qiaozhi, tired after a day's work, went late at night to deliver a baby for a poor family who could not pay her. By now I could not wait to find out more about her. I discovered that Lin Qiaozhi had devoted her whole life to her patients and had chosen not to have a family of her own. Instead she made sure that about 50,000 babies were safely delivered. By this time I was very excited. Why not study at medical college like Lin Qiaozhi and carry on her good work? It was still not too late for me to improve my studies, prepare for the university entrance examinations, and…. 上中学时我喜欢英语、生物和化学，但是我进大学该学哪门专业呢？直到有一天晚上坐 在电脑旁研究中国的伟大女性时，我才有了答案。 很偶然地，我看见了一篇关于林巧稚的文章。她是妇科专家将，1901 年出生，1983 年去 世。林巧稚似乎一直都在为自己选择事业而奔忙，去国外留学，也写了很多书和文章。其中 有一本书引起了我的注意。这是一本小书，介绍如何从妇女怀孕到护理婴儿的过程中降低死 亡率。她提出了一些可以遵循的简单的做法，保持婴儿清洁和健康，让他们远离疾病。她为 什么要写这些东西呢？林巧稚认为那些妇女会需要这些忠告呢？我细细地看了这篇文章，了 解到那是为农村妇女写的。也许他们在遇到紧急情况时可能找不到医生。 突然我想起，在那个年代，一个女子去学医是多么困难啊！那可是一个女性教育总是排 在男性之后的年代。难道她比别人要聪明的多？进一步的阅读使我了解到，是苦干、决心和
善良使她走进了医学院的大门。后来使她成功的是她对所有病人献出的爱心和体贴。数不胜 数的故事讲述着林巧稚如何在劳累的一天之后，又在深夜去为贫苦家庭的产妇接生，而这些 家庭是不可能给她报酬的。 现在我迫不及待地想多了解一些有关她的情况。我发现林巧稚把必胜奉献给了病人，而 自己却选择了独身。她确保了大约五万名婴儿的安全出生。这时候，我非常激动。为什么不 像林巧稚那样去读医学院，继续她的事业呢？现在努力提高学习成绩、准备大学入学考试还 不算晚??
必修 4 Unit 2 第二单元 耕作土地
A PIONEER FOR ALL PEOPLE 造福全人类的先驱者
Although he is one of China's most famous scientists, Yuan Longping considers himself a farmer, for he works the land to do his research. Indeed, his sunburnt face and arms and his slim, strong body are just like those of millions of Chinese farmers, for whom he has struggled for the past five decades. Dr Yuan Longping grows what is called super hybrid rice. In 1974, he became the first agricultural pioneer in the world to grow rice that has a high output. This special strain of rice makes it possible to produce one-third more of the crop in the same fields. Now more than 60% of the rice produced in China each year is from this hybrid strain. Born into a poor farmer's family in 1930, Dr Yuan graduated from Southwest Agricultural College in 1953. Since then, finding ways to grow more rice has been his life goal. As a young man, he saw the great need for increasing the rice output. At that time, hunger was a disturbing problem in many parts of the countryside. Dr Yuan searched for a way to increase rice harvests without expanding the area of the fields. In 1950, Chinese farmers could produce only fifty million tons of rice. In a recent harvest, however, nearly two hundred million tons of rice was produced. These increased harvests mean that 22% of the world's people are fed from just 7% of the farmland in China. Dr Yuan is now circulating his knowledge in India, Vietnam and many other less developed countries to increase their rice harvests. Thanks to his research, the UN has more tools in the battle to rid the world of hunger. Using his hybrid rice, farmers are producing harvests twice as large as before. Dr Yuan is quite satisfied with his life. However, he doesn't care about being famous. He feels it gives him less freedom to do his research. He would much rather keep time for his hobbles. He enjoys listening to violin music, playing mah-jong, swimming and reading. Spending money on himself or leading a comfortable life also means very little to him. Indeed, he believes that a person
with too much money has more rather than fewer troubles. He therefore gives millions of yuan to equip others for their research in agriculture. Just dreaming for things, however, costs nothing. Long ago Dr yuan had a dream about rice plants as tall as sorghum. Each ear of rice was as big as an ear of corn and each grain of rice was as huge as a peanut. Dr Yuan awoke from his dream with the hope of producing a kind of rice that could feed more people. Now, many years later, Dr Yuan has another dream: to export his rice so that it can be grown around the globe. One dream is not always enough, especially for a person who loves and cares for his people. 尽管是中国最著名的科学家之一，袁隆平仍然认为自己是个农民，因为他在田间耕作， 进行科学研究。的确，他那被太阳晒的黝黑的脸庞和手臂，以及他那消瘦而又结实的身躯， 就跟其他千百万中国农民一样，过去 50 年来，他一直在努力帮助他们。袁隆平博士种植的是 被称为“超级杂交水稻”的稻种。1974 年，他称为世界上第一位种植高产水稻的农业先锋。 这种特殊的稻种使得同样的田地能多收获三分之一的产量。 如今， 中国每年生产的稻米有 60% 以上出自这种杂交水稻。 袁博士 1930 年出生，1953 年毕业于西南农学院。