当前位置:首页 >> 英语 >> 高中英语被动语态讲解与练习

高中英语被动语态讲解与练习


高中英语被动语态讲解
一、被动语态的构成形式 1.何时用被动语态 (1)不知道动作的施加者时:如,The classroom has been cleaned aready (2) 需要突出强调动作的承受者时:如,A middle school will be built there. 2. 被动语态的基本时态变化 被动语态通常为十种时态的被动形式, 被动语态由 be+过去分词构成, 随时态 be 的变化而变化。以 do 为例,各种时态的被动语态形式为: 1) am/is/are +done (过去分词) 一般现在时 例 Visitors are requested not to touch the exhibits. 2) has /have been done 现在完成时 例 All the preparations for the task have been completed, and we're ready to start. 3) am/is /are being done 现在进行时 例 A new cinema is being built here. 4) was/were done 一般过去时 例 I was given ten minutes to decide whether I should reject the offer. 5) had been done 过去完成时 例 By the end of last year, another new gymnasium had been completed in Beijing. 6) was/were being done 过去进行时 例 A meeting was being held when I was there. 7) shall/will be done/ be going to be done/ be about to be done/ be to be to done 一般将来时 例 Hundreds of jobs will be lost if the factory closes. 8) should/would be done/ was\were going to be done/ was\were about to be done/was\were to be to done 过去将来时 例 The news would be sent to the soldier's mother as soon as it arrived. 9) shall/will have been done 将来完成时 例 The project will have been completed before July. 10) should/would have been done 过去将来完成时 例 He told me that his new clothes would have been made very soon. 3. 被动语态的特殊结构形式 1)带情态动词的被动结构。其形式为:情态动词+be+过去分词。 例 The baby should be taken good care of by the baby-sitter. 2) 有些动词可以有两个宾语,在用于被动结构时,可以把主动结构中的一个宾 语变为主语, 另一宾语仍然保留在谓语后面。通常变为主语的是间接宾语。 例 His mother gave him a present for his birthday. 可改为 He was given a present by his mother for his birthday. 3) 当“动词+宾语+宾语补足语”结构变为被动语态时,将宾语变为被动结构中的 主语,其余不动。 例 Someone caught the boy smoking a cigarette. 可改为 The boy was caught smoking a cigarette. 4)在使役动词 have, make, get 以及感官动词 see, watch, notice, hear, feel, observe 等后面不定式作宾语补语时,在主动结构中不定式 to 要省略,但变为被动结构时,


要加 to。 例 Someone saw a stranger walk into the building. 可改为 A stranger was seen to walk into the building. 5) 有些相当于及物动词的动词词组,如“动词+介词”,“动词+副词”等,也可以 用于被动结构, 但要把它们看作一个整体, 不能分开。 其中的介词或副词也不能省略。 例 The meeting is to be put off till Friday. 3. 非谓语动词的被动语态 v.+ing 形式及不定式 to do 也有被动语态(一般时态和完成时态) 。 例 I don't like being laughed at in the public. 二、 It is said that+从句及其他类似句型 一些表示“据说”或“相信”的动词如 believe, consider, expect, report, say, suppose, think 等可以用于句型“It+be+过去分词+that 从句”或“主语+be+过去分词+to do sth.”。有: It is said that… 据说,It is reported that…据报道, is believed that…大家相信, is It It hoped that…大家希望,It is well known that…众所周知,It is thought that…大家认为, It is suggested that…据建议。 例 It is said that the boy has passed the national exam. (=The boy is said to have passed the national exam. ) 三、谓语动词的主动形式表示被动意义 1.英语中有很多动词如 break,catch,clean,drive,lock,open,sell,read, write,wash 等,当它们被用作不及物动词来描述主语特征时,常用其主动形式 表 达被动意义,主语通常是物。 例 This kind of cloth washes well. 注意:主动语态表被动强调的是主语的特征,而被动语态则强调外界作用造成的 影响。 试比较:The door won't lock. (指门本身有毛病) The door won't be locked. (指不会有人来锁门, 指“门没有锁”是人的原因) 2. 表示“发生、 进行”的不及物动词和短语, happen, last, take place, break out, 如: come out, come about, come true, run out, give out, turn out 等以主动形式表示被动 意义。 例 How do the newspapers come out? 这些报纸是如何引出来的呢? 3. 系动词没有被动形式, 但有些表示感受、感官的连系动词 feel, sound, taste, book, feel 等在主系表结构中常以主动形式表示被动意义。 例 Your reason sounds reasonable. 四、非谓语动词的主动形式表被动意义 在某些句型中可用动名词和不定式的主动形式表被动意义 。 1. 在 need,want,require, bear 等词的后面,动名词用主动形式表示被动意 义, 其含义相当于动词不定式的被动形式。 house needs repairing to be repaired) 这 The ( . 房子需要修理。 2. 形容词 worth 后面跟动名词的主动形式表示被动含义, 但不能跟动词不定式; 而 worthy 后面跟动词不定式的被动形式。 例 The picture-book is well worth reading. (=The picture-book is very worthy to be read. ) 3. 动词不定式在名词后面作定语,不定式和名词之间有动宾关系时,又和句中


