高考英语写作讲义 -------张雄 Part 1
（一）段首句 1. 关于……人们有不同的观点。一些人认为…… There are different opinions among people as to ____ .Some people suggest that ____. 2. 俗话说（常言道）……，它是我们前辈的经历，但是，即使在今天，它在许 多场合仍然适用
。 There is an old saying______. It"s the experience of our forefathers， however， it is correct in many cases even today. 3. 现在， ……， 它们给我们的日常生活带来了许多危害。 首先， ……； 其次， ……。 更为糟糕的是……。 Today, ____, which have brought a lot of harms in our daily life. First, ____ Second,____. What makes things worse is that______. 4. 现在，……很普遍，许多人喜欢……，因为……，另外（而且）……。 Nowadays，it is common to ______. Many people like ______ because ______. Besides，______. 5. 任何事物都是有两面性，……也不例外。它既有有利的一面，也有不利的一 面。 Everything has two sides and ______ is not an exception，it has both advantages and disadvantages. 6. 关于……人们的观点各不相同，一些人认为（说）……，在他们看来，……
People’s opinions about ______ vary from person to person. Some people say that ______.To them,_____. 7. 人类正面临着一个严重的问题……，这个问题变得越来越严重。 Man is now facing a big problem ______ which is becoming more and more serious. 8. ……已成为人的关注的热门话题，特别是在年青人当中，将引发激烈的辩论。 ______ has become a hot topic among people ，especially among the young and heated debates are right on their way. 9. ……在我们的日常生活中起着越来越重要的作用，它给我们带来了许多好处， 但同时也引发一些严重的问题。 ______ has been playing an increasingly important role in our day-to-day life.it has brought us a lot of benefits but has created some serious problems as well. 10. 根据图表/数字/统计数字/表格中的百分比/图表/条形图/成形图可以看 出……。很显然……，但是为什么呢？ According to the figure/number/statistics/percentages in the /chart/bar graph/line/graph，it can be seen that______ while. Obviously，______，but why? （二）中间段落句 1. 相反，有一些人赞成……，他们相信……，而且，他们认为……。 On the contrary，there are some people in favor of ___.At the same time，they say____.
2. 但是，我认为这不是解决……的好方法，比如……。最糟糕的是……。 But I don"t think it is a very good way to solve ____.For example ，____.Worst of all，___. 3. ……对我们国家的发展和建设是必不可少的， （也是） 非常重要的。 首先， ……。 而且……，最重要的是…… ______is necessary and important to our country"s development and construction. First，______.What"s more, _____.Most important of all,______. 4. 有几个可供我们采纳的方法。首先，我们可以……。 There are several measures for us to adopt. First, we can______ 5. 面临……，我们应该采取一系列行之有效的方法来……。一方面……，另一 方面， Confronted with______，we should take a series of effective measures to______. For one thing，______For another，______ 6. 早就应该拿出行动了。比如说……，另外……。所有这些方法肯定会……。 It is high time that something was done about it. For example. _____.In addition. _____.All these measures will certainly______. 7. 为什么……？第一个原因是……；第二个原因是……；第三个原因是……。 总的来说，……的主要原因是由于…… Why______? The first reason is that ______.The second reason is ______.The third is ______.For all this, the main cause of ______due to ______. 8. 然而，正如任何事物都有好坏两个方面一样，……也有它的不利的一面， 象……。
However, just like everything has both its good and bad sides, ______also has its own disadvantages, such as ______. 9. 尽管如此，我相信……更有利。 Nonetheless, I believe that ______is more advantageous. 10. 完全同意……这种观点（陈述），主要理由如下： I fully agree with the statement that ______ because______. （三）结尾句 1. 至于我，在某种程度上我同意后面的观点，我认为…… As far as I am concerned, I agree with the latter opinion to some extent. I think that ____. 2. 总而言之，整个社会应该密切关注……这个问题。只有这样，我们才能在将 来……。 In a word, the whole society should pay close attention to the problem of ______.Only in this way can ______in the future. 3. 但是，……和……都有它们各自的优势（好处）。例如，……，而……。然 而，把这两者相比较，我更倾向于（喜欢）…… But ______and ______have their own advantages. For example, _____, while_____. Comparing this with that, however, I prefer to______. 4. 就我个人而言，我相信……，因此，我坚信美好的未来正等着我们。因为…… Personally, I believe that_____. Consequently, I’m confident that a bright future is awaiting us because______. 5. 随着社会的发展，……。因此，迫切需要……。如果每个人都愿为社会贡献 自已的一份力量，这个社会将要变得越来越好。
With the development of society, ______.So it"s urgent and necessary to ____.If every member is willing to contribute himself to the society, it will be better and better. 6. 至于我 （对我来说， 就我而言） ， 我认为……更合理。 只有这样， 我们才能…… For my part, I think it reasonable to_____. Only in this way can you _____. 7. 对我来说， 我认为有必要……。 原因如下： 第一， ……； 第二， ……； 最后…… 但同样重要的是…… In my opinion, I think it necessary to____. The reasons are as follows. First _____.Second ______. Last but not least,______. 8. 在总体上很难说……是好还是坏，因为它在很大程度上取决于……的形势。 然而，就我个人而言，我发现……。 It is difficult to say whether _____is good or not in general as it depends very much on the situation of______. However, from a personal point of view find______. 9. 综上所述，我们可以清楚地得出结论…… From what has been discussed above, we may reasonably arrive at the conclusion that____. 10. 如果我们不采取有效的方法，就可能控制不了这种趋势，就会出现一些意想 不到的不良后果，所以，我们应该做的是…… If we can not take useful means, we may not control this trend, and some undesirable result may come out unexpectedly, so what we should do is_____.