从那以后，找到水稻高产的方法就成 为他一生的目标。年轻时，他就看到稻田增产的巨大需求。当时，饥饿时许多农村地区面临 的严重问题。袁博士要在不增加土地面积的基础上寻求达到增收稻谷的途径。1950 年，中国 农民只能生产五千万吨稻谷，而近来却生产了将近两亿吨稻谷。这一粮食产量的增加意味着 中国仅仅 7%的耕地养活了世界 22%的人口。袁博士现在在印度、越南和其他欠发达国家船 舶提高水稻产量的知识。由于他的研究，联合国在消除世界饥饿的战斗中有了更多的方法。 用他的杂交水稻种子，农民们种出的粮食比以前多了一倍。 袁博士对生活非常满足。但是，他对成名并不在意，并且觉得出名后搞科研就不那么自 由了。他宁愿把时间花在自己的业余爱好上。他喜欢听小提琴乐曲、搓麻将、游泳和读书。 在自己身上花钱或者享受舒适的生活对袁博士来说意义也不大。事实上，他认为一个人有了 太多钱，他的麻烦事只会更多不会更少。于是，他拿出好几百万元帮忙其他人进行农业科学 研究。 梦想是不花本钱的。很久以前，袁博士曾在梦里看到水稻长得像高粱一样高，稻穗跟玉米穗 一样大，而每粒稻谷像花生米一样大。袁博士从梦中醒来，希望能种植一种能养活更多人的 水稻。多年后的今天，袁博士还有另一个梦想，那就是他的稻谷可以出口并长遍全球。一个 梦想总是不够的尤其对一个热爱和关心人民的人来说更是如此。 CHEMICAL OR ORGANIC FARMING? 化学耕作还是有机耕作
Over the past half century, using chemical fertilizers has become very common in farming. Many
farmers welcomed them as a great way to stop crop disease and increase production. Recently, however, scientists have been finding that long-term use of these fertilizers can cause damage to the land and, even more dangerous, to people's health. What are some of the problems caused by chemical fertilizers? First, they damage the land by killing the helpful bacteria and pests as well as the harmful ones. Chemicals also stay in the ground and underground water for a long time. This affects crops and, therefore, animals and humans, since chemicals get inside the crops and cannot just be washed off. These chemicals in the food supply build up in people's bodies over time. Many of these chemicals can lead to cancer or other illnesses. In addition, fruit, vegetables and other food grown with chemical fertilizers usually grow too fast to be full of much nutrition. They may look beautiful, but inside there is usually more water than vitamins and minerals. With these discoveries, some farmers and many customers are beginning to turn to organic farming. Organic farming is simply farming without using any chemicals. They focus on keeping their soil rich and free of disease. A healthy soil reduces disease and helps crops grow strong and healthy. Organic farmers, therefore, often prefer using natural waste from animals as fertilizer. They feel that this makes the soil in their fields richer in minerals and so more fertile. This also keeps the air, soil, water and crops free from chemicals. Organic farmers also use many other methods to keep the soil fertile. They often change the kind of crop in each field every few years, for example, growing corn or wheat and then the next year peas or soybeans. Crops such as peas or soybeans put important minerals back into the soil, making it ready for crops such as wheat or corn that need rich and fertile soil. Organic farmers also plant crops to use different levels of soil, for example, planting peanuts that use the ground's surface followed by vegetables that put down deep roots. Some organic farmers prefer planting grass between crops to prevent wind or water from carrying away the soil, and then leaving it in the ground to become a natural fertilizer for the next year's crop. These many different organic farming methods have the same goal: to grow good food and avoid damaging the environment or people's health. 在过去的半个世纪里，在耕作中使用化肥已经非常普遍。很多农民喜欢使用化肥，把化 肥作为防止农作物病虫害和提高产量的重要手段，然而，最近科学家发现长期使用这些肥料 会造成土地受损，甚至更危险的是，会对人们的健康造成危害。 化肥带来的问题有哪些呢？首先，化肥在杀死病菌和害虫的同时也会杀死有益的细菌和 昆虫，从而破坏土地。化学物质还会在地里和地下水中保存很长时间，而这会影响到农作物， 进而影响到动物和人类， ，因为化学成分会进入到农作物中，并且不能被冲洗掉。随着时间的 推移，食物中的这些化学成分会在人体中堆积。很多化学成分能导致癌症或其他疾病。另外， 施过化肥的水果、蔬菜和其他食物通常生长的过快而营养不足。她们表面上很好看，但是里 面通常含过多的水分，而不是维他命或矿物质。
由于这些发现，一些农民和许多消费者开始转向有机耕作。有机耕作就是不用任何化学 制品的耕作。农民关心的是保持土壤肥沃并且免受病害。健康的土壤会减少病虫害并且帮助 农作物茁壮成长。因此，有机耕作的农民通常喜欢把天然的动物粪便当作肥料。他们认为这 会使地里的土壤更富含矿物质，因而也会更加肥沃，同时还可以让空气、土壤、水及农作物 不受化学物质的污染。 有机耕作的农民也使用很多其他方法来保持土壤肥沃。在同一块地里，他们经常每隔几 年就换种农作物。例如，种玉米和小麦后来年在改种豌豆或大豆。香豌豆和大豆这样的农作 物将重要的矿物质 带回土壤， 从而使之适宜于种植要求土壤肥沃的农作物， 比如玉米和小麦。 有机耕作的农民还种植多种农作物来利用不同层次的土壤。比如，他们先种植生长于浅层土 壤的花生，然后再种植生根于深层土壤的蔬菜。还有一些有机耕作者喜欢在农作物之间种草， 以防止水土流失，并且把草留在地理，从而成为来年农作物的天然肥料。这些不同的有机耕 的方法有着同样地目标：种植好的粮食，避免损害环境或人们的健康。
必修 4 Unit 3 第三单元 幽默
A MASTER OF NONVERBAL HUMOUR 无声的幽默大师