另一名词或代词构成主谓关系, 不定式的主动形式表示被动含义。 例 I have a lot of things to do this afternoon. (to do 与 things 是动宾关系,与 I 是主 谓关系。) 试比较:I’ll go to the post office. Do you have a letter to be posted? ( 此处用不定式 的被动语态作定语表明 you 不是 post 动作的执行者。) 4. 在某些“形容词+不定式”做表语或宾语补足语的结构中,句子的主语或宾语 又是动词不定式的逻辑宾语时,这时常用不定式的主动形式表达被动意义。这些形容 词有 nice,easy,fit,hard,difficult,important,impossible,pleasant,interesting 等。 例 This problem is difficult to work out .(可看作 to work out 省略了 for me). 5. 在 too… to…结构中,不定式前面可加逻辑主语,所以应用主动形式表示被 动意义。 例 This book is too expensive (for me) to buy. 七、被动语态与高考试题赏析 1. 高考对谓语动词语态的考查例析 1). In some parts of the world, tea ___ with milk and sugar. (NMET1993) A. is serving B. is served C. serves D. served 解析 B 因为 serve 是及物动词, 其动作承受者 tea 作主语, 表示经常发生的情况, 故用一般现在时的被动语态。 2). This is Ted’s phone. We miss him a lot. He ___ trying to save a child in the earthquake.(NMET2002) A. killed B. is killed C. was killed D. was killing 解析 C Ted 是 kill 的承受者,用被动语态,且 Ted 救人发生在过去,所以用一般 过去时的被动语态。 3). ---- Have you moved into the new house? ---- Not yet, the rooms _____. (NMET1991) A. are being painted B. are painting C. are painted D. are being painting 解析 A “house”和“paint”应该是被动的关系,排除 B,D。后者未搬进新居的原因 是房子正在油漆,所以要用现在进行时的被动语态。不能用一般现在时表示习惯性动 作,排除 C。 4). When and where to go for the on-salary holiday ___ yet. (上海春 2003) A. are not decided B. have not been decided C. is not being decided D. has not been decided 解析 D decide 是及物动词,动作的发出者通常是人,句中的主语是动作的承受 者,所以 decide 要用被动语态。从题干的语境和关键词 yet,可判断用现在完成时, 不定式做主语用单数,故用现在完成时的被动语态。 5). The manager entered the office and was happy to learn that four-fifths of the tickets ___.(上海春 2001) A. was booked B. had been booked C. were booked D. have been booked 解析 B 句中 tickets 是 book(订票)的承受者,主谓为被动关系,又因票已被订出 应发生在 entered the office 这个过去动作之前,所以要用过去完成时的被动语态。 2.高考对非谓语动词语态的考查


当非谓语动词的逻辑主语为动作的承受者时, 须用被动式。弄清非谓语动词与其 逻辑主语之间的执行与承受关系是掌握非谓语动词语态的关键。 1). Having a trip abroad is certainly good for the old couple, but it remains ___ whether they will enjoy it. (NMET2002) A. to see B. to be seen C. seeing D. seen 解析 B 根据题意,那对老夫妇是否到国外旅行是将来的动作,应使用不定式, 故排除掉 C、D 两项;又因 remains 的逻辑主语 it 是动词 see 说表示动作的承受者, 即“到国外旅行”这件事,这件事有待于“被决定”,应使用动词不定式的被动形式。 2). While shopping, people sometimes can’t help ___ into buying something they don’t really need. (上海 1996) A. to persuaded B. persuading C. being persuaded D. be persuaded 解析 C can’t help doing “禁不住做某事”, 排除 A 和 D; 顾客应是“被劝说”购物的, 要用动名词的被动语态。 3). I feel it is your husband who ___ for the spoiled child. (上海 2002) A. is to blame B. is going to blame C. is to be blamed D. should blame 解析 A feel 的宾语从句为强调句型,在 be to do 结构中,在某些场合可用不定式 的主动语态表示被动语态,如 to blame, to let 等。 【强化训练】 1. If city noises ____ from increasing,people ____ shout to be heard even at dinner. A. are not kept;will have to B. are not kept;have C. do not keep;will have to D. do not keep;have to 2. The fifth generation computers, with artificial intelligence, are ____and perfected now. A. developed B. have developed C. are being developed D. will have been developed 3. --- ____ the sports meet might be put off. --- Yes,it all depends on the weather. A. I've been told B. I've told C. I'm told D. I told 4. I need one more stamp before my collection ___. A. has completed B. completes C. has been completed D. is completed 5. Rainforests ___ and burned at such a speed that they will disappear from the earth in the near future. A. cut B. are cut C. are being cut D. had been cut 6. The new suspension bridge ___ by the end of last month.