对比观点题型 （1） 1． 2． 3． 要求论述两个对立的观点并给出自己的看法。 有一些人认为。 。 。 另一些人认为。 。 。 我的看法。 。 。
The topic of ①-----------------（主题）is becoming more and more popular recently. There are two sides of opinions about it. Some people say A is their favorite. They hold their view for the reason of ②-----------------（支持 A 的理由一）What is more, ③-------------理由二). Moreover, ④---------------(理由三). While others think that B is a better choice in the following three reasons. Firstly,-----------------(支持 B 的理由一). Secondly (besides),⑥------------------（理由 二）. Thirdly (finally),⑦------------------(理由三). From my point of view, I think ⑧----------------（我的观点）. The reason is that ⑨ --------------------(原因). As a matter of fact, there are some other reasons to explain my choice. For me, the former is surely a wise choice . （2） 给出一个观点，要求考生反对这一观点
Some people believe that ①----------------（观点一）. For example, they think ② -----------------（举例说明） ．And it will bring them ③-----------------(为他们带来的 好处). In my opinion, I never think this reason can be the point. For one thing,④ -------------(我不同意该看法的理由一). For another thing, ⑤-----------------(反对的 理由之二)． Form all what I have said, I agree to the thought that ⑥------------------(我对
文章所讨论主题的看法)． 阐述主题题型 要求从一句话或一个主题出发，按照提纲的要求进行论述． １． 阐述名言或主题所蕴涵的意义． ２． 分析并举例使其更充实． The good old proverb ----------------（名言或谚语）reminds us that ----------------(释 义). Indeed, we can learn many things form it. First of all,-----------------(理由一). For example, -------------------(举例说明). Secondly,----------------(理由二). Another case is that ---------------(举例说明). Furthermore , ------------------(理由三)． In my opinion, ----------------(我的观点). In short, whatever you do, please remember the say------A. If you understand it and apply it to your study or work, you”ll necessarily benefit a lot from it.
解决方法题型 要求考生列举出解决问题的多种途径 １． 问题现状 ２． 怎样解决(解决方案的优缺点) In recent days, we have to face I problem-----A, which is becoming more and more serious. First, ------------(说明Ａ的现状)．Second, ---------------(举例进一步说 明现状) So we should take a series of effective measures to cope with the situation. First, ---------------( 解 决 方 法 一 ).Then-------------( 解 决 方 法 二 ). Furthermore, --------------(解决方法三). In my opinion, I believe that -------------(我的解决方法). Finally, I think that a bright future is coming soon because --------------(带来的好处). 说明利弊题型 这种题型往往要求先说明一下现状，再对比事物本身的利弊，有时也会单从一个 角度（利或弊）出发，最后往往要求考生表明自己的态度（或对事物前景提出预 测） １． 说明事物现状 ２． 事物本身的优缺点（或一方面）
３． 你对现状（或前景）的看法 Nowadays many people prefer A because it has a significant role in our daily life. Generally, its advantages can be seen as follows. First ----------------(Ａ的优点之一). Besides -------------------（Ａ的优点之二）. But every coin has two sides. The negative aspects are also apparent. One of the important disadvantages is that ----------------(Ａ的第一个缺点)．To make matters worse,------------------(Ａ的第二个缺点)． Through the above analysis, I believe that the positive aspects overweigh the negative ones. Therefore, I would like to ---------------(我的看法)． (From the comparison between these positive and negative effects of A, we should take it reasonably and do it according to the circumstances we are in. Only by this way, ---------------(对前景的预测)．) 议论文的框架 (1) 不同观点列举型（ 选择型 ） There is a widespread concern over the issue that __作文题目_____. But it is well known that the opinion concerning this hot topic varies from person to person. A majority of people think that _ 观点一________. In their views there are 2 factors contributing to this attitude as follows: in the first place, ___ 原 因 一 _______.Furthermore, in the second place, ___ 原因二_____. So it goes without saying that ___观点一_____. People, however, differ in their opinions on this matter. Some people hold the idea that ___观点二_______. In their point of view, on the one hand， ___原因一_______. On the other hand, ____原因二_____. Therefore, there