As Victor Hugo once said, "Laughter is the sun that drives winter from the human face", and up to now nobody has been able to do this better than Charlie Chaplin. He brightened the lives of Americans and British through two world wars and the hard years in between. He made people laugh at a time when they felt depressed, so they could feel more content with their lives. Not that Charlie's own life was easy! He was born in a poor family in 1889. His parents were both poor music hall performers. You may find it astonishing that Charlie was taught to sing as soon as he could speak and dance as soon as he could walk. Such training was common in acting families at this time, especially when the family income was often uncertain. Unfortunately his father died, leaving the family even worse off, so Charlie spent his childhood looking after his sick mother and his brother. By his teens, Charlie had, through his humour, become one of the most popular child actors in England. He could mime and act the fool doing ordinary everyday tasks. No one was ever bored watching him -his subtle acting made everything entertaining. As time went by, he began making films. He grew more and more popular as his charming character, the little tramp, became known throughout the world. The tramp, a poor, homeless man with a moustache, wore large trousers, worn-out shoes and a small round black hat. He walked around stilly carrying a walking stick. This character was a social failure but was loved for his
optimism and determination to overcome all difficulties. He was the underdog who was kind even when others were unkind to him. How did the little tramp make a sad situation entertaining? Here is an example from one of his most famous films, The Gold Rush. It is the mid-nineteenth century and gold has just been discovered in California. Like so many others, the little tramp and his friend have rushed there in search of gold, but without success. Instead they are hiding in a small hut on the edge of a mountain during a snowstorm with nothing to eat. They are so hungry that they try boiling a pair of leather shoes for their dinner. Charlie first picks out the laces and eats them as if they were spaghetti. Then he cuts off the leather top of the shoe as if it were the finest steak. Finally he tries cutting and chewing the bottom of the shoe. He eats each mouthful with great enjoyment. The acting is so convincing that it makes you believe that it is one of the best meals he has ever tasted! Charlie Chaplin wrote, directed and produced the films he starred in. In 1972 he was given a special Oscar for his outstanding work in films. He lived in England and the USA but spent his last years in Switzerland, where he was buried in 1977. He is loved and remembered as a great actor who could inspire people with great confidence. 维克多.雨果曾经说过： “笑容就如取走人们脸上的冬天的阳光。 ”关于这一点，直到今天 也没有人能比查理.卓别林做得更好。在两次世界大战以及之间的艰苦岁月里，他给英国和美 国人民打来了快乐。在人们感到沮丧的时候，卓别林使他们开怀大笑，于是人们对自己的生 活感到比较满意。 然而卓别林自己的生活并不容易。他生于 1899 年，出身贫寒。他的父母都是杂耍戏院里 贫穷的演员。你可能会感到惊讶，查理刚能说话时大人就教他如何唱歌，他刚能走时大人就 教他跳舞。这样的训练在当时的演员家庭中是很普遍的，尤其是在家庭收入经常不稳定的时 候。不幸的是他的父亲去世了，整个家庭状况更糟了。所以卓别林在童年时候就要照顾生病 的母亲和弟弟。在十多岁的时候，凭借着自己的幽默，查理在英国已经成为最受欢迎的童星 之一。他能够不说话而仅靠动作来模仿傻子做日常的任务。看他的表演没有人会感到无聊— —他巧妙的表演使得一切都那么滑稽可笑。 随着时间的推移，他开始拍电影。他塑造的可爱的“小流浪汉”角色开始闻名于世，而 他自己也越来越受欢迎。这个穷苦的无家可归的小流浪汉，留着小胡子，穿着大裤子，破鞋 子，头顶着黑色的小圆帽。他手里拿着一根手杖迈着僵硬的步伐四处游荡。这个角色是社会 生活中的失败者，但他的乐观精神和战胜困难的决心都使他受到人们的喜爱。面对不善待它 他的人，这个弱者依然保持着友善的态度。 然而这个小流浪汉是如何把悲凉的遭遇变得滑稽可笑的呢？这里有一个例子，来自于他 最著名的电影之一《淘金记》 。十九世纪末，在阿拉斯加发现了金子。像其他很多人一样，小 流浪汉也涌到那里去淘金，但却没有成功。相反，他和另一个人被暴风雪困在一个小木屋里， 没有任何东西吃。他们饿极了，小流浪汉只好煮了他的一只皮鞋来充饥。查理切掉皮鞋上面
的部分，和同伴分享这只鞋。他把皮鞋鞋底切开嚼着吃，就想吃一块最好的牛排。然后挑出 鞋带来吃，就想吃意大利面条一样。他每一口都嚼得津津有味。卓别林的表演是那么有说服 力，以至于你会相信这顿饭是他吃过的最美味的一餐。 查理.卓别林自编、自导、自制他主演的电影，1972 年他被授予奥斯卡特别奖，以表彰他 在电影界的杰出工作。他生活在英国和美国，却在瑞士度过了生命中最后的日子，并于 1977 年安葬在那里。人们热爱和还念这位伟大的演员，因为他鼓舞了人们，增强了人们的信心。 ENGLISH JOKES 1 There are thousands of jokes which use "play on words" to amuse us. One person asks a question which expects a particular reply. Instead, what he gets is another kind of answer which makes the situation funny. Now read some of these customer and waiter jokes. Can you match the joke with the explanation? 1 2 C: What's that fly doing in my soup? W: Swimming, I think! C: What's that? W: It's bean soup. C: I don't want to know what it's been. I want 3 C: Waiter, will the pancakes be long? W: No, sir. Round. to know what it is now.