A. has been designed B. had been designed C. was designed D. would be designed 7. When a pencil is partly in a glass of water, it looks as if it ____. A. breaks B. has broken C. was broken D. had been broken 8. Great changes ___ in the city, and a lot of factories ___. A. have been taken place; have been set up B. have taken place; have been set up C. have taken place; have set up D. were taken place; were set up 9. That suit __ over 60 dollars. A. had costed B. costed C. is costed D. cost 10. --- Look! Everything here is under construction. --- What’s the pretty small house that __ for? A. is being built B. has been built C. is built D. is building 11.--- Do you like the material? --- Yes, it ___ very soft. A. is feeling B. felt C. feels D. is felt 12. It is difficult for a foreigner ____ Chinese. A. write B. to write C. to be written D. written 13. I have no more letters ____ ,thank you. A. to type B. typing C. to be typed D. typed 14. Take care! Don’t drop the ink on your shirt, for it __ easily. A. won’t wash out B. won’t be washed out C. isn’t washed out D. isn’t washing out 15. Nobody noticed the thief slip into the house because the lights happened to ___. A. be put up B. give in C. be turned on D. go out 16. The computers on the table ___ Professor Smith. A. belongs B. are belonged to C. belongs to D. belong to 17. --- What do you think of the book? ---Oh, excellent. It’s worth ___ a second time. A. to read B. to be read C. reading D. being read 18. The squirrel was lucky that it just missed ___. A. catching B. to be caught C. being caught D. to catch 19. This page needed ___ again. A. being checked B. checked


C. to check D. to be checked 20. ___ many times, the boy still didn’t know how to do the exercises A. Having taught B. Having been taught C. taught D. Teaching key 1--5 ACADC 6--10 BCBDA 11--15 CBCAD 16--20 DCCDB




更多相关文档:

高中英语被动语态讲解与练习整理

高中英语被动语态讲解与练习整理_英语_高中教育_教育专区。高中各时态的被动语态练习 高中英语被动语态讲解一、被动语态的构成:动作承受者+助动词 be(各种时态)+及...

高中英语被动语态讲解与练习

高中英语被动语态讲解与练习_英语_高中教育_教育专区。高中英语被动语态讲解与练习 高中英语被动语态精讲一、被动语态的基本时态变化 be+过去分词,be 随时态的变化而...

高中英语被动语态讲解与练习

高中英语被动语态讲解与练习_英语_高中教育_教育专区。高中英语被动语态讲解一、被动语态的构成形式 1. 被动语态的基本时态变化 被动语态通常为十种时态的被动形式, ...

高中英语被动语态讲解与练习(含答案)

高中英语被动语态讲解与练习(含答案)_英语_高中教育_教育专区。被动语态专项练习题 1.Our house___, A . is getting paint B . is getting painted C . is...

高中英语被动语态讲解与练习

高中英语被动语态讲解与练习_英语_高中教育_教育专区。被动语态 Passive Voice 一、被动语态的构成 动词语态是动词的一种特殊形式,表示句中主语和谓语动词之间的关系...

高中英语被动语态专项练习

高中英语被动语态专项练习_高一英语_英语_高中教育_教育专区。今日推荐 157...高中英语被动语态讲解与... 10页 1下载券 高中英语被动语态专项练... 3页 ...

高中英语被动语态讲解与练习

高中英语被动语态讲解与练习_英语_高中教育_教育专区。高中英语被动语态讲解一、被动语态的构成形式 1. 被动语态的基本时态变化 被动语态通常为十种时态的被动形式, ...

高中英语被动语态讲解与练习

高中英语被动语态讲解与练习_英语_高中教育_教育专区。高密四中校本课程 英语语法学习 英语语法学习学案 高中英语被动语态讲解一、被动语态的构成形式 1. 被动语态的...

2015整理被动语态讲解及练习(附答案)

2015整理被动语态讲解练习(附答案)_英语_初中教育_教育专区。初中被动语态讲解及配套练习 一、 主动语态与被动语态的概念: 注:☆及物动词有被动语态,不及物动词...

初中英语被动语态讲解与练习

初中英语被动语态讲解与练习_英语_初中教育_教育专区。被动语态语法专项讲解与训练 学案适用者:宋潇 (一) 语态分类:英语动词分主动语态和被动语态。 主动语态表示主语...
更多相关标签:
网站地图

文档资料共享网 nexoncn.com copyright ©right 2010-2020。
文档资料共享网内容来自网络,如有侵犯请联系客服。email:zhit325@126.com