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重点词组: 1. fond of “喜爱,爱好” 接名词、代词或动词的-ing 形式。例如: He’s fond of swimming. 他喜欢游泳。 Are you fond of fresh vegetables. 你喜欢新鲜蔬菜吗? He is fond o

f his research work. 他喜爱他的研究工作。 2. hunt for = look for 寻找 I have found the book I was hunting for.我找到了那本我在找的书。 hunt for a job 找工作 3. in order to, so as to 这两个词组都可引导不定式作目的状语, in order to 可放于句首, so as to 则不能, 其否定形式为 in order not to / so as not to. 如: He went to Beijing in order / so as to attend an important meeting. In order to be noticed, he shouted and waved to us.为了让我们注意他, 他朝我们又是叫喊又是挥手。 4. care about 1) 喜欢,对……有兴趣 = care for She doesn’t care about money.她不喜欢钱。 2)关心 = care for She thinks only of herself. She doesn’t care about other people.


她只考虑自己。她不关心别人。 3)在乎,在意(接从句或不接任何成分) These young people care nothing about what old people might say. 这些年轻人根本不在乎老人说的话。 5. such as 意为“诸如……”,“像……”,是用来列举人或事物的。 She teaches three subjects, such as physics and chemistry.她教三门科 目,像物理、化学。 6. drop * a line 留下便条, 写封短信

7、make yourself at home 别客气;随便;无拘束 (1) If you get to my house before I do, help yourself to a drink and make yourself at home. 如果你在我之前到我家,自己喝点饮料,随便一点。 8、stay up 不睡;熬夜 (1) I'll be late home, don't stay up for me. 我将回家很晚,不要等我了。 (2) He stayed up reading until 2:00 in the morning. 他熬夜看书直到凌晨两点。 9、come about 引起;发生;产生 (1)How did the accident come about? 这场事故是怎么发生的?


(2) They didn't know how the change had come about. 他们不知道这个变化是怎样产生的。 10、except for 除……之外 (1) except 与 except for 的用法常有区别。except 多用于引起同类 事物中被排除的一项。如: ①He answered all the questions except the last one. 除去最后一个,他回答了所有问题。 ②We go there every day except Sunday. 除了星期天,我们天天去那里。 (2)except for 用于引述细节以修正句子的主要意思。如: ①Except for one old lady, the bus was empty. 除去一个老太太,这辆公共汽车全空了。 ②Your picture is good except for the colours. 你的画儿很好,只是某些色彩有问题。 (3)但在现代英语中,except for 也用于表示 except 的意思。如上述第 一个例子可以是: He answered all the questions except for the last one. (4) 另外,在介词短语之前只能用 except,不能用 except for。如: We go to bed before ten, except in the summer. 除了夏季,我们通常十点之前上床睡觉。


11、end up with 以……告终;以……结束 (1) The party ended up with an English song. 聚会以一首英文歌结束。 12、more or less 几乎;差不多;大约;大概;大体上 (1) I've more or less succeeded, but they haven't. 我差不多成功了,而他们没有。 (2) Our living condition has more or less improved. 我们的生活水平或多或少提高了。 13、bring in 引进;引来;吸收 (1) We should bring in new technology. 我们应该引进新技术。 (2) He brings in 800 dollars a month. 他一个月挣八百美元。 14、get away(from) 逃离 (1)The thieves got away from the shop with all our money. 小偷带着我们所有的钱从商店逃跑了。 (2)I caught a really big fish but it got away. 我钓到了一条好大的鱼,可是它逃掉了。 15、watch out (for)注意;留心


(1)Watch out! There is a car coming. 小心!汽车来了。 (2)Watch out for the hole in the road. 留神路上的那个坑。 16、see sb. off 给某人送行 Tomorrow I will see my friend off at the railway station. 明天我到火车站给朋友送行。 17、on the other hand 另一方面(用以引出相互矛盾的观点、意见等, 常说 on the one hand …… on the other hand 一方面……另一方面) I know this job of mine isn't well paid, but on the other hand I don't have to work long hours. 我知道这份工作报酬不高,但从另一方面来说,我也不必工作太长时间。 18、as well as * (sth)而且

He is a talented musician as well as being a photographer. 她不但是摄影师还是个天才的音乐家。 19、take place 发生 take one’s place 入座、站好位置、取得地位 take sb’s place 或 take the place of * / sth 代替、取代

The Olympic Games take place / are held every four years. 20、on fire 相当于 burning, 意为“燃烧;着火;起火”,有静态的含意。 Catch fire 有动态的含意。



Set… on fire / set fire to …用来表示“使……着火”、“放火烧……”。例 如: Look, the theatre is on fire! Let’s go and help.瞧,剧院着火了,咱们 去帮忙救火吧。 21、on holiday 在度假,在休假中 When I was on holiday, I visited my uncle. 我在度假的时候去看望了叔 叔。 holiday(holidays)一般指“休假” Tom and I are going to have a holiday. 我和汤姆准备去度假。 I've already had my holidays this year. 我今年已经度过假了。 22、travel agency A business that attends to the details of transportation, itinerary, and accommodations for travelers. 旅行社一种为旅行者提供细致的运输、旅行和住宿方面服务 的行业 Also called: travel bureau 23、take off 1)脱下(衣服等), 解(除)掉 He took off his wet shoes.他脱下 了湿鞋子。 2)(飞机)起飞 The plane took off on time. It was a smooth take-off.飞机准时起飞。起 飞非常顺利。 3)匆匆离开 The six men got into the car and took off for the park. 这六个人上了


车,匆匆离开去公园。 24. go wrong v. 走错路, 误入岐途, (机器等)发生故障 25. in all adv. 总共

26. stay away v.外出 27. look up 查询(如宾语为代词,则代词放中间) Look up the word in the dictionary.在字典里查单词。 相关词组:look for 寻找;look after 照顾,照料; look forward to 期 待;look into 调查; look on 旁观;look out 注意;look out for 注意,留心,提防;look over 翻阅,查看,检查;look around 环视;look through 翻阅,查看。 28、run after 追逐,追求 If you run after two hares, you will catch neither.同时追两只兔子,你一 只也抓不到。 29、on the air 广播 We will be on the air in five minutes.我们五分钟以后开始广播。 This programme comes on the air at the same time every day.这个节 目每天在同一时间播出。 30、think highly/well/much of 对……评价很高, 赞赏, 对……印象好 He was highly thought of by the manager.经理对他非常赞赏。 I think well of your suggestion.我觉得你的建议很好。 think badly/nothing/little/lowly of……认为不好, 好……不在意, 不赞成, 觉得……不怎么样


I don’t think much of him as a teacher.我觉得他作为一个老师不怎么 样。 31. leave out 1) 漏掉 You made a mistake—You’ve left out a letter “t”.你出错了—你漏掉了一个字母 t. 2) 删掉, 没用 I haven’t changed or left out a thing.我没有作出变动也 没有删掉任何东西。 32. stare at (由于好奇、激动等张着嘴巴,睁大眼睛地)凝视,盯着看 Don’t stare at foreigners. It’s impolite.不要盯着外国人看,这样不礼 貌。 比较:glare at (to stare angrily at)怒视着 这两个小男孩互相怒视着,随时准备开战。 33. make jokes about 就……说笑 They make jokes about my old hat.他们就我的旧帽子说笑我。 have a joke with … about …跟某人开关于某事的玩笑。 He stopped to have a joke with me.他停下来跟我开玩笑。 play a joke on…开某人的玩笑 We played jokes on each other. 我们互相开玩笑。 v. joke about 取笑 They joked about my broken English.他们取笑我蹩 脚的英. 45.take over 接管;接替;继承

what is good and still useful should be taken over.好的有用的东西应当 继承。


Our chairman has left, so Jack will take over (his job).我们的主席走了, 因此杰克将接 管(他的工作)。 46. break down 1) 破坏;拆散 Chemicals in the body break our food down into useful substances. 人体中的化学元素把食物分解成有用的物质。 The peace talks are said to have broken down. (喻)据说和谈破裂了。 2)(机器)损坏 Our truck broke down outside town. 我们的卡车在城 外抛锚了。 The car broke down halfway to the destination.汽车在到达目的地的中 途抛锚了。 3) 失败;破裂 Their opposition broke down.他们的反对意见打消了。 4) 精神崩溃;失去控制 He broke down and wept. 他不禁失声痛哭。 5) 起化学变化 Food is broken down by chemicals. 化学物质引起食物 转化。 47、get on one’s feet 1)站起来;站起来发言 2)(=stand on one's feet)自立, 经济上独立 3)(人)病好了, 可以起床了; (使)恢复, 复苏(指企业) 48、go through


