当前位置:首页 >> 英语 >> (北师大版)2012届高考英语一轮复习讲练精品学案 (3)

(北师大版)2012届高考英语一轮复习讲练精品学案 (3)


Module Unit 16

6

Stories

1.abandon vt.丢弃;抛弃,遗弃,放弃,中止,(与 oneself 连用)使 放纵;使听任;n.[U] 放纵,放任,狂放 【典型例句】 We were sinking fast,and the captain gave the order to aband

onship. 我们的船沉得很快,船长下令弃船。 The broken bike was found abandoned by the riverside. 人们发现那辆损坏的自行车被扔在河边。 He finally abandoned his reformist ideas. 他终于放弃了自己的改良主义思想。 He abandoned himself to his emotions. 他任由自己的情绪发作。 高阶] 【词语辨析】 abandon/desert/leave/give up/quit abandon 指完全、永远地放弃,尤指对之负有责任或义务者, 放弃一个项目或计划。 desert 强调故意违背自己的义务、责任或誓言等(擅离职守)。 leave 普通用词,指舍弃某事或某一职业,或终止同某人的关 系,但不涉及动机与结果。 give up 普通用语,侧重指没有希望或因外界压力而放弃。 quit 指突然或出其不意地放弃,现一般指“停止” 。 quit work 停止工作 即学即用 ①Despite some difficulties,they’re not going to ________ the plan. A.abandon B.desert C.forsake D.quit 解析:意为“放弃” ,句意为“尽管有一些困难,他们不打算 放弃计划” 符合题意。 ,A 答案:A 2.preserve vt.保存,保藏;保护;维护;维持 【典型例句】 Oil preserves metal from rust.油保护金属免于生锈。 We have taken effective measures to preserve our natural resources.我们已采取有效措施保护自然资源。 I think these interesting old customs should be preserved.

[剑桥高阶]

[剑桥

-1-

我认为这些有趣的旧习俗应该保存下去。 It’s the duty of the police to preserve the public order. 维护公共秩序是警察的职责。 I need to get out of the house from time to time just to preserve(=prevent me from losing) my sanity. 我需要时不时到户外去以保持头脑清醒。 [剑桥高阶] 【词语辨析】 defend/guard/protect/preserve 都含“保护” “使安全”的意思。 defend 指“保卫” “防御” ,应用范围很广,对象可以是具体的, 也可以是抽象的。 defend oneself against enemy 防御敌人 guard 指“注意观察、戒备,以免受可能的攻击或伤害” 。 guard a coastline 守卫海岸线 protect 指“保护...以免遭受危险或伤害等” 。 protect the children from harm 保护儿童免受伤害 preserve 指“防护、保存??免被分解或腐烂” 。 Salt preserves food from decay.盐能防止食物腐烂。 即学即用 ②It is our duty to ________ our motherland against enemies. A.defend B.protect C.guard D.care 解析:句意:保卫祖国防御外敌是我们的责任。保卫祖国应用 defend。 答案:A ③Dark glasses are sometimes worn to ________ the eyes from strong sunlight. A.prevent B.care C.defend D.protect 解析:句意:墨镜可以保护眼睛免受强光的伤害。retect...from 为固定搭配。 答案:D 3.occur vi.发生,出现;存在,被想起,被想到,浮现 【典型例句】 Earthquakes occur frequently in this area.这一地区经常发生地震。 Do giraffes occur in Africa only? 长颈鹿是不是只在非洲才有? A brilliant idea occurred to me.我想到一个极好的主意。 Does it never occur to you that I might like to be on my own occasionally?你难道从没想过有时候我或许喜欢独处?[剑桥高阶] 【词语辨析】 occur/happen/take place/break out/come about happen 表示事情的发生存在一定的偶然性。 What has happened?出什么事了? If anything happens,please let me know. 不管发生什么事,都请通知我。 How did the car accident happen?车祸是怎么发生的? occur 指“发生”时可与 happen 换用,但后接 to sb.时,两者含义不同:happen to sb./sth. 指不好的事情发生在某人(物)身上;occur to sb.指“某种思想等呈现于某人的大脑中” 。 take place 表示“发生” ,指必然会发生的事情,按计划,安排要发生的事多用 take place;

-2-

此外 take place 还可表示“举行某种活动” 。 break out 一般是指激烈的,严重的暴力,骚乱,战争,火灾等大事爆发。 come about 表示“发生、产生” ,多指事情已经发生了,但还不知道为什么,常用于疑问句和 否定句。 He happened to know the place.他碰巧知道那个地方。 When did the earthquake occur/happen?地震是什么时候发生的? Didn’t it occur to you to phone them about it? 你难道就没想过给他们打个电话? In 1919,the May 4th Movement took place in China. 一九一九年,中国发生了五四运动。 Fire broke out last night.昨晚发生了火灾。 I’ll never understand how it came about that you were late three times a week.我怎么也不 明白你会一周迟到三次。 即学即用 ④That sound doesn’t ________ in his language,so it’s difficult for him to pronounce it. A.happen B.occur C.have D.take place 解析:句意:那个音在他的语言里不存在,因此他发音很困难。occur“ 发生,存在” ,其他 词无此意。 答案:B ⑤A big fire ________ in our neighborhood last night. A.broke out B.was broke out C.was happened D.brought about 解析:句意:昨天晚上我们附近发生了火灾。表示火灾,战争,自然灾害的爆发只能用 break out。 答案:A ⑥Nobody knows when the accident ________. A.happen B.Happened C.has happening D.was happened 解析:句意:无人知道事故是什么时候发生的。根据句意应用一般过去时。 答案:B ⑦More crimes ________ in summer than at any other time. A.take place B.is taking place C.are taken D.taken place 解析:句意:夏天犯罪率比其他时间都高。根据句意应用一般现在时。 答案:A 4.eager adj.热心的,热切的,渴望的,急切的 【典型例句】 He looked around the circle of eager faces. 他看了看四周热切的脸庞。 She is eager for success.她渴望成功。 She sounded very eager to meet you. 听得出来她非常渴望见到你。 [剑桥高阶] 【词语辨析】 (1)表示“担心的” “焦虑的”这一意义时,只能用 anxious,不用