is no doubt that ___观点二______. As far as I am concerned, I firmly support the view that __观点一或二 ______. It is not only because ________, but also because _________. The more _______, the more ________. （2）利弊型的议论文 Nowadays, there is a widespread concern over (the issue that)___作文题目______. In fact, there are both advantages and disadvantages in __题目议题_____. Generally speaking, it is widely believed there are several positive aspects as follows. Firstly, ___优点一______. And secondly ___优点二_____. Just As a popular saying goes, "every coin has two sides", __讨论议题______ is no exception, and in another word, it still has negative aspects. To begin with, ___缺点一 ______. In addition, ____缺点二______. To sum up, we should try to bring the advantages of __讨论议题____ into full play, and reduce the disadvantages to the minimum at the same time. In that case, we will definitely make a better use of the ____讨论议题___. ( 3 ) 答题性议论文 Currently, there is a widespread concern over (the issue that)__ 作 文 题 目 _______ .It is really an important concern to every one of us. As a result, we must spare no efforts to take some measures to solve this problem.
As we know that there are many steps which can be taken to undo this problem. First of all, __途径一______. In addition, another way contributing to success of the solving problem is ___途径二_____. Above all, to solve the problem of ___作文题目______, we should find a number of various ways. But as far as I am concerned, I would prefer to solve the problem in this way, that is to say, ____方法_____. ( 4 ) 谚语警句性议论文 It is well know to us that the proverb: " ___谚语_______" has a profound significance and value not only in our job but also in our study. It means ____谚语的 含义_______. The saying can be illustrated through a series of examples as follows. ( also theoretically ) A case in point is ___例子一______. Therefore, it is goes without saying that it is of great of importance to practice the proverb ____谚语_____. With the rapid development of science and technology in China, an increasing number of people come to realize that it is also of practical use to stick to the saying: ____谚语_____. The more we are aware of the significance of this famous saying, the more benefits we will get in our daily study and job.. 图表作文的框架 as is shown/indicated/illustrated by the figure/percentage in the table(graph/picture/pie/chart), ___作文题目的议题_____ has been on rise/ decrease (goesup/increases/drops/decreases),significantly/dramatically/steadily rising/decreasing from______ in _______ to ______ in _____. From the sharp/marked decline/ rise in the chart, it goes without saying that ________. There are at least two good reasons accounting for ______. On the one hand, ________. On the other hand, _______ is due to the fact that ________. In addition, ________ is responsible for _______. Maybe there are some other reasons to show ________. But it is generally believed that the above mentioned reasons are commonly convincing. As far as I am concerned, I hold the point of view that _______. I am sure my opinion is both sound and well-grounded. 实用性写作（申请信 ) Your address Month, Date, year Receiver’s address Dear ..., I am extremely pleased to hear from you./ to see your advertisement for the position in .... And I would like to write a letter to tell you that.../ I am confident that I am suitable for the kind of the job you are advertising. .../ I feel I am competent to meet the requirements you have listed. On the one hand, .... On the other hand, .... I am enclosing my resume for your kind consideration