Some jokes are longer and tell a short, funny story. The following is one of those
jokes about the famous detective Sherlock Holmes and his friend Doctor Watson. Read it and decide which of these two kinds of jokes you like better. Give your reasons. Sherlock Holmes and Doctor Watson went camping in a mountainous area. They were lying in the open air under the stars. Sherlock Holmes looked up at the stars and whispered, "Watson, when you look at that beautiful sky, what do you think of?" Watson replied, "I think of how short life is and how long the universe has lasted." "No, no, Watson!" Holmes said. "What do you really think of?." Watson tried again. "I think of how small I am and how vast the sky is." "Try again, Watson!" said Holmes. Watson tried a third time. "I think of how cold the universe is and how warm people can be in their beds." Holmes said, "Watson, you fool! You should be thinking that someone has stolen our tent!"
必修 4 Unit 4 第四单元 有关身体语言
COMMUNICATION: NO PROBLEM? 交际：没有问题了吗？
Yesterday, another student and I, representing our university's student association, went to the Capital International Airport to meet this year's international students. They were coming to study at Beijing University. We would take them first to their dormitories and then to the student canteen. After half an hour of waiting for their flight to arrive, I saw several young people enter the waiting area looking around curiously. I stood for a minute watching them and then went to greet them. The first person to arrive was Tony Garcia from Colombia, closely followed by Julia Smith from Britain. After I met them and then introduced them to each other, I was very surprised. Tony approached Julia, touched her shoulder and kissed her on the cheek! She stepped back appearing surprised and put up her hands, as if in defence. I guessed that there was probably a major misunderstanding. Then Akira Nagata from Japan came in smiling, together with George Cook from Canada. As they were introduced, George reached his hand out to the Japanese student. Just at that moment, however, Akira bowed so his nose touched George's moving hand. They both apologized another cultural mistake! Ahmed Aziz, another international student, was from Jordan. When we met yesterday, he moved very close to me as I introduced myself. I moved back a bit, but he came closer to ask a question and then shook my hand. When Darlene Coulon from France came dashing through the door, she recognized Tony Garcia's smiling face. They shook hands and then kissed each other twice on each cheek, since that is the French custom when adults meet people they know. Ahmed Aziz., on the contrary, simply nodded at the girls. Men from Middle Eastern and other Muslim countries will often stand quite close to other men to talk but will usually not touch women. As I get to know more international friends, I learn more about this cultural "body language". Not all cultures greet each other the same way, nor are they comfortable in the same way with touching or distance between people. In the same way that people communicate with spoken language, they also express their feelings using unspoken "language" through physical distance, actions or posture. English people, for example, do not usually stand very close to others or touch strangers as soon as they meet. However, people from places like Spain, Italy or South American countries approach others closely and are more likely to touch them. Most people around the world now greet each other by shaking hands, but some cultures use other greetings as well, such as the Japanese, who prefer to bow.
These actions are not good or bad, but are simply ways in which cultures have developed. I have seen, however, that cultural customs for body language are very general - not all members of a culture behave in the same way. In general, though, studying international customs can certainly help avoid difficulties in today's world of cultural crossroads! 昨天，我和另一个同学代表我们大学的学生会去首都国际机场迎接今年的留学生。他们 要来北京大学学习。我们首先会把他们带到宿舍，然后去学生食堂。在等了半个小时之后， 他们的航班到了，我看见几个年轻人走进了等候区，好奇地向四周张望。站着观察了他们有 一分钟后，我便走过去打招呼。 第一个到达的是从哥伦比亚飞来的托尼.加西亚，随后紧跟着的是英国的朱莉娅.史密斯。 在与他们碰面并介绍他们彼此认识之后，我（对看到的情景）感到很吃惊。托尼走近朱莉娅， 摸了摸她的肩，并亲了她的脸！她后退几步，看上去有些吃惊，并举起了手，好像是在自卫。 我猜想这里可能有个大误会。随后，来自日本的永田明微笑着走了进来，同时进来的还有加 拿大的乔治.库克。当我为他们作介绍时，乔治把手伸向了这位日本学生。然而此时永田正在 鞠躬，他的鼻子碰到了乔治伸过来的手。两人都互相道歉——这又是一个文化差异！ 另一位国际学生艾哈迈德.阿齐兹是约旦人。昨天当我们见面我向他们作自我介绍时，他 靠我很近。我往后退了一点儿，他又向前问了我一个问题，然后同我握手。法国的琳达.库隆 匆忙走进门的时候，她认出了托尼.加西亚微笑的面孔。两个人握了握手，并且在对方的面颊 上吻了两下。通常，法国成年人见到熟人就是这么做的。而艾哈迈德.阿齐兹却只是朝女孩们 点点头。来自中东或一些穆斯林国家的男士，在谈话时通常站得离其他男士很近，但一般不 会与女士接触。 随着认识的国际朋友越来越多，我了解到更多不同文化背景下的“身势语” 。各种文化背 景下的人互敬问候的方式不尽相同，身体接触和互相间距的程度也不尽相同。在使用口头语 言交流的同时，人们还使用不出声的语言——身体间的距离、动作和姿态等来表达情感。比 如，英国人通常不会站在离别人太远的地方，也不会一见面就（用身体）接触陌生人。但是， 来自像西班牙、意大利或南美等国家的人会站在离别人很近的地方，而且很可能（用身体） 接触对方。现在世界上大多数人见面都会互相握手问候，但有些文化（背景下的人）会采取 另外一些寒暄方式，比如，日本人更愿意鞠躬。 这些行为都无所谓好与坏，只不过是文化发展的不同方式而已。然而我发现身势语的文 化习俗是多元的——同一个（民族）文化中也并非所有成员的行为都一样。但总的来说，在 当今文化交融的世界，学习不同国家的习俗能帮助我们避免交往中的困难。 SHOWING OUR FEELINGS 表达我们的情感