-3-

eager;表示 “为??担心” ,一般用介词 about /for。 He is anxious about (或 for) her safety.他担心她的安全。 (2)表示“热切的” “渴望的”这一意义时,两者都可用,但有以下几点需注意: ①anxious 之后一般用介词 for,而 eager 之后可接介词 for,after,about 等。 He is anxious for a bike.他渴望有一辆自行车。 We are all eager for (或 after) knowledge.我们都求知心切。 ②两者之后均可接“(for sb.)+不定式” ,表示“渴望或想要(某人)做某事” 。 He is anxious (或 eager) to marry her. 他渴望能与她结婚。 He was anxious (或 eager) for me to go.他想要我去。 ③两者之后均可接 that 从句,且从句谓语一般都用“should+动词原形” 。 I’m anxious (或 eager) that they should win.我很希望他们会获胜。 即学即用 ⑧Our parents always get a little bit ________ if we don’t manage to arrive when we say we will. A.eager B.anxious C.patient D.earnest 解析:我们的父母经常会有点担忧,当我们说回去而又没到时。本题表示“担忧” ,故只能用 B。 答案:B 5. discourage vt.使泄气,使沮丧,劝阻;打消,阻挡,防止 【精讲拓展】 be discouraged at/by... discourage sb. from doing... discouragement n.泄气,灰心;挫折 discouraged adj.灰心丧气的,沮丧的 discouraging adj.令人泄气的 【典型例句】 She was discouraged by setbacks.她因挫折而灰心了。 The thought of how much work she had to do discouraged her. 一想到还有那么多活儿得做她就泄了气。 [剑桥高阶] We discouraged him from giving up the job. 我们劝他不要放弃那份工作。 The rain discouraged us from going out. 雨打消了我们外出的念头。 即学即用 用 discourage 的适当形式填空 ⑨He refused to give up in spite of many ________. ⑩Learners can feel ________ if an exercise is too difficult. ?It may be hard to do at first.Don’t let this ________ you. ?Today’s report on the economy is rather ________. 答案:⑨discouragements ⑩discouraged ?discourage ?discouraging 6.witness vt.目击,亲眼看到;vi.作证,证明,成为??的证据; n.目击者,见证人 【典型例句】

-4-

Did you witness the accident?你亲眼看到那次事故了吗? He witnessed the truth of my statement.他证明我的陈述真实。 He witnessed to having seen the man enter the room. 他作证说看到那个男人进入房间。 注意:witness to 中 to 是介词 The police found the witness to the murder. 警察找到了那件谋杀案的目击者。 His offer bears witness to his kindness. 他的提议证明了他的善意。

[美国传

统] 即学即用 ? After the explosion,the policemen did a lot of work to find out some clues from the ________. A.on?lookers B.viewers C.people D.witnesses 解析:句意:爆炸发生后,警察做了很多工作去从目击证人处寻找线索。只有 D 符合题意。 A.旁观者;B.观众。 答案:D 7.vivid adj.鲜艳的;鲜明的;强烈的;有生气的;活泼的,生动 的;逼真的;清晰的 【典型例句】 The actresses were wearing vivid historical costumes. 女演员们穿着鲜艳的古装。 His girlfriend is a vivid young dancer. 他的女朋友是个活泼的青年舞蹈家。 He gave a very vivid and often shocking account/description of his time in prison.他生动地讲述/描述了他的狱中生活,他说的 常让人觉得很震惊。 [剑桥高 阶] 即学即用 ? I’m not surprised that he became a writer.Even as a child he had a ________ imagination.(2009· 天津,13) A.clear B.cautious C.funny D.vivid 解析:句意:他成为作家,我毫不惊讶。孩提时,他就有丰富的想象力。vivid“生动的,逼 真的” ;clear“清楚的” ;cautious“小心的” ;funny“滑稽的” 。 答案:D

1.knock sb.over 弄翻,打倒,撞倒 【精讲拓展】 knock about 接连打击(指拳击),(浪等)反复冲击(船只); [口]到处流浪,漫游

-5-

knock down 打(撞)倒;拆除,拆开 knock into 把(某种知识)灌输给??;与??相撞;[口] 偶然碰到(某人) knock off 则指从某个地方(被)撞倒 knock out 敲出 knock at 敲门 【典型例句】 A boy was knocked over by a passing car but was fortunately unhurt. 一个男孩被一辆路过的汽车撞倒了,幸运的是没有受 伤。 I accidentally knocked the glass of water over. 我无意中打翻了那杯水。[美国传统] He knocked a glass over.他把玻璃杯打翻了。 即学即用 ?________ at the door before entering,please. A.Knocked B.To knock C.Knocking D.Knock 解析:本题考查祈使句,所以句首用 knock。 答案:D 2.in a way 在某种程度上说(或 in some ways,in one way) 【精讲拓展】 in the (或 one’s) way 挡道,妨碍 all the way 一路上,一直;完全 on one’s way to 在某人去??的路上 by the way 顺便说说,顺便提起 by way of 经由 in no way 决不 In some ways,television is more challenging than theatre. 从某种意义上讲,电视比戏剧更有挑战性。 In a way,a teacher is like a dictionary,particularly an English teacher. 从某种程度上讲,教师像一本字典,特别是英语老师。 I like her approach to problems in a way. 从某种意义上说,我喜欢她处理问题的方法。 [美国传统] 【典型例句】 即学即用 ?The chair is ________,please take it away. A.in this way B.in the way C.on the way D.by the way 解析:句意:椅子碍事,请把它移开。in the way“挡道,妨碍” ,符合题意。 答案:B ?There are usually at least two ________ of looking at every question. A.means B.Directions C.views D.ways 解析:句意:看问题通常要从两方面看待。此处 way 表示方面。 答案:D