1) 经历;经受;遭到 These countries have gone / been through too many wars.这些国家饱 经战火。 2) 完成;做完 I didn't want to go through college.我不想上完大学。 3)通过;批准 The law has gone through Parliament. 议会已经通过了 这项法案。 Their plans went through. 他们的计划得到了批准。 4)全面检查;搜查 They went through our luggage at the customs.在海关他们检查了我们 的行李。 45.take over 接管;接替;继承

what is good and still useful should be taken over.好的有用的东西应当 继承。 Our chairman has left, so Jack will take over (his job).我们的主席走了, 因此杰克将接 管(他的工作)。 46. break down 1) 破坏;拆散 Chemicals in the body break our food down into useful substances. 人体中的化学元素把食物分解成有用的物质。 The peace talks are said to have broken down. (喻)据说和谈破裂了。



2)(机器)损坏 Our truck broke down outside town. 我们的卡车在城 外抛锚了。 The car broke down halfway to the destination.汽车在到达目的地的中 途抛锚了。 3) 失败;破裂 Their opposition broke down.他们的反对意见打消了。 4) 精神崩溃;失去控制 He broke down and wept. 他不禁失声痛哭。 5) 起化学变化 Food is broken down by chemicals. 化学物质引起食物 转化。 47、get on one’s feet 1)站起来;站起来发言 2)(=stand on one's feet)自立, 经济上独立 3)(人)病好了, 可以起床了; (使)恢复, 复苏(指企业) 48、go through 1) 经历;经受;遭到 These countries have gone / been through too many wars.这些国家饱 经战火。 2) 完成;做完 I didn't want to go through college.我不想上完大学。 3)通过;批准 The law has gone through Parliament. 议会已经通过了 这项法案。 Their plans went through. 他们的计划得到了批准。 4)全面检查;搜查 They went through our luggage at the customs.在海关他们检查了我们


的行李。 重点句型 1.“So + be/have/助动词/情态动词+主词”的结构。此结构中的语 序是倒装的,“So”代替上句中的某个成分。如果上面一句是否定句,则使用 “Neither/Nor+be/have/助动词/情态动词+主语”的结构。 例如 He’s tired,and so am I.(=I’ m also tired.) You can swim,and so can I.(=I can also swim.) She has had supper,and so can I.(=I’ve had lunch,too.) Tom speaks English ,and so does his sister .(=His sister speaks English,too.) A: I went to the park yesterday. B: So did I.(=I also went to the park yesterday.) 2. “So +主语+be/have/助动词/情态动词” 结构中的主谓是正常语序, so 相当于 indeed,certainly,表示说话人对前面或对方所说情况的肯定、赞同或 证实,语气较强,意思是“确实如此”。 例如 A:It was cold yesterday.昨天很冷。 B:So it was.的确如此。(=Yes,it was.) A:You seem to like sports. B:So I do.(=Yes,I do.) A:It will be fine tomorrow. B:So it will.(=Yes ,it will.) 3.“主语+do/does/did + so”结构指的是按上句的要求做了。此句型中


do so 代替上文中要求做的事,以免重复。 My Chinese teacher told me to hand in my composition on time and I did so.(=I handed in my composition on time.) 语文老师叫我按时交作文, 我照办了。 4.So it is with…或 It is the same with…句型表示 “……(的情况)也是如 此。”当前面的句子中有几种不同形式的谓语时,要表示相同情况,必须使用本 句型,不能使用 so 引起的倒装句。 She doesn’t play the piano, but she likes singing. So it is with my sister. 5、There you are. 行了,好。 这是一句表示一种事情告一段落或有了最终结果的用语。如: There you are! Then let's have some coffee. 除此之外,还可以表示“瞧,对吧(果然如此)”的语气。例如: There you are! I knew we should find it at last. 对吧!我就知道我们最终能找到的。 6、have some difficulty (in) doing sth. 干某事有困难;接名词时,常用句型:have some difficulty with sth. ①Do you have any difficulty (in) understanding English? 你理解英语口语有困难吗? ②She said she had some difficulty with pronunciation. 她说她在发音方面有困难。



7、have a good knowledge of sth. “掌握……”,“对……有某种程度的了解” ①He has a good knowledge of London. 他对伦敦有所了解。 ②A good knowledge of languages is always useful. 8、Tree after tree went own, cut down by the water, which must have been three metres deep. 一棵又一棵的树被水冲倒、冲断。那水肯定有三米深。 “must have + 过去分词”表示对已发生事情的猜测。在英语中,must, may,can 三个情态动词可用来表示对事情的猜测。Must 意为“肯定”,语气 很有把握;may 意为“可能”、“也许”,语气把握性不大。两者常用在肯定 句中。Can 意为“肯定”、“也许”,常用在否定句或疑问句中。Must,may, can 三者用于表示猜测时,其后面可跟三种不同的动词形式:1)跟动词原形表 示对现在事情的猜测; 2)跟 be doing 表示对正在发生事情的猜测;3)跟 have done 表示对已 经发生的事情的猜测。例如: Helen is Lucy’s good friend. She must know Lucy’s e-mail.海伦是露 茜的好朋友。她肯定知道露茜的电子邮件。 We can hear loud voices in the meeting room. They must be quarrelling.我们可以听到会议 室很吵。他们肯定在吵架。 I met Jeff at the gate a moment ago. He can’ t have gone to Australia. 我刚才还在大门口见 过杰夫。他不可能去了澳大利亚。



9、Wei Bin took out some peanuts and it was fun to see the monkey eat from his hand.魏彬拿出一些花生。看着猴子从他手上吃花生,很有趣。 fun “好玩,趣事”,不可数名词,前面不加不定冠词 a。 You’re sure to have some fun at the party tonight. 今天晚上你肯定会 玩得很开心。 make fun of“取笑”, “嘲弄”。People make fun of him only because he is wearing such a strange jacket.人们嘲笑他只是因为他穿了一件那么奇怪的衣服。 funny adj. “可笑的, 滑稽的” 。 He looks very funny in his father’ s jacket. 他穿着他父亲 的衣服,看上去很滑稽。 10、Many people who saw the film were afraid to swim in the sea…… 许多看过这部电影的人都不敢在海里游。 afraid 用法说明: 1)害怕人/ 物,如:be afraid of * / sth

2)不敢做某事,如:be afraid to do sth / of doing sth He is afraid to go out / of going out alone at night. 3) 担心会发生某事, 如: be afraid of doing sth 或 be afraid + that clause He seldom stands on the river bank because he is afraid of falling into the river. He seldom stands on the river bank because he is afraid that he might fall into the


river. 4) 给人不愉快的信息或不赞同某人意见时, 用 I’m afraid …, 如: I’m afraid I’ve got bad news for you. I’m afraid I can’t agree with you. 11、It is polite to finish eating everything on your plate.把你盘子里所 有东西吃完是有礼貌的。 这是一个动词不定式作主语的句型,其中 to finish eating everything 是 主语,it 是形式主语。 12、I wish you all the best.我祝你万事如意. 用 wish 来表示祝愿的结构是 wish * 示祝愿: May * do sth 如: May you succeed. 13、Where there is a river, there is a city. 有河流的地方就有城市。 Where 在这里引导的是地点状语从句,相当于介词 in/ at/ to + the place + where 从句 9 定语从句),意思是“在……地方”。 例如: Where there is smoke, there is fire.无风不起浪;事出有因。 He lives where the climate is mild.他住在气候温暖的地方。 14、Strong, proud, and united, the people of St Petersburg are the modern heroes of Russia . 圣彼得堡人民坚强不屈、充满自豪、团结一致,他们是俄罗斯当代的英雄。 Strong, proud, and united 为前置定语,在这里相当于一个非限制性定语 从句:

sth, 此外我们还可以用 may 来表


The people of St Petersburg , who are strong, proud, and united, are the modern heroes of Russia . 当主语比较短时,这类短语常常放在句首。