Body language is one of the most powerful means of communication, often even more powerful than spoken language. People around the world show all kinds of feelings, wishes and attitudes that they might never speak aloud. It is possible to "read" others around us, even if they do not intend for us to catch their unspoken communication. Of course, body language can be misread, but many gestures and actions are universal. The most universal facial expression is, of course, the smile – its function is to show happiness and put people at ease. It does not always mean that we are truly happy, however. Smiles around the world can be false, hiding other feelings like anger, fear or worry. There are unhappy smiles, such as when someone "loses face" and smiles to hide it. However, the general purpose of smiling is to show good feelings. From the time we are babies, we show unhappiness or anger by frowning. In most places around the world, frowning and turning one's back to someone shows anger. Making a fist and shaking it almost always means that someone is angry and threatening another person. There are many ways around the world to show agreement, but nodding the head up and down is used for agreement, almost worldwide. Most people also understand that shaking the head from side to side means disagreement or refusal. How about showing that I am bored? Looking away from people or yawning will, in most cases, make me appear to be uninterested. However, if I turn toward and look at someone or something, people from almost every culture will think that I am interested. If I roll my eyes and turn my head away, I most likely do not believe what I am hearing or do not like it. Being respectful to people is subjective, based on each culture, but in general it is probably not a good idea to give a hug to a boss or teacher. In almost every culture, it is not usually good to stand too close to someone of a higher rank. Standing at a little distance with open hands will show that I am willing to listen. With so many cultural differences between people, it is great to have some similarities in body language. We can often be wrong about each other, so it is an amazing thing that we understand each other as well as we do! 身势语是最强有力的交际手段之一，甚至经常比口头语言更有力量。世界各地的人们表 达各种各样的情感、愿望和态度，他们可能从来不会大声地说出来。 “读懂”我们周围的人的 意识是有可能的，即便是人们并不想让我们捕捉到他们没有说出来的信息。当然，身势语可 能会被误解，但是很多手势和动作是具有普遍性的。 最普遍使用的面部表情当然是微笑——其作用是表示快乐和安人心静。然而微笑并不总 是意味着我们是真的快乐。世界上微笑可能是假的，用来掩盖其他情绪，比如生气、害怕和 烦恼。还有不愉快的微笑，比如当某人“丢了面子”就会用微笑来掩饰。但是，微笑的一般 目的是表达好的情绪。
从孩提时候起，我们就通过皱眉来表示不高兴或者愤怒。在世界上大多数地方，皱眉或 者背对着某人都表示发怒。把手握紧，朝着别人晃拳头几乎总是 意味着愤怒并且威胁别人。 世界上有很多方式来表示同意，但是几乎全世界都用上下点头来表示同意。大多数人也 都知道左右摇头表示不同意或拒绝做某事。 如何来表示我很厌烦呢？在多数情况下，把眼光从人们身上移开或者打个哈欠，会使我 看上去（对此人或此事）不感兴趣。但是如果我转身面对某人或者某事，几乎每一个文化背 景的人都会认为我（对此人或此事）感兴趣。如果我转动着眼球，把头扭向一边，很可能是 我不相信或者不喜欢所听到的话。 根据每一种文化，对人们表示尊重都是带有主观性的。但是一般来说，拥抱你的老板或 老师很可能是不妥当的。在几乎每一种文化里，站在离级别跟高的人太近都不太好。站的有 一定的距离，把手微微张开，会表示我愿意倾听。 人们之间的文化差异非常多，但好在身体语言有一些相似之处。尽管我们常常会彼此误 解，但我们仍能做到彼此理解，这真是件令人惊奇的事。
必修 4 Unit 5 第五单元 主题公园
THEME PARKS — FUN AND MORE THAN FUN 主题公园——是娱乐，又不仅仅是娱乐
Which theme park would you like to visit? There are various kinds of theme parks, with a different park for almost everything: food, culture, science, cartoons, movies or history. Some parks are famous for having the biggest or longest roller coasters, others for showing the famous sights and sounds of a culture. Whichever and whatever you like, there is a theme park for you! The theme park you are probably most familiar with is Disneyland. It can be found in several parts of the world. It will bring you into a magical world and make your dreams come true, whether traveling through space, visiting a pirate ship or meeting your favourite fairy tale or Disney cartoon character. As you wander around the fantasy amusement park, you may see Snow White or Mickey Mouse in a parade or on the street. Of course Disneyland also has many exciting rides, from giant