and reference. I shall be much obliged if you will offer me a precious opportunity to an interview. I will greatly appreciate a response from you at your earliest convenience/ I am looking forward to your replies at your earliest convenience. Best regards for your health and success. Sincerely yours, XXX 现象说明文 Recently _______,what amazes us most is______________,it is ture that__________. There are many reasons explaining__________________________.The main reason is____________________. what is more_________________________.thirdly__________________________.As a result_______________. Considering all there,________________________.For one thing_____________________,for another________ ____.In Conclusion____________________. 《范文》 一种事物或现象（负面意义倾向） 关于 A 的话题,早已引起了广泛的社会关注。如今在电视、报纸、日常生活的很 多角落，都有越来越多的关于 A 的议论。 给 A 一个精确恒定的定义并非易事，因为它的概念涉及了科学、人性、思想、 经济、社会、自然等广阔的领域。一般而言，我们可以这样描述 A… A 能成为公众关注的焦点，主要是由于它对个人、集体乃至整个世界都有着不容 忽视的不良影响。 认真分析后我们可以看到，A 对社会/世界 /健康的不利有很多。首先，从最直观 的角度来看，A 的出现直接损害了（这里加入一句针对性的话，如人类的身体健 康和环境的平衡） 。 （举例） 。其次，从更深一层次上讲，它为人类的精神文明 蒙上了一层阴影。更可怕的是，由于 A 所产生微小利益，却促成了许多可悲的 人们为其忘乎所以，破坏了人类生存的法则和空间。 事实上，A 的出现是社会发展和人类进步的产物，A 所带来的危害是人类进化过 程中付出的代价。同时，A 的产生来源于部分人们的自私和趋利性，他们看到的 是肤浅和片面的利益，而从未从整个全局和人类整体的利益出发去认识和分析 它。这使得 A 始终挥之不去。对此，我奉劝他们，跳出狭小的角落，用长远和 全局的眼光去重新审视 A。 而如今， 我们已深受其害， 要想消除它的危害， 我们必须从根源上杜绝它的产生， 我们每一个人都应给予 A 高度的重视，用系统的和科学的方法去解决，唯有这 样，避免它带来更多损失，我们人类前进的脚步才会更加平稳，更加欢快的迈向 辉煌的明天。 One object or phenomenon (negative significance inclination.)
A has attracted extensive attention of the society. Nowadays, increasingly more argumentations about A can be found in TV programs, newspapers, ugogo and marry aspects of our everyday life. Since its concept covers vast fields, such as science, humanity, ideology, economy, society and nature, A is difficult to be defined, precisely and fixedly. Generally speaking ,we can describe A as follows:……. A’s status as the focus of public concern mainly results from its in negligible but harmful influence on individuals, collective, and even the whole world. It seems to have a strange power to drive some individuals or organizations to act wrongly. The essence of these wrong actions is: (1) to gain personal, short-term and partial individual interest at the expense of damaging others’ long-term and overall interest; (2) to adopt improper means to win more rewards with less input. Situating under the shadow of A, individuals /organizations and violate natural law merely to obtain temporary, or even illusory interests. However, the result may turn out to be loss of really important and valuable resource or ability. We must keep highly alert of the problems evoked by A, because once the harmful influence accumulates to a certain degree and then spread, it will surely threaten the development of the whole society. Though with various reasons and forms, from the perspective of the essence, the problems brought by A originates from the fundamental principle of human ideology and material production. Thus, we should seek the solutions through setting foot on this principle. Due to the depth and width of A’s harmful influence, we should draft our solutiogogotematically on the basis of deep analysis of A problem. We must acquire our power from technology, management, law and culture terrorm, effectively eliminate the shadow of A, and ensures ourselves a bright future.
1.Practice makes perfect. 熟能生巧。 2.God helps those who help themselves. 天助自助者。 3.Easier said than done. 说起来容易做起来难。 4.Where there is a will,there is a way. 有志者事竟成。 5.One false step will make a great difference. 失之毫厘，谬之千里。 6.Slow and steady wins the race. 稳扎稳打无往而不胜。 7.A fall into the pit,a gain in your wit. 吃一堑，长一智。