15. Congratulations!是一句祝贺用语,在使用时要用复数形式。其他几个 通常以复数形式出现表达特定含义的名词有: manners(礼貌):He is a little boy with good manners.这个小男孩很 有礼貌。 regards (问候):Please send my regards to your parents.请代我问候你 父母。 16. Every four years athletes from all over the world take part in the Olympic Games. 没四年,世界各地的运动员们都要参加奥运会。 “every + 基数词 + 时间/ 距离单位”词表示“每多少时间/ 距离”。如: every five days(每五天), every three hours(每三小时), every ten metres(每十公尺) 类似表达形式还有:every fifth day, every third hour “每隔一天”的表达形式有:every second day, every two days, every other day. 17、Modern cellphones are more than just phones—they are used as cameras and radios, and to send e-mail or surf the Internet.现代的手机不仅仅是电话机—它们也 当坐照相机和收音机使用,还可以发送电子邮件和上网。 use A as B 把 A 用作 B。例如:



In ancient times, people used stones as tools for farming.在古代,人 们把石头用作耕作的 工具。 use sth to do sth 用某物来做某事。例如: In ancient times, people used stones to kill animals for food. 在古代,人们用石头来捕杀动物获取食物。 18、 The answer seems to be that we have a need to stay in touch with friends and family no matter where we are or what we are doing.答案似乎是:无论我们在何 处或正在做什么,我们都需要和朋友以及家人一直保持联系。 1) seem 似乎,好像,其用法及搭配有: seem + adj., 如: This problem seems complicated, but actually it is simple. 这个问题看似复杂,其实很简单。 seem to do I seem to have seen him somewhere before.我好像以前在哪儿见过他。 It seems that…, It seems that everything is going on well.好像一切正常。 It seems as if…, It seems as if it’s going to rain.看来快要下雨了。 2) no matter 无论,不管,后面常跟疑问词引导的从句,其意相当于疑问


词后加 ever。如 no matter what=whatever; no matter where=wherever; no matter how=however; no matter when=whenever 例如: No matter when (Whenever) I meet him, he is always wearing that old hat. 不管我什么时候遇见他,他总是戴着那顶旧礼帽。 No matter how (However) expensive the cellphone is, I ’ll buy it because I need one badly. 无论这手机有多贵,我都要买。因为我急需有个手机。 重点语法 重点语法: 直接引语和间接引语 1. 直接引语在改为间接引语时,时态需要做相应的调整。 eg: “I broke your CD player.” (一般过去时改成过去完成时) He told me he had broken my CD player. Jenny said, “I have lost a book.” (现在完成时改成过去完成时) Jenny said she had lost a book. Mum said, “I’ll go to see a friend.” (一般将来时改成过去将来时) Mum said she would go to see a friend. 过去完成时保留原有的时态


He said, “We hadn’t finished our homework.” He said they hadn’t finished their homework. 注意 直接引语是客观真理,过去进行时,时态不变。 2. 在直接引语变间接引语时, 如果从句中的主语时第一人称或被第一人称 所修饰,从句中的人称要按照主句中主语的人称变化。如: Mary said, “My brother is an engineer.” Mary said her brother was and engineer. 3. 直接引语如果是反意疑问句,选择疑问句或一般疑问句,间接引语应改 为由 whether 或 if 引导的宾语从句。如: He said, “Can you run, Mike?” He asked Mike whether/if he could run. 4. 直接引语如果是祈使句,间接引语应改为“ tell(ask, order, beg 等) * (not) to do sth.”句型。如: “Pass me the water, please.”said he. He asked him to pass her the water. 5. 直接引语如果是以“Let’s”开头的祈使句,变为间接引语时,通常用 “suggest+动名词或从句”的结构。如: She said, “Let’s go to the cinema.” She suggested going to the cinema. 或 She suggested that they should go to the cinema. 现在进行时表将来的动作


现在进行时表将来的动作,谓语通常为瞬间动词。如:come, go, arrive, leave, start, return, stay, meet, get 等。这些动词的进行时后不能再接具体的 时间。 (1)用现在进行时表示将来,指的是近期的,按计划或安排要发生的动作。 (2)现在进行时表示将来与表示正在进行的动作的区别在于:前者通常用 瞬间动词 (有时一些常用动词也可以这样用如: do) 如: go, come, start, return, get, arrive 等。而后者通常是持续性动词。 He is reading a novel. 他在看小说。 The train is arriving soon. 火车就要进站了。 (3)用现在进行时表示将来的时间,在句中或上下文中通常有表示将来时 间的状语。 (4)现在进行时与一般现在时表示将来动作的区别在于:前者表示的将来 的动作往往是可以改变的, 而后者则是根据规定或时间表预计要发生的动作或事 情,因此往往是不可改变或不可随便改变的。 What are you doing next Friday? 下星期五你们打算干什么? The plane takes off at 7:30 tonight. 飞机今晚七点半起飞。




意为: "意图"、 "打算"、 "安排"、 常用于人。 常用词为 come, go, start, arrive, leave, stay 等。 I'm leaving tomorrow. Are you staying here till next week? 比较过去时与现在完成时 1)过去时表示过去某时发生的动作或单纯叙述过去的事情,强调动作;现 在完成时为过去发生的,强调过去的事情对现在的影响,强调的是影响。 2)过去时常与具体的时间状语连用,而现在完成时通常与模糊的时间状语 连用,或无时间状语。 一般过去时的时间状语: yesterday, last week,…ago, in1980, in October, just now, 具体的时间 状语 共同的时间状语: this morning, tonight,this April, now, once,before, already, recently, lately 现在完成时的时间状语 for, since, so far, ever, never, just, yet, till / until, up to now, in past years, always, 不确定的时间状语 3)现在完成时可表示持续到现在的动作或状态,动词一般是延续性的,如 live, teach, learn, work, study, know. 过去时常用的非持续性动词有 come, go, leave, start, die, finish, become, get married 等。



举例: I saw this film yesterday. (强调看的动作发生过了。) I have seen this film. (强调对现在的影响,电影的内容已经知道了。) Why did you get up so early? (强调起床的动作已发生过了。) Who hasn't handed in his paper? (强调有卷子,可能为不公平竞争。) She has returned from Paris. 她已从巴黎回来了。 She returned yesterday. 她是昨天回来了。 He has been in the League for three years. (在团内的状态可延续) He has been a League member for three years. (是团员的状态可持续) He joined the League three years ago. ( 三年前入团,joined 为短暂行为。)



I have finished my homework now. ---Will somebody go and get Dr. White? ---He's already been sent for. 句子中如有过去时的时间副词(如 yesterday, last, week, in 1960)时, 不能使用现在完成时,要用过去时。 (错)Tom has written a letter to his parents last night. (对)Tom wrote a letter to his parents last night. since 的四种用法 1) since +过去一个时间点 (如具体的年、 月、 日期、 钟点、 1980, last month, half past six)。 I have been here since 1989. 2) since +一段时间+ ago I have been here since five months ago. 3) since +从句 Great changes have taken place since you left. Considerable time has elapsed since we have been here. 4) It is +一段时间+ since 从句 It is two years since I became a postgraduate student. 延续动词与瞬间动词 1) 用于完成时的区别



延续动词表示经验、经历; 瞬间动词表示行为的结 果,不能与表示段的时 间状语连用。 He has completed the work. 他已完成了那项工作。 (表结果) I've known him since then. 我从那时起就认识他了。(表经历) 2) 用于 till / until 从句的差异 延续动词用于肯定句,表示"做……直到……" 瞬间动词用于否定句,表示 " 到……,才……" He didn't come back until ten o'clock. 他到 10 点才回来。 He slept until ten o'clock. 他一直睡到 10 点。 典型例题 1. You don't need to describe her. I ___ her several times. A. had met B. have met C. met D. meet 答案 B. 首先本题后句强调对现在的影响,我知道她的模样,你不用描述。 再次,several times 告知为反复发生的动作,因此用现在完成时。 2.---I'm sorry to keep you waiting. ---Oh, not at all. I ___ here only a few minutes. A. have been B. had been C. was D. will be 答案 A. 等待的动作由过去开始,持续到现在,应用现在完成时。 用一般过去时代替完成时