swinging ships to terrifying free-fall drops. With all these attractions, no wonder tourism is increasing wherever there is a Disneyland. If you want to have fun and more than fun, come to Disneyland! Dollywood, in the beautiful Smoky Mountains in the southeastern USA, is one of the most unique theme parks in the world. Dollywood shows and celebrates America's traditional southeastern culture. Although Dollywood has rides, the park's main attraction is its culture. Famous country music groups perform there all year in indoor and outdoor theatres. People come from all over America to see carpenters and other craftsmen make wood, glass and iron objects in the old-fashioned way. Visit the candy shop to try the same kind of candy that American southerners made 150 years ago, or take a ride on the only steam- engine train still working in the southeast USA. You can even see beautiful bald eagles in the world's largest bald eagle preserve. And for those who like rides, Dollywood has one of the best old wooden roller coasters, Thunderhead. It is world-famous for having the most length in the smallest space. Come to Dollywood to have fun learning all about America's historical southeastern culture! If you want to experience the ancient days and great deeds of English knights and ladies, princes and queens, then England's Camelot Park is the place for you. Every area of the park is modelled after life in the days of King Arthur and the Knights of the Round Table. In one place, you can watch magic shows with Merlin the Wizard. If you want to see fighting with swords or on horseback, then the jousting area is a good place to visit. If you do well there, King Arthur may choose you to fight in the big jousting tournament. Do you like animals? Then visit the farm area, and learn how people in ancient England ran their farms and took care of their animals. To enter a world of fantasy about ancient England, come to Camelot Park! 你喜欢参观哪一个主题公园呢？主题公园有不同的种类，不同的公园有不同的主题，几 乎囊括了一切：食物、文化、科学、卡通、电影或历史。有一些主题公园因为有最大或者最 长的过山车而闻名，有些则展示了文化中那些著名的声音或视觉景象。不论你喜欢哪一个， 喜欢什么，总会有适合你的主题公园。 你最熟悉的主题公园很可能就是迪斯尼乐园吧。世界上好几个地方都有迪士尼乐园。无 论你是在太空遨游，参观海盗船，还是邂逅你最喜欢的童话故事或者迪斯尼卡通里的人物， 迪士尼都会把你带到魔幻的世界，让你的梦想成真。当你在梦幻乐园漫步时，你可能会在游 行队伍中或者街上看到白雪公主或米老鼠。当然，迪士尼还有很多颇具刺激性的游乐设施， 比如巨大的吊船和可怕的自由落体设施。有这么多引人入胜的东西，难怪哪里有迪士尼乐园， 哪里的旅游业就会发达。如果你想尽情娱乐，而且有更多的收获，那就来迪斯尼乐园吧！ 位于美国东南部美丽的斯莫基山脉中的多莱坞，是世界上最独特的主题公园之一。多莱 坞展示并欢庆美国东南地区的传统文化。尽管这里也有搭乘游乐设施，但是公园最吸引的还 是它的文化。著名的乡村音乐会团全年都会在露天或室内剧院演出。美国各地的人们来到这
里，是为了观看木匠或其他工匠们用老式的方法制作木制品，玻璃制品和铁制品。还可以到 糖果店品尝一下糖果，这些糖果和 150 年前美国南方人制作的一模一样。或者乘一乘蒸汽火 车，这可是在美国东南部依然运转的唯一一辆蒸汽火车。你甚至可以再世界上最大的秃鹰保 护区欣赏到美丽的秃鹰。多莱坞为那些喜欢搭乘游乐设施的人提供了最好的老式木制过山车 之一——雷暴云贴。它因为在最小的空间内拥有最长的长度而闻名于世。请来多莱坞尽情了 解美国东南地区的历史吧！ 如果你想体验远古时代并且感受英国骑士、贵妇、王子和王后的高贵举止，那么英国的 卡莫洛特公园就再合适不过了。园内所有的景区都是按照亚瑟王和圆桌骑士生活的时代复制 的。有的地方你能和大魔术师梅林一起观看魔术表演。如果你想观看剑术或者马上格斗，格 斗区是一个值得去的地方。如果你表现好的话，亚瑟王可能会挑选你参加大型的格斗联赛。 你喜欢动物吗？那你来农场参观吧。在这里你可以了解到古英格兰的人们如何搭理他们的农 场以及如何饲养动物。想进入古英格兰的梦幻世界吗？那就来卡莫洛特公园吧！ FUTUROSCOP —EXCITEMENT AND LEARNING “观测未来”——刺激与求知 Last week I took a journey deep into space, to the end of the solar system, and was pulled into a black hole. Then I took a trip to Brazil and experienced surviving an airplane crash in the jungle. After that, I joined some divers and went to the bottom of the ocean to see strange blind creatures that have never seen sunlight. For a break, I took part in some car racing and then skied down some of the most difficult mountains in the world. I ended my travels by meeting face to face with a dinosaur, the terrible T-Rex, and survived the experience! I did all this in one great day at Futuroscope. Opened in 1987, Futuroscope is one of the largest space-age parks in the world. This science and technology-based theme park in France uses the most advanced technology. Its 3-D cinemas and giant movie screens provide brand new experiences of the earth and beyond. Visitors can get close to parts of the world they have never experienced, going to the bottom of the ocean, flying through the jungle or visiting the edges of the solar system. The amazing, up-to-date information together with many opportunities for hands-on learning makes the world come to life in a completely new way for visitors. Learning centres throughout the park let visitors try their own scientific experiments, as well as learn more about space travel, the undersea world and much mote. I bought tickets for myself and my friends at the park's entrance, but tickets are also available online. Futuroscope is not only for individuals, but is also the perfect mix of fun and learning for class outings. Classes or other large groups that let Futuroscope know their plans in advance can get the group admission rate. For anyone coming from out of town, Futuroscope has many excellent hotels nearby, most of which provide a shuttle service to the park. If driving, Futuroscope is within