-6-

3.in particular 特别,尤其,详细地 【精讲拓展】 particular adj.特别的,特殊的,特定的 special adj.专门的 be particular about...对??挑剔 particularly adv.特别,尤其(=especially) She stressed that point in particular.她特别强调了那一点。 I like that car in particular.我特别喜欢那辆车。[美国传统] His statement refers to people in general,not to anyone in particular. 他的发言是泛指一般情况,不是针对某一个人的。 Among all the merchandise,I was interested in the cotton piece in particular. 在所有商品中,我对棉布特别感兴趣。 【典型例句】 即学即用 完成句子 ?The teacher showed ________ concern for the disabled child. 老师特别关心那个残疾儿童。 ?She is ________ about her food.她对食物非常挑剔。 ?The summer here is very hot,________ at noon. 这儿的夏天非常热,尤其是在中午。 I came here ________ to see you.我专门来这儿看你。 答案:?particular ?particular ?especially/particularly specially 4.end up 以??结束,告终 【精讲拓展】 end up+prep. end up with end up+adj. end up doing... at the end (of) 在(??的)末端 be at an end 结束,终结 by the end of 到结束时,到末尾时 come (draw) to an end 结束,完结 put an end to sth. 结束某事 in the end 最后,终于 on end 不停地,连续地,竖立;竖着 without end 永远的,没有完结的 You will end up in debt if you keep on spending money like that. 你要是老这样花钱,总有一天要负债。 We started with soup,and fruit to end up with. 我们开始时喝汤,最后吃水果。 We had a banquet,which ended(up) with soup. 我们举行了一个宴会,最后一道是喝汤。 If he carries on driving like that,he’ll end up dead. 他照这样开车,早晚得死于非命。 There were many problems,but everything worked out in the end. 问题很多,但最终一切都得以解决。 [美国传统] 【典型例句】 即学即用

-7-

To start with the aim of doing harm to others is only to ________ ruining oneself. A.at the end B.in the end C.make ends meet D.end up 解析:句意:搬起石头砸自己的脚。end up“结束” the end“在末端” the end“最终” ;at ;in ; make ends meet“收支相抵” 。 答案:D 5.count on 依赖,依靠,期待,指望 【精讲拓展】 count on sb. count on sb. to do/doing count vt. 计算,数,将??计算在内;vi.有重要意义,有价值 They are counting the books they collected. 他们正在数收集来的书。 There are ten people,not counting the guide. 不包括向导,共有十人。 In sport what really counts is not the winning but the playing. 就运动而言,重要的不是赢,而是参与。 In emergency every second counts. 紧急情况下,每分每秒都很重要。 depend on 依赖,依靠,取决于,由??而定 It depends 视情况而定 You can depend on him.你可以信赖他。 You may depend on it that Tom will help you with your English.你放心,汤姆会帮助你学英语 的。 rely on 依赖,依靠 You may rely on me to help you.你可以信赖我会帮助你的。 【归纳拓展】 Thanks.I’ll be counting on you.谢谢。一切就依赖你了。 She’s counting on you to show movies to her friends. 她盼望着你为她的朋友们放电影呢! You can count on me to help.我肯定会帮你。 [美国传统] We can’t count on the weather being fine. 我们不能指望天气晴朗。 【归纳拓展】 即学即用 Surely it doesn’t matter where the students associations get their money from;what ________ is what they do with it.(2007·湖北,29) A.counts B.applies C.stresses D.functions 解析:句意:学生会的资金来源并不重要,重要的是他们如何使用他们的钱。count 作动词意 为“值得考虑,有价值” ;apply“应用,申请” ;stress“着重,强调” ;function“运转,起 作用” 。 答案:A When we will hold the flower show in the park mainly _______the weather recently. A.lies on B.puts on C.relies on D.depends on

-8-

解析:句意:我们什么时候在公园举行花卉展览取决于最近的天气。depends on“依赖,取 决于” ;rely on“依赖” 。 答案:D 6.now that 既然,由于 【典型例句】 You ought to have a good rest now that you’ve finished the work. 既然已完成了工作,你就应该好好休息一下。 Now that there is a new tunnel,the road is less dangerous. 既然有了一个新的隧道,这条路就较少危险了。 Now that spring is here,we can expect warmer weather. 既然春天到了,天气就有望变暖。 [美国传统] Now (that) you have come,you may as well stay. 你既然来了,不妨就住下。 【词语辨析】 since/for/because/now that 的用法和区别 (1)since(既然)语气较弱,强调已知的事实。 例:Since you can’t answer the question,I’ll ask someone else. 既然你回答不出这个问题,我就问别人了。 (2)for 是并列连词,表示推断的原因,或对前一分句补充说明理由。 例:It must be morning ,for the birds are singing. 一定是清晨了,因为鸟儿在叫。 (3)because 通常表示直接的原因。because 引导的从句表示直接而明确的原因和理由,表示 按因果关系的推断,语气很强,用来回答 why 的问句,一般位于主句之后。 例:We couldn’t go out because it was too cold.因为天气太冷,我们不能外出。 (4)now that 同 since 相似,语气较弱,强调人们已知的事实。例: Now that you are busy,let me do it for you. 既然你忙,就让我给你做吧。 (5)as 意为“因为、由于” ,语气比 because 弱,所引导的从句表示的是不言而喻、显而易见 的原因和理由,其从句一般放在主句前。 As it was late , we came back soon. 由于时间很晚了,我们很快就回来。 即学即用 _______ you’ve got a chance,you might as well make full use of it. A.Now that B.After C.Although D.As soon as 解析:句意:既然你有机会,还是要好好利用,根据句意,只能选 A。 答案:A A man cannot smile like a child,________ a child smiles with his eyes,while a man smiles with his lips alone.(湖南,23) A.so B.but C.and D.for 解析:句意:成人微笑与小孩子微笑不一样,因为孩子是用眼睛笑, 而成人仅用嘴唇笑。根据句意,后面的句子提出的是一种理由,for 是并列连词,引出理由。 答案:D He found it increasingly difficult to read,_______ his eyesight was