1) 两个动作如按顺序发生,又不强调先后,或用 then,and,but 等连词 时,多用一般过去时。 When she saw the mouse,she screamed. My aunt gave me a hat and I lost it. 2 ) 两个动作相继发生, 可用一般过去时; 如第一个动作需要若干时间完成, 用过去完成时。 When I heard the news, I was very excited. 3) 叙述历史事实,可不用过去完成时,而只用一般过去时。 Our teacher told us that Columbus discovered America in 1492. 不用进行时的动词 1) 事实状态的动词 have, belong, possess, cost, owe, exist, include, contain, matter, weigh, measure, continue I have two brothers. This house belongs to my sister. 2) 心理状态的动词 Know, realize, think see, believe, suppose, imagine, agree, recognize, remember, want, need, forget, prefer, mean, understand, love, hate I need your help. He loves her very much. 3 ) 瞬间动词


accept, receive, complete, finish, give, allow, decide, refuse. I accept your advice. 4) 系动词 seem, remain, lie, see, hear, smell, feel, taste, get, become, turn You seem a little tired. 虚拟语气 1) 概念 虚拟语气用来表示说话人的主观愿望或假想,所说的是一个条件,不一定是 事实,或与事实相反。 2) 在条件句中的应用 条件句可分为两类,一类为真实条件句,一类为非真实条件句。非真实条件 句表示的是假设的或实际可能性不大的情况,故采用虚拟语气。 真实条件句 真实条件句用于陈述语气,假设的情况可能发生,其中 if 是如果的意思。 时态关系 句型: 条件从句 主句 一般现在时 shall/will + 动词原形 If he comes, he will bring his violin. 典型例题 The volleyball match will be put off if it ___.


A. will rain B. rains C. rained D. is rained 答案 B。真实条件句主句为将来时,从句用一般现在时。 注意: 1) 在真实条件句中,主句不能用 be going to 表示将来,该用 shall, will. (错) If you leave now, you are never going to regret it. (对) If you leave now, you will never regret it. 2) 表示真理时,主句谓语动词便不用 shall (will) +动词原形,而直接用一 般现在时的动词形式。 非真实条件句 1)时态:可以表示过去,现在和将来的情况。它的基本特点是时态退后。 a. 同现在事实相反的假设。 句型 : 条件从句 主句 一般过去时 should( would) +动词原形 If they were here, they would help you. b. 表示于过去事实相反的假设。 句型: 条件从句 主句 过去完成时 should(would) have+ 过去分词 If she had worked harder, she would have succeeded. The rice would not have been burnt if you had been more careful.



If my lawyer had been here last Saturday, he would have prevented me from going. If he had come yesterday, I should / would have told him about it. 含义:He did not come yesterday, so I did not tell him about it. If he had not been ill and missed many classes, he would have made greater progress. 含义: He was ill and missed many lessons, so he did not make greater progress. c. 表示对将来的假想 句型: 条件从句 主句 一般过去时 should+ 动词原形 were+ 不定式 would + 动词原形 should+ 动词原形 If you succeeded, everything would be all right. If you should succeed, everything would be all right. If you were to succeed, everything would be all right. 混合条件句 主句与从句的动作发生在不同的时间,这时主,从句谓语动词的虚拟语气形 式因时间不同而不同,这叫做混合条件句。 If you had asked him yesterday, you would know what to do now. (从句与过去事实相反,主句与现在事实相反。)



If it had rained last night (过去), it would be very cold today (现在). 虚拟条件句的倒装 虚拟条件句的从句部分如果含有 were, should, 或 had, 可将 if 省略, 再把 were, should 或 had 移到从句句首,实行倒装。 Were they here now, they could help us. =If they were here now, they could help us. Had you come earlier, you would have met him =If you had come earlier, you would have met him. Should it rain, the crops would be saved. =Were it to rain, the crops would be saved. 注意: 在虚拟语气的从句中,动词'be'的过去时态一律用"were",不用 was, 即 在从句中 be 用 were 代替。 If I were you, I would go to look for him. 如果我是你,就会去找他。 If he were here, everything would be all right. 如果他在这儿,一切都会好的。 典型例题 _____ to do the work, I should do it some other day. A. If were I B. I were C. Were I D. Was I



答案 C. 在虚拟条件状语中如果有 were, should, had 这三个词,通常将 if 省略,主语提前, 变成 were, should, had +主语的形式。但要注意,在虚拟条 件状语从句中, 省略连词的倒装形式的句首不能用动词的缩略形式。如我们可说 Were I not to do., 而不能说 Weren't I to do. 特殊的虚拟语气词:should 1) It is demanded / necessary / a pity + that…结构中的主语从句的谓 语动词要用 should 加动词原形, should 可省略。 句型: (1)suggested It is (2)important that…+ (should) do (3) a pity (1)suggested, ordered, proposed, required, demanded, requested, insisted; + (should) do (2)important, necessary, natural, strange a pity, a shame, no wonder (3)It is suggested that we (should) hold a meeting next week. It is necessary that he (should) come to our meeting tomorrow. 2)在宾语从句中的应用 在表示命令、建议、要求等一类动词后面的从句中。 order, suggest, propose, require, demand, request, insist, command, insist + (should) do I suggest that we (should) hold a meeting next week.



He insisted that he (should ) be sent there. 注意: 如 suggest, insist 不表示"建议" 或"坚持要某人做某事时",即它们 用于其本意"暗示、表明"、"坚持认为"时,宾语从句用陈述语气。 The guard at gate insisted that everybody obey the rules. 判断改错: (错) You pale face suggests that you (should) be ill. (对) Your pale face suggests that you are ill. (错) I insisted that you ( should) be wrong. (对) I insisted that you were wrong. 3)在表语从句,同位语从句中的应用 在 suggestion, proposal, idea, plan, order, advice 等名词后面的表语从 句、同位语从句中要用虚拟语气,即(should)+动词原形。 My idea is that we (should) get more people to attend the conference. I make a proposal that we (should) hold a meeting next week. 比较 if only 与 only if only if 表示"只有";if only 则表示"如果……就好了"。If only 也可用于陈述 语气。 I wake up only if the alarm clock rings. 只有闹钟响了,我才会醒。 If only the alarm clock had rung. 当时闹钟响了,就好了。 If only he comes early. 但愿他早点回来。



关系代词所代替的先行词是人或物的名词或代词, 并在句中充当主语、 宾语、 定语等成分。 关系代词在定语从句中作主语时,从句谓语动词的人称和数要和先 行词保持一致。 1)who, whom, that 这些词代替的先行词是人的名词或代词,在从句中所起作用如下: Is he the man who/that wants to see you? 他就是你想见的人吗?(who/that 在从句中作主语) He is the man whom/ that I saw yesterday. 他就是我昨天见的那个人。(whom/that 在从句中作宾语) 2) Whose 用来指人或物,(只用作定语, 若指物,它还可以同 of which 互 换), 例如: They rushed over to help the man whose car had broken down. 那人 车坏了,大家都跑过去帮忙。 Please pass me the book whose (of which) cover is green. 请递给我那 本绿皮的书。 3)which, that 它们所代替的先行词是事物的名词或代词,在从句中可作主语、宾语等,例 如: A prosperity which / that had never been seen before appears in the countryside. 农村出现了前所未有的繁荣。(which / that 在句中作宾语) The package (which / that) you are carrying is about to come unwrapped. 你拿的包快散了。(which / that 在句中作宾语) 关系副词可代替的先行词是时间、地点或理由的名词,在从句中作状语。



1)when, where, why 关系副词 when, where, why 的含义相当于"介词+ which"结构,因此常常 和"介词+ which"结构交替使用,例如: There are occasions when (on which) one must yield. 任何人都有不得 不屈服的时候。 Beijing is the place where (in which) I was born. 北京是我的出生地。 Is this the reason why (for which) he refused our offer? 这就是他拒绝 我们帮助他的理由吗? 2)that 代替关系副词 that 可以用于表示时间、 地点、 方式、 理由的名词后取代 when, where, why 和"介词+ which"引导的定语从句,在口语中 that 常被省略,例如: His father died the year (that / when / in which) he was born. 他父亲 在他出生那年逝世了。 He is unlikely to find the place (that / where / in which) he lived forty years ago. 他不大可能找到他四十年前居住过的地方。 方法一:用关系代词,还是关系副词完全取决于从句中的谓语动词。及物动 词后面无宾语, 就必须要求用关系代词; 而不及物动词则要求用关系副词。 例如: This is the mountain village where I stayed last year. I'll never forget the days when I worked together with you. 判断改错(注:先显示题,再显示答案,横线;用不同的颜色表示出。) (错) This is the mountain village where I visited last year. (错) I will never forget the days when I spent in the countryside. (对) This is the mountain village (which) I visited last year.