easy reach of the freeway. Plan your trip well before starting, since Futuroscope has so many shows, activities and great souvenir shops that it is difficult to see them all. Come ready to walk a lot - be sure to wear some comfortable sneakers or other walking shoes! 上周我进行了一次深入太空的旅行。我来到了太阳系的尽头，被拖进了一个黑洞里。然 后我浏览了巴西，感受了坠机后在丛林中求生的滋味。随后，我跟着一些潜水者潜入海底观 察神秘的，从未见过阳光的生物。作为间歇，我参加了一个赛车比赛，然后来到世界上最险 要的山上滑雪。最后我面对面地遭遇了一只恐龙——可怕的是雷克斯龙，在死里逃生之后， 我的旅行也结束了。 在“观测未来” ，我在一年之内就做完了所有这些事情。 “预测未来”于 1987 年开放，是 世界上最大的太空时代主题公园之一。这个以科技为基础的法国主题公园使用了最先进的技 术。它的立体电影以及那巨大的屏幕能（为游客）提供在地球以及更远的地方进行全新体验 机会。参观者可以接触到他们从来没有经历过的世界角落，比如潜入海底，飞跃丛林，或者 参观太阳系的边缘地带。这些奇妙的、最新的信息，以及大量动手实践的学习机会让世界以 一种全新的方式展现在游人面前。 遍布公园的学习中心可以让参观者尝试做自己的科学实验， 与此同时学到更多关于太空旅行、海底世界等等知识。 我是在公园的入空处给自己和朋友买的票， 但是也可以网上购票。 “观测未来” 不仅仅适合 “个 人旅游” ，也适合学生全班出游，因为它是娱乐和学习的完美结合。班级或着大的团体如果提 前与“观测未来”预约，还可以享受团体入场价格。 “观测未来”附近为那些城外来的游客准 备了很多很好的旅馆，而且大多数旅馆都提供往返公园的车辆服务。如果开车（也很方便） ， “观测未来”就在高速公路附近。在出发之前好好计划一下你的旅行，因为“观测未来”里 面的表演、活动和好的纪念品商店太多了，所以全部浏览完是很难的。来这里要准备走好多 的路——一定要穿上舒适的运动鞋或者其他适合步行的鞋。
必修 5 Unit 1 第一单元 伟大的科学家
JOHN SHOW DEFEATS "KING CHOLERA"
John Snow was a famous doctor in London - so expert, indeed, that he attended Queen Victoria as her personal physician. But he became inspired when he thought about helping ordinary people exposed to cholera. This was the deadly disease of its day. Neither its cause nor its cure was understood. So many thousands of terrified people died every time there was an outbreak. John Snow wanted to face the challenge and solve this problem. He knew that cholera would never be controlled until its cause was found. He became interested in two theories that possibly explained how cholera killed people.
The first suggested that cholera multiplied in the air. A cloud of dangerous gas floated around until it found its victims. The second suggested that people absorbed this disease into their bodies with their meals. From the stomach the disease quickly attacked the body and soon the affected person died. John Snow suspected that the second theory was correct but he needed evidence. So when another outbreak hit London in 1854, he was ready to begin his enquiry. As the disease spread quickly through poor neighbourhoods, he began to gather information. In two particular streets, the cholera outbreak was so severe that more than 500 people died in ten days. He was determined to find out why. First he marked on a map the exact places where all the dead people had lived. This gave him a valuable clue about the cause of the disease. Many of the deaths were near the water pump in Broad Street (especially numbers 16, 37, 38 and 40). He also noticed that some houses (such as 20 and 21 Broad Street and 8 and 9 Cambridge Street) had had no deaths. He had not foreseen this, so he made further investigations. He discovered that these people worked in the pub at 7 Cambridge Street. They had been given free beer and so had not drunk the water from the pump. It seemed that the water was to blame. Next, John Snow looked into the source of the water for these two streets. He found that it came from the river polluted by the dirty water from London. He immediately told the astonished people in Broad Street to remove the handle from the pump so that it could not be used. Soon afterwards the disease slowed down. He had shown that cholera was spread by germs and not in a cloud of gas. In another part of London, he found supporting evidence from two other deaths that were linked to the Broad Street outbreak. A woman, who had moved away from Broad Street, liked the water from the pump so much that she had it delivered to her house every day. Both she and her daughter died of cholera after drinking the water. With this extra evidence John Snow was able to announce with certainty that polluted water carried the virus. To prevent this from happening again, John Snow suggested that the source of all the water supplies be examined. The water companies were instructed not to expose people to polluted water any more. Finally "King Cholera" was defeated. 约翰· 斯洛是伦敦一位著名的医生——他的确医术精湛，因而成为照料维多利亚女王的私 人医生。但他一想到要帮助那些得了霍乱的普通百姓时，他就感到很振奋。霍乱在当时是最 致命的疾病，人们既不知道它的病源，也不了解它的治疗方法。每次霍乱暴发时，就有大批 惊恐的老百姓死去。约翰· 斯洛想面对这个挑战，解决这个问题。他知道，在找到病源之前， 霍乱疫情是无法控制的。 斯洛对霍乱致人死地的两种推测都很感兴趣。一种看法是霍乱病毒在空气中繁殖着，像