-9-

beginning to fail.(2008·山东,22) A.and B.for C.but D.or 答案:B 7.come out 出现,出版;结果是,传出 【精讲拓展】 come 的相关短语: come about 发生 come across 偶遇;偶尔发现 come along 一道来;一起去;进步;赶快 come at 袭击 come (in) first/second 得第一/二 come from 出身于;来自 come in/into sight 出现;被看见 come into being/existence 发生;产生;出现 come into effect/force 开始生效;开始实施 come into power/office 上台;掌握政权 come into use 开始使用 come on(风雨等)到来;演出;赶快 come to= come to oneself 苏醒过来 come to...总计;谈到, 涉及;谈及(when it comes to...) come up with 想出(计划、回答) come up 开始;发生;被提出,被讨论;走过来 come down 倒塌,下降;流传下来 【典型例句】 The clouds finally parted and the sun came out. 云终于散去,太阳出来了。 [剑桥高阶] When does their new album come out? 他们的新专辑什么时候面世? [剑桥高阶] The party came out all right.晚会开得很好。 When the news came out,everyone was shocked. 消息传来,人人都感到震惊。 Two cotyledons have come out from the seedling. 小苗长出了两片子叶。 即学即用 It’ already 10 o’ s clock.I wonder how it _______ that she was two hours late on such a short trip.(湖北,25) A.came over B.came out C.came about D.came up 解析:句意:现在已经 10 点了,我真纳闷如此短的旅程她竟晚了两个小时。come about 同 happen,esp.in a way that seems impossible 发生。其他不合题意。 答案:C —Four dollars a pair ? I think it’s a bit too much. —If you buy three pairs,the price for each will ________ to three fifty.(安徽,33) A.come down B.take down C.turn over D.go over 解析:句意:——一双 4 美元?我觉得贵点。——要买 3 双的话,可以降到 3.5 美元。come

- 10 -

down(价格,温度等)下降。 答案:A —Have you some new ideas? —Yeah.I’ll tell you later. A.come about B.come into C.come up with D.come out with 解析:句意:——你想出什么新想法了么?——嗯,以后我会告诉你的。come up with 想出, 根据句意选 C。 答案:C

1.Pliny described a cloud coming_down_the_mountain,blocking out the sun and burying everything in its path,including whole villages and towns.普利尼描述道,当时一团云自山巅而降,遮 天蔽日,将所经之处的一切,包括一座座村庄和城镇统统吞没。 【精讲拓展】 coming down the mountain 是现在分词短语作后置定语,修饰 a cloud,可改写为定语从句 that was coming down the mountain。 blocking out the sun and burying everything in its path 是 and 连 接的两个并列的现在分词短语在句中作状语,表结果。including whole villages and towns 相当于 whole villages and towns included。 Six people died in the accident,including 3 children. Six people died in the accident,3 children included. 即学即用 A small plane crashed into a hillside five miles east of the city,______ all four people on board.(2009·上海,31) A.killed B.killing C.kills D.to kill 解析:句意:一架小型飞机在城东五英里外的山坡上坠毁,机上 人员全部遇难。用?ing 作结果状语。 答案:B There is a great deal of evidence ________ that music activities engage different parts of the brain.(2009·浙江,7) A.indicate B.indicating C.to indicate D.to be indicating 解析: 句意: 有大量的证据表明音乐活动调动大脑不同的部分。 ?ing 形式作定语修饰 evidence。 答案:B 2.Yet,over the centuries,the people who disappeared under the ashes of Mount Vesuvius were gradually forgotten by the world.然而,几百年后,维苏威火山灰下失踪的人们,被世人 完全遗忘了。

- 11 -

【精讲拓展】 (1)yet conj.在这个句子中表示转折,意思是“但是,然而” 。 a simple yet very effective system 一种尽管简单却十分有效的方法 She is not a beautiful girl,yet you can’t help liking her. 她不是个漂亮的女孩,但是你却会情不自禁地喜欢她。 yet 其他的意思还有 adv.: a.用于完成时的疑问句或否定句中,表示“还??,至此” 。 Has John arrived yet? 约翰来了吗? He wouldn’t let me see it because he hadn’t yet finished. 他不愿意让我看到那件作品,因为他还没做完呢。 b.迟早 We may win yet.我们迟早会赢的。 The plan could yet succeed.这项计划将来有成功的一天。 c.再,还,更 a yet worse mistake 一个更严重的错误 (2)who disappeared under the ashes of Mount Vesuvius 是个定语从句修饰 the people。 John plays basketball well,_______ his favorite sport is badminton.(2009·北京,21) A.so B.or C.yet D.for 解析:句意:约翰篮球打得非常好,但是他最喜欢的是羽毛球。yet 此处是连词,意思是“但 是,然而” 。符合题意。 答案:C 即学即用 3.However,much more than buildings and objects,it is the forms of the people who were caught in the disaster that have made the city a monument to human history.但是,与城里的建筑及物 品相比,那些在那场灾难中遇难的人的轮廓则更使这个城市成为 人类历史上的一座纪念碑。 【精讲拓展】 (1)该句结构比较复杂。it is the forms of the people...that...是强 调主语。 (2) who were caught in the disaster 是 who 引导的限定性定语从句, 修饰先行词 the people。made the city a monument to human history 是 make 的复合结构,the city 是宾语,a monument to human history 是宾语补足语。 即学即用 It was ________ he came back from Africa that year ________ he met the girl he would like to marry.(2009·江西,27) A.when;then B.not;until C.not until;that D.only;when 解析:本题考查强调句型,根据句意应选 C。 答案:C — What do you think of teaching,Bob? —I find it fun and challenging.It is a job ________ you are doing something serious but interesting.(2009·北京,26)