(对) I'll never forget the days (which) I spent in the countryside. 习惯上总把表地点或时间的名词与关系副词 where, when 联系在一起。此 两题错在关系词的误用上。 方法二: 准确判断先行词在定语从句中的成分(主、谓、宾、定、状),也 能正确选择出关系代词/关系副词。 例 1. Is this museum ___ you visited a few days age? A. where B. that C. on which D. the one 例 2. Is this the museum ____ the exhibition was held. A. where B. that C. on which D. the one 答案:例 1 D,例 2 A 例 1 变为肯定句: This museum is ___ you visited a few days ago. 例 2 变为肯定句: This is the museum ___ the exhibition was held. 在句 1 中,所缺部分为宾语,而 where, that, on which 都不能起到宾语的 作用,只有 the one 既做了主句的表语,又可做从句的宾语,可以省略关系代 词,所以应选 D。 而句 2 中, 主、谓、宾俱全,从句部分为句子的状语表地点,既可用副词 where,又因 in the museum 词组,可用介词 in + which 引导地点状语。而 此题中,介词 on 用的不对,所以选 A。 关系词的选择依据在从句中所做的成分, 先行词在从句中做主、 定、 宾语时, 选择关系代词 (who, whom, that, which, whose); 先行词在从句中做状语时, 应选择关系副词 ( where 地点状语,when 时间状语,why 原因状语) 。 限制性和非限制性定语从句 1) 定语从句有限制性和非限制性两种。限制性定语从句是先行词不可缺少


的部分,去掉它主句意思往往不明确;非限制性定语从句是先行词的附加说明, 去掉了也不会影响主句的意思,它与主句之间通常用逗号分开,例如: This is the house which we bought last month. 这是我们上个月买的那 幢房子。(限制性) The house, which we bought last month, is very nice.这幢房子很漂亮, 是我们上个月买的。(非限制性) 2) 当先行词是专有名词或物主代词和指示代词所修饰时,其后的定语从句 通常是非限制性的,例如: Charles Smith, who was my former teacher, retired last year. 查理·史 密斯去年退休了,他曾经是我的老师。 My house, which I bought last year, has got a lovely garden. 我去年买 的的那幢房子带着个漂亮的花园。 This novel, which I have read three times, is very touching. 这本小说 很动人,我已经读了三遍。 3) 非限制性定语从句还能将整个主句作为先行词, 对其进行修饰, 这时从 句谓语动词要用第三人称单数,例如: He seems not to have grasped what I meant, which greatly upsets me. 他似乎没抓住我的意思,这使我心烦。 Liquid water changes to vapor, which is called evaporation. 液态水变 为蒸汽,这就叫做蒸发。 说明:关系代词 that 和关系副词 why 不能引导非限制性定语从句。 由 as, which 引导的非限定性定语从句,as 和 which 可代整个主句,相当 于 and this 或 and that。As 一般放在句首,which 在句中。 As we know, smoking is harmful to one's health. The sun heats the earth, which is very important to us.


典型例题 1)Alice received an invitation from her boss, ___came as a surprise. A. it B. that C. which D. he 答案 C. 此为非限定性从句,不能用 that 修饰,而用 which.,it 和 he 都 使后句成为句子,两个独立的句子不能单以逗号连接。况且选 he 句意不通。 2)The weather turned out to be very good, ___ was more than we could expect. A. what B. which C. that D. it 答案 B。which 可代替句子,用于非限定性定语从句,而 what 不可。That 不能用于非限定性定语从句,it 不为连词,使由逗号连接的两个句子并在一起在 英语语法上行不通。 3)It rained hard yesterday, ____ prevented me from going to the park.. A. that B. which C. as D. it 答案 B. as 和 which 在引导非限制性定语从句时,这两个关系代词都指主句所表达 的整个意思,且在定语从句中都可以作主语和宾语。但不同之处主要有两点: (1) as 引导的定语从句可置于句首,而 which 不可。 (2) as 代表前面的整个主句并在从句中作主语时,从句中的谓语必须是系 动词;若为行为动词,则从句中的关系代词只能用 which.。 在本题中,prevent 由于是行为动词,所以正确选项应为 B。 As 的用法



例 1. the same… as;such…as 中的 as 是一种固定结构, 和……一样……。 I have got into the same trouble as he (has). 例 2. as 可引导非限制性从句,常带有'正如'。 As we know, smoking is harmful to one's health. As is know, smoking is harmful to one's health. As 是关系代词。例 1 中的 as 作 know 的宾语;例 2 中,它充当从句的主 语,谓语动词 know 要用被动式。


1.单词和词组 have sports shooting horse-riding in modern times take part in gold hand in sailing exciting compete unusual prize wrestling Olympic Games athlete AD BC Greece competitor competition Barcelona motto swift medal Carl Lewis


Ball 2.日常交际用语: Which do you prefer....or...? I prefer ... to... 3.语法: 学习由 who/that/which(介词 +which)/whom( 介词 +whom)引导的定语 从句。


1.单词和词组 (1)compete:v.—take part in a race,contest,examination,etc. (参加赛跑、比赛、考试等)竞争、比赛 e.g.①Some of the games in which the young men competed are running, jumping and wrestling.(青年男子参加的竞赛项目有赛跑、跳高和 摔跤。) ② The two football teams are competing for the European Championship.(这两个足球队正争夺欧洲冠军。) ③The two girls competed with each other for the highest mark.(这 两个女孩为取得最高分互相竞争。)



(2)prize:n — sth.(to be)awarded to one who succeeds in a competition; sth.struggled for;worth struggling for; 奖品、奖金(比喻)奋斗争取的东西或值得奋斗争取的东西 e.g.①To hold the Olympic Games is a rich prize for a country. (承办 一次奥林匹克运动会,对一个国家来说就是一份丰厚的奖品。) ②My sister won first prize for her singing.(我姐姐赢得唱歌一等奖。) ③In 1921 Albert Einstein won the Nobel Prize for physics. (在 1921 年,阿尔伯特*爱因斯坦获诺贝尔物理奖。) note: prize 与 reward 区别 1)prize 作名词用意为奖,因比赛或因某事受到赞扬而给予的奖励。 2)reward 因为工作或服务受到的报答, 或协助警方寻找或归还失物被给与 的酬金。 e.g.A large reward is offered for the return of the ring.(找到戒指可得 一大笔酬金。) (3)in modern times — "times"means period of time,more or less definite. (often pl.) 时代,时期(常复数)。此短语意为“在现代” e.g.The first Olympic Games in modern times happened in 1896.(现 代首届奥林匹克运动会 1896 年举行。) other example: in ancient times 在古代 (4)take part in:have a share(in) e.g.①Women were not allowed to take part in the games.妇女不允许


参加这些项目。 ②Are you going to take part in the discussion?你准备参加讨论吗? notes:1)take part in 作“参与,参加”讲。part 前无形容词时则不加冠词。 若有,则需要加冠词 a(an)。 e.g.①All of us took part in the sports meet last year.去年我们大家都参 加运动会了。 ②He takes an active part in many school activities.(他积极参加学校 的许多活动。) 2)take part in,join 及 attend 区别,汉语都可译成“参加”,但意思不同。 ①join 是指以平等地位“加入”到某一组织团体或人群中,并成为其中一 员。 join sb.sth.—become a member of… e.g.She joined the Young Pioneers.(她加入了少先队。) ②take part in 是指参加到某一活动中去(如群众性活动、会议等)。 e.g.We should take part in the political activities.(我们应该参加政治 活动。) ③attend 是指参加、出席会议、聚会、讲座等。 e.g.attend a meeting,attend the concert,attend the lecture 参加会议也可说 take part in the meeting 3)join in 又可等于 take part in e.g.Will you join in the discussion?(你愿意参加讨论会吗?) 2.知识点测试


( )(1)"Do you know what was wrong with her?""_______tell you." A.I‘d not rather C.I‘d rather not to B.I wouldn’t rather D.I’d rather not

( )(2)Is this factory _______you visited last Saturday? A.the one B.that C.where D.in which

( )(3)We don‘t have physics on Tuesday,Thursday and Saturday. We have it _______. A.every other day C.every day B.every three days D.every other days