8.Experience is the mother of wisdom. 实践出真知。 9.All work and no play makes jack a dull boy. 只工作不玩耍，聪明孩子也变 傻。 10.Beauty without virtue is a rose without fragrance.无德之美犹如没有香味的 玫瑰，徒有其表。 11.More hasty,less speed. 欲速则不达。 12.Its never too old to learn. 活到老，学到老。 13.All that glitters is not gold. 闪光的未必都是金子。 14.A journey of a thousand miles begins with a single step.千里之行始于足下。 15.Look before you leap. 三思而后行。 16.Rome was not built in a day. 伟业非一日之功。 17.Great minds think alike. 英雄所见略同。 18.well begun,half done. 好的开始等于成功的一半。 19.It is hard to please all. 众口难调。 20.Out of sight,out of mind. 眼不见，心不念。 21.Facts speak plainer than words. 事实胜于雄辩。 22.Call back white and white back. 颠倒黑白。 23.First things first. 凡事有轻重缓急。 24.Ill news travels fast. 坏事传千里。 25.A friend in need is a friend indeed. 患难见真情。 26.live not to eat,but eat to live. 活着不是为了吃饭，吃饭为了活着。 27.Action speaks louder than words. 行动胜过语言。 28.East or west,home is the best. 金窝银窝不如自家草窝。
29.Its not the gay coat that makes the gentleman. 君子在德不在衣。 30.Beauty will buy no beef. 漂亮不能当饭吃。 31.Like and like make good friends. 趣味相投。 32.The older, the wiser. 姜是老的辣。 33.Do as Romans do in Rome. 入乡随俗。 34.An idle youth,a needy age. 少壮不努力，老大徒伤悲。 35.As the tree,so the fruit. 种瓜得瓜，种豆得豆。 36.To live is to learn,to learnistobetterlive.活着为了学习，学习为了更好的活 着。 Part 4 高考写作常用连接词
1、表示时间的 af first 起初 next 接下来 then 然后 after that 那以后 later 后来 soon 不久 soon/shortly after ……之后不久 finally 最后 in the end 最后 eventually 最终 at last 终于 lately 近来
recently 最近 since then 自从那时起 after that 那以后 in no time 不一会儿 after a while 一会儿 afterward 后来 to begin/start with=in the first place 首先、第一点 immediately 立即、马上 meanwhile=in the meantime=at the same time 在此期间、 同时 earlier, until now 直到现在 suddenly=all of a sudden 突然 as a young man 当…… 是个年轻人的时候 at the age of… 在……岁的时候 as early as 早……的时候 as soon as 一……就…… before, the other day 几天前 early in the morning 大清早 after/before dark 天黑后/前 one day 有一天 one afternoon 一天下午 one morning 一天早晨
2、表示空间的 to the right/left 朝右/左 on the rinht/left 在右/左边 in the middle of 在中间 in front of 在前面 in the front of 在前面 at the back of 在后面 at the bottom of 在底部 on the edge of 在……的边上 on top of 在……的顶部 opposite to 与……相对 close to 靠近 near to 在……附近 next to 与……相邻 under 垂直在下 over 垂直在上 below 在下方 above 在上方 across 在……的另一边 around 在周围 behind 在后 before 在前
against 靠着、抵着 further on 再往前 3、表示列举和时序 first, second, third…finally firstly, secondly, thirdly…finally first of all, next then, lastly for one thing…for another… at the same time at first at last 4、表示列举 for example 例如：…… namely 即…… for instance 例如：…… that is (to say) 也就是说 such as 如…… take…for example 拿……来说 like 像…… 5、表示比较或对比 like 像 unlike 不像 similarly 同样地
in the same way 以相同的方式 compared to 与……相比 while 而 still=nevertheless 然而 on the contrary 正相反 different from 与……不同 on (the) one hand…on the other hand 一方面……另一方 面 in contrast with 与……成对比 6、表示增补 and 而且 both…and 不但……而且 not only…but also 不但……而且 as well as 不但……而且 also=besides=furthermore=more over 此外、而且 in addition 并且 apart from 除了……之外 what's more 而且、更重要的 for another 另一方面 worse still=what's worse=to make matter worse 更糟糕的 是 including 包括
7、表示因果 because 因为 since 既然 as 由于 now that 既然 therefore 因此 thus 这样 so 所以 as a result (of) 结果 because of=on account of 因为 thanks to 多亏、由于 for this reason 由于这个原因 if so 如果这样 if not 如果不是这样 8、表示目的 for this purpose in order to do so as to do so that… in order that… 9、表示让步 though/although
no matter+疑问句 in spite of whatever/however/whoever even if/ even though 10、表示递进或强调 besides 况且 what's more 更重要地是 thus 这样 above all 首先 indeed 的确 in fact/ as a matter of fact 事实上 in other words 换句话说 in that case 那样的话 or rather 更确切地说 particularly 特别地 11、表示转折 but 但是 still 然而 however 然而 while 而 12、表示总结 in a/one word 简言之、一句话、总之
generally speaking 一般说来 in short=in a few words 简言之 in conclusion=lastly 最后地 on the whole=taking everything into consideration 从总体 来看、大体上 so 所以 therefore 因此 thus 这样 as has been mentioned 正如所提到的 it is quite clear that 很显然 there is no doubt that 毫无疑问 it is well-known that 大家都知道 as we all know=as is known to us all 大家都知道 as/so far as I know 据我所知 to sum up=to summarize=in summary 总之 13、表示转折话题 by the way 顺便说 I am afraid 我恐怕 in my opinion 依我看来 to tell the truth 说实话 to be honest 诚实地说
in face 事实上
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