- 12 -

A.where B.which C.when D.that 解析:本题考查定语从句,根据句意,先行词 job 在从句中作地点状语,故选 A。 答案:A 4. Another man,lying on his side,looks as if he is trying to get up.另一个人,侧着身躺着, 似乎要站起来。 【精讲拓展】 as if 在此引导表语从句。 She looks as if she were ten years younger. 她看起来好像年轻了十岁。 It seems as if our team is going to win.看来我们队要胜了。 It looks as if it is going to snow.看来要下雪。 It seemed as if the suit was made to his own measure. 这套衣服看来似乎是按尺寸给他定做的。 【归纳拓展】 (1)引导方式状语从句,此时从句中的谓语动词常用虚拟语气。 She loves the boy as if she were his mother. 她爱这男孩,就好像她是他的母亲一样。 The child talked to us as if he were a grownup. 那孩子跟我们谈起话来像个成年人似的。 He talks about Rome as if he had been there before. 他说起罗马来好像他以前去过罗马似的。 He opened his mouth as if he would say something. 他张开嘴好像要说什么。 (2)as if 还可用于省略句中, 如果 as if 引导的从句是 “主语+系动词” 结构且主从句主语相同, 可省略主语和系动词,这样 as if 后就只剩下名词、不定式、形容词(短语)、介词短语或分词。 He acts as if (he was) a fool.他做事像个傻子。 Tom raised his hands as if (he was going) to say something. 汤姆举起手好像要说什么。 She left the room hurriedly as if (she was)angry. 她匆忙离开房间好像生气的样子。 即学即用 The man we followed suddenly stopped and looked as if ______ whether he was going the right direction. A.seeing B.having seen C.to have seen D.to see 解析:本题考查 as if 后的省略,根据句意,应是 as if he was going to see,故选 D。 答案:D When a pencil is partly in a glass of water,it looks as if it ________.(全国高考题) A.breaks B.has broken C.were broken D.had been broken 解析:本题考查 as if 在虚拟语气中的用法,本句表示和现在相反,故用一般过去时。 答案:C 5....we must have had one sometime in the past.??在以前的某个时候,我们一定曾有过。 【精讲拓展】 句中的 must have done 表示对过去肯定的推测,意思是“过去一定??过” 。

- 13 -

Since the road is wet,it must have rained last night. 路面是湿的,昨天晚上一定下雨了。 Mr. Green must have been punished for his being rude at the meeting yesterday, didn’ he? t 格林先生一定因为昨天在会上鲁莽的行为被处罚了,是吗? She must have been a policewoman,hasn’t she? 她过去一定是个警察,是吗? 【归纳拓展】 情态动词+have done 的用法: (1)must + have done:用于肯定句,表示推测,意为“一定(已经)??” 。 (2)can + have done:用于否定句或疑问句,表示推测,意为“可能(已经)??” 。 (3)could + have done:可用于肯定句、否定句或疑问句,表示推测、责备或遗憾等,意为 “可能??” “本来可以??” “本来应该??”等。 (4)should (ought to)+have done:可用于肯定句、否定句或疑问句,表示责备或遗憾等,意 为“本来应该??” 。 (5)need+have done:用于否定句或疑问句,用于否定时意为“本来不必” ,用于疑问句时意 为“有必要??吗” 。 (6) may+have done:用于肯定句或否定句,表示推测,意为“可能(已经)??” 。 (7)might+have done:用于肯定句或否定句,表示推测,意为“可能(已经)??”(此时 might 可换为 may); 另外还可以表示过去可能发生的事结果未发生, “本来会??” 意为 (此时 might 不能换为 may)。 【典型例句】 He can’t have left so soon.他不可能走得这么早。 I should have thought of it.我本应想到这一点的。 You needn’t have mentioned it.你本没有必要提及此事的。 You must have mistaken my intention. 你一定是误会了我的意图。 I might have come to a wrong conclusion. 我或许得出了错误的结论。 You could have helped me—why did you just sit and watch? 你本可帮助我的,为什么只坐在一旁瞧着? 即学即用 It ______ have been Tom that parked the car here, he is the only one with a car.(2009· as 上 海,27) A.may B.can C.must D.should 解析:句意:一定是汤姆把车停在这里的,因为只有他有车,用 must 表示肯定的推测。 答案:C He did not regret saying what he did but felt that he ________ it differently.(2009·江 苏,28) A.could express B.would express C.could have expressed D.must have expressed 解析:句意:他不后悔说了他做了什么,而认为他本能够用不同的方式表达,根据句意选 C。 答案:C —I’m sorry.I ________ at you the other day. —I forget it.I was a bit out of control myself.(2008·江苏,35)