( )(4)_______number of books in our library is going up. A.Large B.The C.A D.A large

( )(5)It’s spring now and the weather is getting _______. A.warmer and warmer C.warmer and warm ( )(6)While we were walking B.warmest and warmest D.the warmer and warmer along the river,we heard

someone_______for help. A.shouting B.shout C.shouted D.having shouted

( )(7)That day Tom hit Bob_______head. A.in the B.on the C.in Bob‘s D.on his



( )(8)Mary’s been done a great wrong,_______her brother. A.so does B.also did C.so has D.so is ( )(9)Has all_______can be done_______? A.what,done B.that,been done C.which,be done D.what,be done ( )(10)They decided_______their strike. A.to continue B.to go on C.to go with D.going on ( )(11)He________the work of the Trade Union. A.joined B.takes a part in C.took an active part in D.joined to

( )(12)He paid much money________the bank every month. A.to B.for C.in D.by

( )(14)I ________50 yuan________this coat. A.cost,on B.spent,on C.spent,of D.paid,on

( )(15)They________to carry out the______which had been made ten days before. A.decide,decision C.decided,decisive B.decided,decision D.decided,decided

( )(16)I shall________to help you in every way. A.do the best B.try the best C.do my best D.try a best

( )(17)She didn‘t understand________. A.times of spirits B.the time


C.the spirits of the time

D.the spirit of times

( )(18)He talled about New York ________he________there. A.as although,were C.even though,were B.as though,had been D.even as,had been

( )(19)Praise makes good men________and________men worse. A.better,bad B.well,bad C.better,badly D.the best,the worst ( )(20)They prefered________with them. A.she to go 3.语法 (The Attribution clause)定语从句(Ⅱ)关系代语的用法。 关系代词 whom,which 在定语从句中作介词的宾语时,可以跟介词一起放在 主句和从句之间为了使关系代词紧跟它所修饰的先行词, 也可以把介词放在从句 中相关动词的后面。 e.g.①This is the room in which we lived last year.(=This is the room which we lived in last year.) ②Who’s the comrade whom you just shooked hands with?(=Who ‘s the comrade with whom you just shook hands?) note:(1)含有介词的短语动词一般不拆开,介词仍放在动词的后面。 e.g.Is this the book which she was looking for? (2)关系代词 that 在定词从句中作介词的宾语时,介词不能放在它的前面, 只能放在从句中相关动词的后面。 B.her not to go C.her going D.she not going



e.g.①The man that you were talking about has come to our school. ②The room that she lives in is a large one. (3)当介词位于从句中相关动词的后面时,关系代词 that,whom,which 在 口语中和非正式文体中经常省略。 e.g.This is the room we lived in last year. 4.定语从句练习。 ( )(1)Can you lend me the novel________the other day? A.that you talked C.which you talked with B.you talked about it D.you talked about

( )(2)Please pass me the dictionary________cover is black. A.which B.which of C.its D.whose

( )(3)The doctor ________stepped in. A.Della was waiting for him C.Della was waiting for B.whom Della was waiting D.who Della was waiting

( )(4)The two things___Marx was not sure were grammar and some of the idioms. A.about which B.which C.with which D.on which

( )(5)In the dark street,there wasn’t a single person__she could turn for help. A.that B.who C.from whom D.to whom ( )(6)The room________there is a machine is work-shop(车间)。


A.in which B.that C.which D.in that ( )(7)This is the person________you are looking________. A.which,for B.for,whom C./,for D.for,which ( )(8)All________has to be done is to practise every day. A.who B.that C.which D.what ( )(9)The first lesson________I learned will never be forgotten. A.that B.about that C.which D.what ( )(10)I was the only one of the people in my office________invited. A.which was B.who were C.that were D.that was 答案 (1)-(5) DAABA (16)-(20)CDBAB (6)-(10)ABCBA (11)-(15)CCCBB

高一英语复习 一)、基本句型 1: S + V ---主语是动作的发出者 2:S+V+O---宾语谓语发现问题的承受者 3:S+V+C-表语是对主语的补充说明 4:S+V+O+C-宾补是对宾语的补充说明



5:S+V+O+O-谓语动作有直接和间接(即人和物)两个宾语。 例句: Mr. Green died (in the afternoon ). I love you (very much). He became a lawyer (at last). I want you to study English harder ( in high school). Lucy gave me a present (last year in the street). 句子的基本特征:主 谓(动词)

上述五种基本句型都可加上状语:时间状语、地点状语、方式状语、原因状 语、条件状语、伴随状语、目的状语、结果状语等、程度状语。 二)、主语的归纳 1、位于谓语动词的前面 2、由名词(n)、名词词组、代词的主格或相当于名词的短语和句子充当。 名词:可数名词(1)单数:名词的原形 (2)复数:规则变化和不规则变化 名词词组:以名词为中心的词组,带有前置修饰语或后置修饰语 Eg. a big river; a map of China ; a beautiful bird in the tree 三)、谓语(由动词来充当) 1.情态动词不可单独作谓语,助动词也不可单独作谓语 2.非谓语形式不可作谓语(不定式:to+动原;动词的-ing 形式;过去分词)


3.谓语有时态和数的变化 时态: 一、一般现在时:谓语用动词的第三人称单数(-s,-es)或动词原形 表示经常发生的动作(习惯性的动作)或存在的状态(能力、特征、性质、 职务、身份、籍贯等)。常与 always, usually, often ,sometimes ,every day 等时间状语连用。如: It often rains here. We are in Grade One. 表示永恒的真理。 The sun rises in the east. When is the moon round? 表示按预告计划或安排的发生的动作。主要用于 come , go, leave, start, begin, return 等瞬间动词。句中常用表示将来 的时间状语。 School begins in September. 在时间、条件、方式、让步状语从句中表示将来的动作。 Even if it rains, I will go tomorrow. 二、一般过去时:谓语动词用过去式,即-ed 或不规则变化 表示在过去某一时间内发生的动作或存在的状态。 与过去时连用的时间状语 有:yesterday, last week, in 1980, in the old days, the other day, just now. 等。如 I called on my teacher last week.



表示服从过去接连发生的一系列动作。 The boy opened his eyes for a moment , looked at his father, and then died. 在时间、条件、让步状语从句中表示过去将来发生的动作。 He said he wouldn’t go with us if it rained. 表示从过去某一时间考虑,已经预告计划或安排的发生的动作。 He told us that school started on the following morning. 表示过去经常或反复发生的动作。 Mary always got up too late and never had enough time for breakfast. 三、一般将来时:(will +动原) 表示将要发生的动作或存在的状态。常与将来时连用的霎时间状语有 tomorrow, next time, in three days 等。如 I’ll go and see her on Friday. 表示将来经常发生的动作动作 Some birds will fly away to the south when the weather turns cold. 注意:其他一些表示将来时的方式。 ①“be going to+动原”常用来表示已决定或安排要做的事,于表示必然 或很可能发生的事。 It’s going to rain. 此用法与瞬间动词进行时表示将来时的用法可交替使用,意义相同。



I am going to meet him at six.= I am meeting him at six. ②“be to +动原”表示约定的、计划中的或按职责、义务要示即将发生的 动作,还可表示注定要发生的动作。 The sports meeting is to take place on Sunday. ③“be about to+动原”,表示“即将…;将要…”。 The film is about to begin. 用 be about to 时,不可再加时间副词。 ④某些瞬间动词的一般现在时和现在进行时都 可表示预定的或即将要发生 的动作。 The train is arriving. 四、过去将来时:(would +动原) 表示从过去某一时间来看将要发生的动作或将要存在的状态。 He said he would help me . 注意: 表示过去将来时的一些其他方式与一般将来时一样,只是有关动词要 用过去时形式。 五、现在进行时:(am/is/are +动词的 ing 形式) 表示说话时正在进行的动作,如 What are you doing there? 表示现阶段正在进行的动作的动作,但不一定说话时正在进行。 The population of the earth is increasing very fast. 在时间、条件状语从句中代替将来进行时:


If I am sleeping when he comes, wake me up, please. 有时可用来代替一般现在时来表达说话人的某种感情。常 与 always, forever, continuously 等连用。如: You are always coming late. 六、过去进行时: was/were +动词的 ing 形式 表壳过去某一时刻或某一阶段正在进行的动作。 这一特定的时间除有上下文 暗示外,往往需要用过去的时间状语 then, at that time 等或另一动作来表示。 He was watching TV。 有时可用过去进行时代替一般过去进来表示说话人的某种感情 By the time he was ten, Edison was already doing experiments. 七、现在完成时:have/has +过去分词(-ed 或不规则变化) 表示过去发生的某一动作对现在造成的影响或结果。常 用的时间状语有: already, yet, now 等。 如 After all these years, we’ve at last paid off all our debts. 表示过去已经开始,持续到现在,而且还可能继续下去动作或状态。往往和 表示一段霎时间的状语 lately, in the past few years, since 10 yeas ago, during the last two weeks 等连用。 He hasn’t given me any money since then. 在时间或条件状语从句中,代替将来完成时。如 I shall go as soon as I have finished the work. 8.过去完成时(had +动词的过去分词)



与现在完成时用法相同,只是作为衡量时间 不同,现在完成时的时间是以 这个时刻作为衡量标准的,而过去的时间则是以过去某个时刻作为衡量标准的。 表示在过去某一时刻或动作以前已经完成了的动作,即“过去的过去”。这 个过去的时刻可用 by, before 等短语或一个时间状语从句来表示,也可用一个 表示过去的动作来表示,还可通过上下文来表示。 By 1914 Einstein had gained world fame. 到了 1914 年,爱因斯坦已获 得了世界声誉。 表示由过去某时间开始,一直延续到另一时间的动作或状态,和 for(for 有时可省去。表示由过去某时间开始,一直延续到另一时间的动作或状态。和 for(for 有 时可省去)或 since 构成的时间状语连用。如: She said she had worked there since1975.她说她自从 1975 年就在那儿 工作了。 叙述过去发生的事情, 在已叙述了后发生的事后,反过来追叙或补叙更早以 前发生的动作时,常使用过去完成时。 I didn’ t know a thing about the verbs ,for I hadn’ t studied my lesson. 我对这些动词一无所知,因为我没有学习我的功课。 [注意]过去完成时也可用于一些固句型中。 hardly (scarcely)…when…刚……就…… Hardly had I got home when it began to rain. 我刚到家,天就下雨了。 No sooner …than …刚……就…… No sooner had I fallen asleep than the telephone ran. 我刚一入睡电 话铃就响了。 9.现在完成进行时



表示动作从过去某一时刻开始,一直持续进行到现在,可能刚刚终止,也可 能还要继续下去。如:she has been reading all the morning .她一上午都在 看书。 [注意]现在完成时强调的是动作的完成,而现在完成进行时强调的是动作的 继续, 这两种时态所使用的时间状语基本相同,只是现在完成进行时通常不可以 和表示不确定的时间状语 never ,ever,yet 等连用。在需要明确表明动作还要继 续下去的时候, 不能使用现在完成时, 而要使用现在完成进行时。 如: I have been writing the novel for a month, and I haven’t finished it yet.这部小说我已 写了一个月了,现在我还未写完。表示状态、感觉和心理活动的动词一般不用现 在完成进行时,如果要表示状态一直继续到现在,可用现在完成时。如: I have been knowing him since his childhood.(wrong ) I have known him since his childhood.(right) 自从他小时,我就认识他了。 (二)语态的基本概念和种类 语态是动词的一种形式, 用来表明主语与谓语动词之间的关系。英语动词有 两种语态:主动语态和被动语态。 主动语态表示主语是动作的执行者,被动语态表示主语是动作的承受者。谓 语动词为主动语态的句子叫主动句,谓语动词为被动语态的句子叫被动句。一般 说来,主动语态侧重于行为者,被动语态侧重于动作的对象或动作本身。如: 主动句:They build this bridge. 他们修的这座桥。 被动句:This bridge is built by them. 这座桥由他们建造。 (三)八种常用时态的被动语态举例 被动语态由“be +及物动词的过去分词”构成,助动词 be 有人称、数和 时态的变化,其变化规则与 be 作为系动词的变化完全一样。 1、一般现在时(am/is/are +done)



A lot of books are kept in our school library..我们学校图书馆有许多藏 书。 Milk, meat, eggs and vegetables are produced on the farm. 这个农场 盛产牛奶、肉、鸡蛋和各种蔬菜。 2、一般过去时(was/were +done) A thief was caught last night. 一个小偷昨晚被抓了。 They were asked to speak at the meeting. 3.现在进行时(am/is/are +being+done) A new library is being put up in their school now. 他们学校正在修建新 图书馆。 The watch is being repaired.这块表正在修理。 What is being done to the machine?现在对这台机器采取什么措施? 4、过去进行时(was/were +being +done) The door was being painted at that time.那时门还在油漆。 The equipment was being examined at this time yesterday. 昨天这个 时间正在检查设备。 5、一般将来时(will be+ done) The class meeting will be held next Saturday afternoon. 班会下周六下 午召开。 The thieves will be arrested.这些小偷将被逮捕。 Lost time will never be found again.失去的霎时间不会再来。 6、过去将来时(would be+ done)


They said the work would be finished the next day.他们说这项工作第 二天就能完成。 7、现在完成时(have/has been +done) My bag has been stolen.我的包被偷了。 Many stamps have been collected by me since last year.从去年开始我 收集了许多邮票。 8.过去完成时(had been +done) She said this airport had never been used.她说这个机场没有使用过。

一、陈述句变为一般疑问句和特殊疑问问: 陈述句变为一般疑问句取决于谓语动词的时态: 1 、 am/is/are/was/were(be 动 词 的 形 式 )/can/may/must/need/should/could/might ( 情 态 动 词 ) / 完 成 时 (have/has/had+过去分词)中的 have、has、had/will/would(将来时) 2、 如果没有上述词,则加 do、does 或 did 助动词,原来的谓语要用动 词原形。其中 do 和 does 用在一般现在时中,而 did 则用在一般过去时中。

【高一英语期末考试复习错题集】 1. Man’s life is often compared ________ a candle. A. to B. as C. with D. like

2. The ________ of the moon for the earth causes the tide.



A. drawing

B. attraction

C. moving

D. circling

3. Our plan certainly ________; it was a great idea. A. paid off B. paid back C. carried out D. paid for

4. Go and get your coat. It’s ________ you left it. A. there B. where C. there where D. where there

5. So loudly ________ that even in the next room you could hear him. A. did he say B. he talked C. did he speak D. he told

6.. My English is so poor that I have great difficulty ________ myself ________. A. make; understood understand D. making; understand 7..Everyone at the meeting agreed to the suggestion ________ bridge _______ built across the river. A.that; be have been B. which; would be C. as; should be a B. making; understood C. make;

D. that;

8..One of the men held the view _________ the book said was right. A. that B. what that C. that what D. whether

9.Was it in this school ______ she had studied for five years_______ she was trained to be a good teacher? A. that; which B. which; that C. that; where D. where; that

10.It is in this very village, ______ Mary was born 35 years ago, _____


she will build her first school, _____ inspires everyone to help her. A. where; that; which C. that; when; which B. that ; that; that D. where; when; that

11.As soon as he comes back, I’ll tell him when _____ and see him. A. you will come come B. will you come C. you come D. do you

12.Danby left word with my secretary _______ he would call again in the afternoon. A. who B. that C. as D. which

13..There is no _____ to argue with him about it. He won’t listen to anyone. A. difficulty need 14.. Every boy and every girl ______ the right to receive education and all of us should try our best to help them. A. is B. have C. are D. has B. point C. doubt D.