一股危险的气体到处漂浮，直到找到病毒的受害者为止。第二种看法是人们在吃饭的时候把 这种病毒引入体内的。病从胃里发作而迅速殃及全身，患者就会很快地死去。 斯洛推测第二种说法是正确的，但他需要证据。因此，在 1854 年伦敦再次暴发霍乱的时 候，约翰· 斯洛着手准备对此进行调研。当霍乱在贫民区迅速蔓延的时候，约翰· 斯洛就开始 收集资料。他发现特别在两条街道上霍乱流行的很严重，在 10 天之内就死去了 500 多人。他 决心要查明其原因。 首先，他在一张地图上标明了所有死者住过的地方。这提供了一条说明霍乱起因的很有 价值的线索。许多死者是住在宽街的水泵附近（特别是这条街上 16、37、38、40 号） 。他发 现有些住宅（如宽街上 20 号和 21 号以及剑桥街上的 8 号和 9 号）却无人死亡。他以前没预 料到这种情况，所有他决定深入调查。他发现，这些人都在剑桥街 7 号的酒馆里打工，而酒 馆为他们免费提供啤酒喝，因此他们没有喝从宽街水泵抽上来的水。看来水是罪魁祸首。 接下来，约翰· 斯洛调查了这两条街的水源情况。他发现，水是从河里来的，而河水被伦 敦排出的脏水污染了。他马上叫宽街上惊慌失措的老百姓拆掉水泵的把手。这样，水泵就用 不成了。不久，疫情就开始得到缓解。他证明了，他证明了霍乱是由病菌而不是由气团传播 的。 在伦敦的另一个地区，他从两个与宽街暴发的霍乱有关联的死亡病例中发现了有力的证 据。有一位妇女是从宽街搬过来的，她特别喜欢那里的水，每天都要派人从水泵打水运到家 里来。她和她的女儿喝了这种水，都得了霍乱而死去。有了这个特别的证据，约翰· 斯洛就能 够肯定地宣布，这种被污染了的水携带着病菌。 为了防止这种情况的再度发生，约翰· 斯洛建议所有水源都要经过检测。自来水公司也接 到指令，不能再让人们接触被污染的水了。最终，―霍乱王‖被击败了。
COPERNICUS ' REVOLUTIONARY THEORY
Nicolaus Copernicus was frightened and his mind was confused. Although he had tried to ignore them, all his mathematical calculations led to the same conclusion: that the earth was not the centre of the solar system. Only if you put the sun there did the movements of the other planets in the sky make sense. Yet he could not tell anyone about his theory as the powerful Christian Church would have punished him for even suggesting such an idea. They believed God had made the world and for that reason the earth was special and must be the centre of the solar system. The problem arose because astronomers had noticed that some planets in the sky seemed to stop, move backward and then go forward in a loop. Others appeared brighter at times and less
bright at others. This was very strange if the earth was the centre of the solar system and all planets went round it. Copernicus had thought long and hard about these problems and tried to find an answer. He had collected observations of the stars and used all his mathematical knowledge to explain them. But only his new theory could do that. So between 1510 and 1514 he worked on it, gradually improving his theory until he felt it was complete. In 1514 he showed it privately to his friends. The changes he made to the old theory were revolutionary. He placed a fixed sun at the centre of the solar system with the planets going round it and only the moon still going round the earth. He also suggested that the earth was spinning as it went round the sun and this explained changes in the movement of the planets and in the brightness of the stars. His friends were enthusiastic and encouraged him to publish his ideas, but Copernicus was cautious. He did not want to be attacked by the Christian Church, so he only published it as he lay dying in 1543. Certainly he was right to be careful. The Christian Church rejected his theory, saying it was against God's idea and people who supported it would be attacked. Yet Copernicus' theory is now the basis on which all our ideas of the universe are built. His theory replaced the Christian idea of gravity, which said things fell to earth because God created the earth as the centre of the universe. Copernicus showed this was obviously wrong. Now people can see that there is a direct link between his theory and the work of Isaac Newton, Albert Einstein and Stephen Hawking. 尼古拉· 哥白尼被吓得心烦意乱的。虽然他曾经试着不去理睬那些数字，然而他所有的数 学计算都得出了一个相同的结论：地球不是太阳系的中心。只有当你把太阳放在中心位置上， 天空中其他行星的运动才能说得清楚。他的这个理论可不能告诉任何人，因为即使他只暗示 有这种想法，他都会受到强大的基督教会势力的惩罚。教会认为世界是上帝创造的，正因为 如此，地球就具有特殊的意义，它必定要成为太阳系的中心。 这样，问题就来了，因为天文学家以前发现过，天上有些行星停顿下来，往后移动，然 后再成环状向前移动，而其他行星看上去有时亮些，有时又不怎么亮。如果地球是太阳系的 中心，而所有行星环绕着地球转的话，那么这种现象就很奇怪了。 哥白尼对这些问题曾经苦苦思索过很久，试图找出问题的答案。他曾经收集过观察星球 的数据，并且利用他的全部数学知识来解释这些数据。但是只有他的新理论才能作出解释。 于是，他在 1510 至 1514 年期间从事这项研究，逐步修改他的理论，直到他感到完善时为止。 1514 年，他把他的新理论私下里给他的朋友们看。他对旧理论的修改是具有革命性的。 他把太阳固定在太阳系的中心位置上，而行星则围绕着太阳转，只有月球仍然绕着地球转。 他还提出地球在围绕太阳转的同时，它本身还自转，这样就说明了行星运动的变化情况以及 星球亮度问题。他的朋友都热情地鼓励他把他的想法公之于世，而他却小心谨慎，他不想遭
到基督教会的攻击，所以他直到 1543 年临终之前才公布了这一观点。 当然，他小心谨慎是对的。基督教会拒绝接受他的理论，说这种理论违背了上帝的旨意， 而支持这种理论的人都会受到打击。然而哥白尼的理论却是我们宇宙观赖以建立的基础。他 的理论还改变了基督教对地心引力的看法，他们认为物体往地球上掉落是因为上帝创造了地 球，而地球正是宇宙的中心。哥白尼表明这是明显错误的。如今人们可以看到，他的这些想 法与艾萨克· 牛顿、阿尔伯特· 爱因斯坦以及斯蒂芬· 霍金等人的研究都有着直接的联系。
必修 5 Unit 2 第二单元
THE UNITED KINGDOM
POZZLES IN GEOGRAPHY
People may wonder why different words are used to describ
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