- 14 -

A.shouldn’t shout B.shouldn’t have shouted C.mustn’t shout D.mustn’t have shouted 解析:句意:——对不起,前几天我不应该对你大喊大叫。 ——算了,我当时也有点失控。根据句意应用 shouldn’t have done 表本不应该做。 答案:B 6.As Helen’s knowledge and vocabulary expanded,she asked more and more questions. 随着海伦知识和词汇的增加,她问的问题越来越多了。 【精讲拓展】 (1)more and more 表示越来越多;比较级+and+比较级表示越来越?? Why are more and more people in China interested in learning English?为什么在中国越来越 多的人对学习英语感兴趣? John ran faster and faster on the last lap. 约翰在最后一圈时跑得越来越快。 Our city is getting more and more beautiful. 我们的城市变得越来越美丽。 (2)as 引导时间状语从句,意为“随着,当??的时候” 。 【归纳拓展】 as 作连词的用法: (1)作“当??的时候” ,引导时间状语从句。注意与 when, while 的用法区别。 ① when 作“当??的时候”解,可以指较短的(一点)时间,也可指一段时间,即非延续性动 词。 When he was at college,he could speak several foreign languages. When the clock struck twelve,all the lights in the street went out. ② while 常表示一段较长的时间或一个过程,即延续性动词。强调主句谓语动词与从句谓语 动词同时发生。 Work while you work.Play while you play. ③但属下列情形时,只用 as,而不用 when 或 while。 a.用于表示同一个人的两个动作交替进行,指“一边??,一边??” 。 The girl dances as she sings on the stage. He looked behind from time to time as he went forward. b.表示两个同步发展的动作或行为,译为“随着??” 。 As time went on/by,she became more and more worried. As children get older,they become more and more interested in the things around them. c.后接名词表示某一年龄段时,用 as。 As a young man,he was active in sports. (2)as=since,作“既然” “由于”解,引导原因状语从句,常用来表示已为人们所知或显而 易见的原因或理由。 As/Since you’re not feeling well,you may stay at home. As he wasn’t ready in time,we went without him. (3)as=in the way that,作“像” “按照??的方式”解,引导方式状语从句。 He speaks English as Americans do. Remember,you must do everything as I do. (4)用于 as...as...或 not so/ as...as...中,前一个 as 是副词,后一个 as 是连词,引导比较状语 从句。

- 15 -

They helped the old man as often as possible. I don’t speak English so/ as well as he does. (5)作“虽然” “尽管”解,引导让步状语从句。常用倒装语序,即 adj./adv./n.+as +主语+ 谓语+主句。 Tired as they were,they walked on.Child as he is,he knows a lot.(child 前不用冠词) as 作关系代词 (1)引导非限制性定语从句,作“正如” “这一点”解。 He is very careful,as his work shows. As is well?known,Taiwan belongs to China. as 的这种用法,请看下面的高考题: ________ is known to everybody,the moon travels round the earth once every month. A.It B.As C.That D.What 答案:B 经常的搭配有:as is mentioned above;as is often the case;as you have seen;as we all know 等。 (2)当先行词被 the same,such 等词修饰时,常用 as 来引导定语从句。 Such a clever boy as he can learn everything quickly. I was reading the same book as he bought yesterday. as 作介词的用法: as 引导的介词短语大多用作状语,as 译为“作为” ;少数情况可引起宾语补足语。 As a League member,I’ll take the lead in everything.(状语) She works as a doctor.(状语) They treat me as one of their own children.(引起宾语补足语) 即学即用 According to statistics,a man is more than twice as likely to die of skin cancer ________ a woman.(2009·江西,24) A.than B.such C.so D.as 解析:本题考查倍数表达法,核心结构为:倍数+as+原级+as,故选 C。 答案:D ______ I explained on the phone,your request will be considered at the next meeting. A.When B.After C.As D.Since 解析:本题考查 as 引导的非限制性定语从句,根据句意“就像我电话里解释的一样” ,选 as。 答案:C _______ is often the case,we have worked out the production plan. A.Which B.When C.What D.As 解析:理由同,引导定语从句。 答案:D

1.We haven’t moved into the new office building—it _______ right now. A.is decorating B.has been decorated

- 16 -

C.is being decorated D.has been decorating 解析:考查动词时态、语态。根据题干中前面一句话的时 态及后一句话中的时间状语 right now 可知,应用现在进行 时;又依据语意可知,房子正在(被)装修,因此选 C。 答案:C 2.—How long have you been here? —________the end of last month. A.In B.By C.At D.Since 解析:since 引导的介词短语和现在完成时连用。 答案:D 3.She’s asked me________to build the church. A.how long it was taken B.how long it had taken C.how much time did it take D.how much time it was taken 解析:考查宾语从句及 take 的用法。宾语从句中需用陈述语序, 故排除 C;花时间做——为“it takes some time to do sth.”, 故排除 A、D。 答案:B 4.Although the causes of cancer________,we do not yet have any practical way to prevent it. A.are being uncovered B.have been uncovering C.are uncovering D.have uncovered 解析:因为句子的主语 the causes of cancer 与谓语 uncover 是被动关系,因此我们使用被动结构,只有 A 符合这一条 件。 答案:A 5.By the end of last year,another new gymnasium________in Beijing. A.would be completed B.was being completed C.has been completed D.had been completed 解析:by 意为“到??为止” 。by 后加过去时间,主句用过去 完成时,如 by 后加现在时间,用现在完成时,如 by 后加将来 时,主句要用将来完成时。by the end of last year 常与过 去完成时连用。表示到过去某个时候前已完成的动作。 答案:D 6.When and where to go for the on ? salary ? holiday ______ yet. A.are not decided B.have not been decided C.is not being decided D.has not been decided 解析:根据副词 yet 可确定用现在完成时,可排除 A、C; 不定式,动名词及从句作主语,谓语动词用单数,when and where to do sth.为一个问题,要用 has not been decided。 答案:D 7.The result was far beyond________we had expected,______

