The Indicative Mood（陈述语气）
——expressing a fact
You are very careful. ? 你很细心。
The Imperative Mood（祈使语气）
/>——expressing an order, a command or a request
? ★ Please be careful.
The Subjunctive Mood （虚拟语气）
------expressing wishes, suggestion and doubt, etc.
? ★ I wish you were more careful. ? 但愿你更细心些。
? 在虚拟条件句中, ? 虚拟语气的一般表示方法
Three types of unreal conditionals（非真实条件）:
? (1) opposite to the present facts ? (2) opposite to the facts in the past ? (3) opposite to the facts in the future
He doesn’t know the answer, so he doesn’t tell you now. ---If he _____ the answer, he ________ you now.
knew would tell
if-clause Present PAST FUTURE
past form (be—were)
He didn’t know the answer, so he didn’t tell you yesterday.
had known ---If he___________ have told you the answer, he would __________ yesterday.
NOW PAST FUTURE
past form (be—were)
1. I will not go abroad. ---- If I were to go abroad, I should go to France. 2. I won’t see him tomorrow.
would pass (pass) ---- If I saw him tomorrow, I __________
your note to him. 3. It won’t rain tomorrow. should rain/ rained/ were to rain ---- If it ____________________________ (rain) would stay (stay) at home. tomorrow, we ____________
if-clause NOW PAST FUTURE past form (be—were) had+p.p.
?past form ?should+inf. ?were to+inf.
main clause would/should/could /might+V. would/should/could /might+have+p.p. would/should/could/ might+V.
Exercise: were 1. If I ____(be) you, I would get up early in the morning. 2. If you asked ____(ask) him, he might tell you. 3. I didn’t see your sister at the meeting. If come shehad ______(come), she would have met my brother.
C 4. If he had not lost his money, he ____ the piano last week.
A. would buy B. had bought C. could have bought D. bought
? 条件句中有were, had, should, 时，可以省略if， 而把were, had, should放在主语前。
? ★ 这种用法主要用于书面语中
? Exercises：If he had studied more, he would have been able to pass the exam. Had he studied more, he ? → ____ would have been able to pass the exam.
? ★ Were it necessary, I might resign. ? ★ Had you informed me earlier, I wouldn’t have signed the contract. ? ★ Should I have time, I would call on her.
? ? ? ?
A the clouds, you would find the ____ airplane in the sky easily. A. Were it not for B. If it were not C. Had it not been for D. If it had not been for
? Were it not for the clouds, you would find the airplane in the sky easily.
? If it were not for the clouds, you would find the airplane in the sky easily.
? 在错综时间条件句中，虚拟条件从句 和主句动作发生的时间不一致，因此， 主句和从句的谓语动词要根据所指的 不同时间选用恰当的虚拟语气形式。
★If I had taken my umbrella with me when I came out this morning, I should not be wet now. (过去 现在) ★If I were you, I wouldn’t have missed the film last night.(现在 过去)
If you didn’t drink too much last night, you wouldn’t be sleepy now. If you hadn’t drunk too much last night, you wouldn’t be sleepy now.
? 这里的所谓无“条件”，指的是句子表层 没有通常使用的if或wish等引起的表示 条件的句子，但其深层结构或上下文中 还是有条件的。
? 这种条件可以用介词、形容词、名词、 代词、连词、动词、分词、不定式、定 语从句或上下文等表示出来。
? 表示无“条件”的词有with, without, but for, or, but, otherwise, even, in case of, 等。这种句子往往是有主句 而无从句。
★Without your help we couldn’t have succeeded. ★She wasn’t feeling very well. Otherwise she wouldn’t have left the meeting so early.
C ? _____ your cooperation, our meeting wouldn’t have been successful. A But B For C But for D If for
? 1. ? ? ? ? 2. ? 3. 一般条件句 (1) 与现在相反 (2) 与过去相反 (3) 与将来相反 错综时间条件句 无“条件”的虚拟语气
? 1. 在宾语从句中 在一些表示要求、建议、命令等 动词的宾语从句中要使用虚拟语 气。 这时谓语要用虚拟形式来 表示，即用“should+动词原形” 或省略“should”，只用动词原形。
? suggest, propose, insist, order, command, advise, desire, recommend, require, request, demand, determine, beg, ask etc.
D till next Your advice that she_____ week is reasonable.
A .will wait B. is going to wait C. waits D. wait
My father was strict. He requested B that I ______ television on week nights. A. mustn’t watch
B. not watch C. couldn’t watch D. don’t watch
★The (suggest) that there is a mistake in this sentence.
★ Note ! 当上述动词作其他意思解释，或者 说话者认为所讲的是事实，要用陈
suggests teacher _____
? cf. 虚拟语气在动词wish后的宾语从句中 ? 表示与实际情况相反的愿望。 ★与现在事实相反：用动词过去式
I wish she were here.
I wish she had taken my advice. I wish you would go with us tomorrow.
? Exercise for you
had slept ? I wish I _____________ (sleep) longer this morning but I had to get up and come to class.
? 2. 在主语从句中
? 在一些与表示要求、建议、命令等动 词意义相类似的形容词所在的主语 从句中常使用虚拟语气。这时谓语 动词要用“should+动词原形”或省 略“should”,只用动词原形。
? 这些形容词有： ? important, necessary, urgent, desirable,insistent, possible, recommended, desired, requested, suggested,etc.
★ It is desired that all the students (should) pass final examination. ★ It has been decided that the meeting (should) be postponed till next Monday.
3.在表语从句和同位语从句中 在suggestion, advice, decision, desire, order, idea, proposal, request, recommendation, requirement等名词后的表语从句或同
位语从句中常使用虚拟语气。这时谓语 动词要用“should+动词原形”或省略 “should”,只用动词原形。
★ His desire is that he (should) visit the Great Wall if China someday. ★ We made the suggestion that such device (should) be designed and produced without delay.
4. 在if only引导的从句中 谓语动词用一般过去时表示现在没有 实现的愿望，用过去完成时表示过去没 有实现的愿望。常译为“要是---就好 了”。
If only I were ten years ? younger! ? ★ If only he had not left!
looked as if she were
talked as though they had been friends for many years.
? 表示将来发生的可能性不大： ? would (might,could) + 动词原形
It looks as if it might ? rain.
? 但as if (as though) 后面的从句 有时也可用陈述语气，这是因为从 句中的情况往往是可能发生的或 可能被设想为真实的。
? ★It looks as if our side
is going to win.
7.在 “It’s ( high/about ) time” 句型中 谓语动词用过去式，表示“早该干某 事而已经有些晚了”。
★ It is high time we left. ★ It is about time you went to bed.
? 8. 在would rather后的句子中
? （1）接不带to的不定式，表示选择，指现 在或将来，也可指过去
? ★ I’d rather do it now. ? ★ I’d rather have stayed at home than went to the dull film.
? （2）接从句。用一般过去时，表示一个现在 或将来的愿望；用过去完成时，表示一个过 去的愿望。
? ★ I’d rather I hadn’t told you about it. ? ★ I would sooner she printed the wall green next time.
? Exercise for you
? --“John wants to see you today.” -- “I would rather he came (come) tomorrow ____ than today.
1. 在宾语从句中 2.在主语从句中 3.在表语从句和同位语从句中 4. 在if only引导的从句中 5.在由as if引导的状语从句中 6.在 “It’s ( high/about ) time” 句型中 7.在would rather, would sooner后的句子中
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