- 17 -

brought great joy to every one of us. A.that;which B.than;that C.what;what D.what;which 解析:考查宾语从句和定语从句。第一空用 what 引导宾语从 句,连词 what 在从句中作宾语,第二空用 which 引导非限制性 定语从句,关系代词 which 指代主句内容。 答案:D 8.The new suspension bridge________by the end of last month. A.has been designed B.had been designed C.was designed D.would be designed 解析:在含有 by 引导的表示过去意义的时间状语的句子中, 谓语动词要用过去完成时。句意:到上月为止已完成了吊桥 设计。 答案:B 9.—How are you today? —Oh,I________as ill as I do now for a very long time. A.didn’t feel B.wasn’t feeling C.don’t feel D.haven’t felt 解析:现在完成时表示从过去的某个时候开始一直延续 到现在的动作或状态。从句子的意思可知,从过去某个 时候开始,已经病了很长时间了。 答案:D 10.A new cinema________here. They hope to finish it next month. A.will be built B.is built C.has been built D.is being built 解析:根据 They hope to finish it next month.说明电影 院还在建设之中,所以时态用进行时;另外语态为 被动语态。 答案:D

过去完成时 一、定义:过去完成时是表示在过去某一时间或某一动作之前 已经发生或完成的动作、事情。它表示的是发生在“过去 的过去”的动作,只有在和过去某个时间或动作相比较的 时候才会使用过去完成时。 二、构成:过去完成时的构成: had +过去分词 三、用法: 1.与 by,before,by the end of 引导的表示过去的时间状语连用。

- 18 -

by then,by,before nine o’clock yesterday,by the end of last year,by the age of twenty, by the time I arrived... 2.在过去不同时间发生的两个动作中,发生在先,用过去完成时;发生在后,用一般过去时。 When I returned home,my guest had already left. I did not see the film because I had seen it before. 3.常用于 told,said,knew,heard,thought,asked 等动词后的宾 语从句。 She said (that) she had never been to Paris. He asked what I had said. 现在完成时和过去完成时的区别: 现在完成时强调对现在的影响或结果,过去完成时强调对过去的影 响或结果。

1.He asked me ________ during the summer holidays. A.where I had been B.where I had gone C.where had I been D.where had I gone 答案:B 2.What ________ Jane ________ by the time he was seven? A.did;do B.has;done C.did;did D.had;done 答案:D 3.I ________ 900 English words by the time I was ten. A.learned B.was learning C.had learned D.learnt 答案:C 4.She ________ lived here for ________ years. A.had;a few B.has;several C.had;a lot of D.has;a great deal of 答案:B 5.By the time my parents reached home yesterday,I ______ the dinner already. A.had cooked B.Cooked C.have cooked D.was cooked 答案:A 6.She said she ________ the principle already. A.has seen B.saw C.will see D.had seen 答案:D 7 .She said her family ________ themselves ________ the army during the war. A.has hidden;from B.had hidden;from

- 19 -

C.has hidden;with D.had hidden;with 答案:B 8.By the time he was ten years old,he ________. A.has completed university B.has completed the university B.had completed an university D.had completed university 答案:D 9.She had written a number of books ________ the end of last year. A.for B.in C.by D.at 答案:C 10.He ________ to play ________ before he was 11 years old. A.had learned;piano B.had learned;the piano C.has learned;the piano D.learns,piano 答案:B 11.Mary went to the box office at lunch time,but all the tickets ________ out. A.would sell B.had sold C.have sold D.was selling 解析:句意:玛丽在午饭时间去了售票处,但是所有的 票都已经卖完了。根据题干信息 Mary went to 为过去时 间,而售完票在此之前,即“过去的过去” 。 答案:B 12.When I talked with my grandma on the phone,she sounded weak,but by the time we ________ up,her voice had been full of life. A.were hanging B.had hung C.hung D.would hung 解析:句意:当我与奶奶在电话中交谈时,她的声音听起 来很虚弱,但到我们挂电话时,她的声音已经充满了活力。 此题考查时态,根据题干,her voice had been full of life 为 过去的过去,因此我们挂电话为过去时。 答案:C

1.On January 19,1992,14 years after the reform and opening, Deng Xiaoping arrived at Shenzhen,which was the second and the last time that he ________the first open city in new China.

- 20 -

A.toured B.has toured C.had toured D.would tour 解析:本题考查时态。句型为 It/This/That was the+序数词 +名词+从句,其中从句中用过去完成时。根据句意“?? 这是邓小平第二次也是他最后一次参观新中国第一个对外 开放的城市——深圳”可知,C 项正确。 答案:C 思路拓展:出现在其他句型中的过去完成时: (1)Hardly/Rarely+had+主语+done+when 从句 (2)No sooner+had+主语+done+than 从句 警示误区:句型 It/This/That is the+序数词+名词+从句,其中从句中使用现在完成时。 2.He left the company last month,where he________for exactly three years. A.worked B.was working C.has worked D.had worked 解析:考查时态。主句是过去时态,定语从句中谓语的动作 发生在主句的谓语动作之前,并且和表示一段时间的状语连 用,所以用过去完成时态最合适。 答案:D 3.The famous actress objected to the reports in the newspaper that she ________on weight recently. A.had put B.would put C.has put D.put 解析:考查时态。第一个动词 objected 表明主句为一般过 去时,再结合同位语从句中的副词 recently 可知从句应用 过去完成时。 答案:A 拓展提升:过去完成时是英语中较容易用错的时态。它表 示在过去的某个动作之前发生的动作。试题通常会提供一 个过去的时间或动作作参照,在此之前发生的动作就用过 去完成时。 4.It was the third time that I________of the changes of the timetable. A.had informed B.had been informed C.has informed D.has been informed 解析:考查时态和语态。在“It is the+序数词+time that...” 句型中,从句常用现在完成时;而在“It was the+序数词+ time that...”句型中,从句常用过去完成时,所以先排除 C 项和 D 项;inform sb.of sth.为固定句型,表示“通知某人某 事” ,若 inform 和介词 of 连在一起,一般是被动语态,所以 B 项正确。 答案:B 5.The fire ________before the fire ? fighters arrived. A.has been put out

- 21 -

B.had been put out C.was put out D.had put out 解析:考查时态和语态。put out 这个动作发生在 arrived 之前,故应用过去完成时态,表示“过去的过去” 。同时 主语 the fire 和 put out 存在被动关系,故用被动语态。 答案:B

【例 1】 John was given the same suitcase his father and grandfather ________ with them to school. A.took B.had taken C.were taking D.would take 【解题方法指导】 句意:约翰得到他父亲和祖父上学时携带 的那个行李箱。根据题干中 John was given 为过去的时间参 照点,父亲和祖父上学为在此之前的事,即过去的过去,故 用过去完成时。 答案:B 教材原文对照 The bodies of people who in Pompeii left impressions in the ash that showed their exact shapes. (P6) had died 【例 2】 At minus 130℃,a living cell can be ________ for a thousand years. A.spared B.Protected C.Preserved D.developed 【解题方法指导】 考查动词的辨析。句意:在零下 130 摄氏度,活细胞可以被“保存”一千 年。A 项表示“抽出” 项表示“保护” 项表示“发展” ,B ,D ,均不符合句意。 答案:C 教材原文对照 In a way,Pompeii is like a“time capsule” a frozen moment in history. (P6) 【例 3】 All of them try to use the power of the workstation ______ information in a more effective way. A.presenting B.Presented C.being presented D.to present 【解题方法指导】 句意:他们都尽力使用工作区的力量来更 加有效地呈现信息。to present 为不定式作目的状语。 答案:D preserving 教材原文对照 Anne Sullivan was brought in .(P10)

- 22 -

to help Helen

高考资源网 高考资源网 高考资源网 高考资源网

精品资料,欢迎下载! !

- 23 -


更多相关文档:

(北师大版)2012届高考英语一轮复习讲练精品学案 (3)

(北师大版)2012届高考英语一轮复习讲练精品学案 (3) 隐藏>> Module Unit 16 6 Stories 1.abandon vt.丢弃;抛弃,遗弃,放弃,中止,(与 oneself 连用)使 放纵...

(北师大版)2012届高考英语一轮复习讲练精品学案 (13)

(北师大版)2012届高考英语一轮复习讲练精品学案 (13) 隐藏>> Module Unit 18...答案:B 3.die out 逐渐消失;灭绝 【精讲拓展】 die off 相继死亡(种群突然...

(北师大版)2012届高考英语一轮复习讲练精品学案 (4)

(北师大版)2012届高考英语一轮复习讲练精品学案 (4) 隐藏>> Module Unit 17...他在晚饭后讲了几则令人捧腹的笑话。 (3)amusement n.欢乐,娱乐,消遣 To ...

(北师大版)2012届高考英语一轮复习讲练精品学案

3页 免费如要投诉违规内容,请到百度文库投诉中心;如要提出功能问题或意见建议,请点击此处进行反馈。 (北师大版)2012届高考英语一轮复习讲练精品学案 隐藏>> Module...

(北师大版)2012届高考英语一轮复习讲练精品学案 (7)

(北师大版)2012届高考英语一轮复习讲练精品学案 (7) 隐藏>> Module 7 Unit...答案:C 3.die of 死于 精讲拓展 (1)die from“由于??而死” ,表示由于...

(北师大版)2012届高考英语一轮复习讲练精品学案 (24)

(北师大版)2012届高考英语一轮复习讲练精品学案 (24) 隐藏>> Module 5 Unit...3.be likely to do sth.极有可能做某事 【典型例句】 Do remind me because...

北师大版2012届高考英语一轮复习讲练精品学案 (17)

北师大版2012届高考英语一轮复习讲练精品学案 (17) 隐藏>> Module 8 Unit 23...too busy to spare they could to spare 3.appoint vt.任命;委派 【精讲...

(北师大版)2012届高考英语一轮复习讲练精品学案 (2)

(北师大版)2012届高考英语一轮复习讲练精品学案 (2) 隐藏>> Module 5 Unit...答案:A 3.take up 开始从事;占去,占据,拿起,继续(中断的活),接下去 【精...

2012届高考英语一轮复习讲练精品学案 (10)

(北师大版)2012届高考英语... 28页 免费如要投诉违规内容,请到百度文库投诉中心...2012届高考英语一轮复习讲练精品学案 (10) 隐藏>> Module 3 Unit 9 Wheels ...

(北师大版)2012届高考英语一轮复习讲练精品学案:选修8 Unit 22 Environmental Protection

(北师大版)2012届高考英语一轮复习讲练精品学案:选修8 Unit 22 Environmental ...A.claims B.Intervals C.Justice D.extension 3.given prep.&n.如果考虑到;...
更多相关标签:
网站地图

文档资料共享网 nexoncn.com copyright ©right 2010-2020。
文档资料共享网内容来自网络,如有侵犯请联系客服。email:zhit325@126.com