15. As usual the boys each who take part in the football match ______ a present given by the famous football player. A. was going to receive C. is going to receive B. were going to receive D. are going to receive

16. The supermarkets _______ open until late every evening, which provides us much convenience. A. prove B. maintain

C. continue

D. remain


17.. I read little now and I am always busy with my job. ________ my friend. A. Either does B. So is C. So it is with D. So does

18. _______ that he may be fired for not being qualified for the job someday, he reads books _____ his job every night. A. Concerning; concerning C. Concerned; concerned B. Concerning; concerned D. Concerned; concerning

19.. Where she will go and when she will leave _____ what I want to know. A. is B. were C. was D. are

20. The book was written in 1946, ______ the education system has witnessed great changes. A when B during which C since then D since when

21. The box containing harmful material didn ’ t reach the man _______it was intended. A that B whom C to whom D for whom

22. A good story doesn’t necessarily have to have a happy ending, but the reader must not be left________. A unsatisfied satisfied B unsatisfying C to be satisfying D being

23. I am surprised to see A used to

you smoking. You _________-. C were used to D weren’t used to

B didn’t use to



24. The tall building ________ by the end of this month is intended to be our school laboratory. A being completed completed B is completed C to be completed D

C25. The UN is_________ related organizations across the world to do something about the financial crisis so that people can gain confidence in economy again. A asking for B looking into C appealing to D running after

26 It is recommended that passengers _______ keep their cell phones on when the plane is landing. A not B need not C could not D would not everyone to save water. C. appealing of D. appealing to

27. The government is A. appealing

B. appealing for

28. Don’t speak all at once. One____. A. at times at no time B. at a time C. at one time D.

29.. We have been told that under no circumstances _____ the telephone in the office for personal affairs. A. did we use B. may we use C. we may use D. we could

use30.. I insist that a doctor _____ immediately. A. sent for has been sent for B. sends for C. will be sent for D. be

31.. If my lawyer _____ here last Saturday, he ____ me from going. A. had been; would have prevented

B. had been; would


prevent C. were; would prevent prevented 32.. His coming ____ our happiness. A. added for 33.. The manager ordered the work ____ ahead of time. A. would be finished be finished B. finish C. must be finished D. to B. added up C. added to D. added D. were; would have

34. What a beautiful necklace! Yes. But the necklace I ________ 80 dollars is made of glass. A. paid for B. spent on C. cost on D. bought for

35. Neither side was willing to give in at all and so no agreement _________. A. reached reached B. had reached C. was reached D. will be

36. I want to ________ what we all feel in wishing the teacher a quick recovery. A. give a voice to raise my voice B. give voice to C. have a voice D.

37.. It’s better for you to listen more in your spare time. I think your suggestion deserves ________. A. considering B. considered

C. consider

D. being


considered 38.. When will you be leaving for your planned holiday in Hawaii? It’s ________. I won’t be free until my training is over. A. out of the question question D. beyond question B. without question C. out of

39.. A lot of coal miners died on the job last year, ________ the local government to shut nearly 500 small mines in Shanxi Province alone. A. forcing B. to force C. forced D. has forced

40.. Being popular with customers, the products _____well and maybe ________ in two months. A. sell; sell out C. sell; will be sold out sold out 41.. Mr. Green stood up in defense of the 16-year-old boy, saying that he was not the one ______. A. blamed to be blamed B. blaming C. to blame D. B. are sold; sell out D. are sold; will be

42.He pretended to be a French but his German accent___. A. gave him away B. gave him out C. gave him up D. gave him in 43.According to the traffic regulations of the UK,driving on the right of a road____. A. can have been punished B. may have been punished C. might be punishing D. shall be punished.


44..-What did Mr Baker trell us to do? --Well ,he just recommended ___more data in both English and German. A. we to look for B. he look for C. his looking for D. we look for 45..—I am terribly sorry for having troubled you and Rose so much!. --Well, it’s all right with me. You ___to Rose as soon as you met her at the meeting. A. should apologize B. must apologize C. should have apologized D. must have apologized. 46.. It wasn ’ t until nearly a month later _______ I received the managers’ reply. A. since C. as D. that B. when

47..When and where to build the new factory ______yet. A. is not decided B. are not decided C. has not decided D. have not decided 48.. The president spoke at the business meeting for nearly an hour without _______ his notes. A. bringing up looking for D. trying on B. referring to C.

49.. _____ the poverty of the family, they managed to send the boy to university. A. Because of B. In spite of


C. On account of

D. Instead of

50. We were most impressed ______ your efficiency. A. in upon B. on C. with D.

高一英语期末考试复习错题集参考答案(讲义十二) 1-10 21-30 ABABC BACDA 11-20 ABDDD DCDDD 31-40 ACDDC BAAAC



一:语境填空: 1. I’m so sorry I will not be able to attend your party, but I have to see my brother off at the airport. --Oh, deer, your _____________ will make us feel disappointed. 2. failed again. –I tried to persuade him not to smoke any more, but I

--Never to be discouraged. More ______________________, it will work. 3. –This problem is not so easy, it is beyond my ability. --I am afraid I also can ’t work it out, it is _________________ difficult. 4. –I used to work as a receptionist; I think I can be your best choice.



--You mean your _____________ work experience will help you in this application? 5. –Do you know Liu Xiang, an athlete in China?

--Of course, he is so _________ to us all and especially popular with the Chinese teenagers. 6. –I heard that your father and grandfather were all generals. Is that true? --Yes, that is true. So now you know what a _______________ family I have! 7. –It is said that this small company is closing down.

--That is a rumor. It is going to be _____________ with another to become more powerful. 8 --We are lacking in skilled workers, which is an urgent problem

for my company. --I see, the ___________________ employees are in great demand. 9. –I find many compositions are not from your own.

--You mean they are not ______________ but plagiarized? Nonsense! 10. –Mum, I decide to be a pop singer and earn a lot of money and… --Jenny, you are always dreaming, you should do something __________________. 11.--I have nothing to do with that! --But I was told that you were _______ in it and I don’t know whether you are lying to me.


12. –Congratulations on your defeat! -- Thanks a lot, but you know it ’ s my good fortune, my ______________ are all very weak. 13. –Make sure that you are safe when you are away from us. --Take it easy, mum. But your safety should be _________________ first. 14. –Try your best, or you will regret… --Few words, ________________ you will also regret… 15. –How fantastic that Olympic torch is lit in the Nestle Stadium … --Yeah, the _____________ torch will be burning in the next 16 days.

二、同义转换 1. Olympics Games take place every four years. Olympics Games take place __________ 2. I’m delighted at your success. I ’ m delighted __________ successful. 3. The prisoners attempted an escape, but failed. The prisoners attempted _______ _______, but failed. 4. No matter how hard they tried, they failed every time. ____________ ______________ you are ___________ ___________.



_________ hard they tried, they failed every time. 5. Teachers do not allow us to express ourselves in Chinese. We ________ Chinese. _________ ______________ to express ourselves in

6. I’ll briefly share some of my interesting experiences in India with you. I’ll share some of my interesting experiences in India with you. ___________ ___________. 7. As far as I’m concerned, his suggestion is very significant. As far as I ’ m concerned, his suggestion is _______ ____________. ________

8. She was so frightened at the dog that she dared not step forward. She was so frightened at the dog that she _______ ______ step forward. ___________

9. Nowadays many young people remain single even if they are over thirty. Nowadays many young people _________ still _____________ even if they are over thirty 10. If you don’t work hard, you will fail the exams. _______________ hard, _______________ you will fail the exams. 11. In order to go abroad , he has been practicing speaking English as much as he can. In order to go abroad , he has been practicing his ___________ English as much as ________.


12. Make sure the patient eats well and gets enough fresh air. Make sure the patient eats well and gets _____________ fresh air. _______

13.The monument(纪念碑)was built in Tiananmen Square to honor those who died for the new China. The monument was built in Tiananmen Square _________ ____________ __________those who died for the new China. 14. The news that our Chinese skater won the gold medal in the 20010 Winter Games excited all of us. The news that our Chinese skater won the gold medal in the 20010 Winter Games _________ all of us ______________. 15. More than 30 firms took part in the dam project. More than 30 firms were _______________ project. ____________ the dam

高一英语期末复习 M4 U2 词汇 句型 一、语境填空 1. absence 5. well-known 6. glorious practical 2. attemptations


3. pretty/rather

4. previous

7. associated

8. technical

9. original


11. involved 12. opponents 15. lighted 二、同义转换

13. ensured

14. otherwise


1. every fourth year However 5. are not allowed didn’t dare to 9. are unmarried 12. plenty of 13. in honor of

2. to hear that

3. to escape


6. in brief

7. of great significance


10.Work, otherwise/ or

11. spoken, possible

14. made , excited

15. involved in

Unit 1 重点与难点 从平时的教学情况看,以下一些内容值得同学们注意,务必引起重视。 一、词与词组 1、adapt 与 adopt 这两个词拼写只差一个字母, 非常容易记混。 adapt 的意思是 “改编, 改作…… 用,适应”;adopt 是“收养,采用,采纳”。 [e.g.] I suggest that he should adapt himself to new conditions. 我建议他要适应新的环境。 This play has been skillfully adapted from the original novel. 改编者很熟练地将原小说改编成一部戏剧。 We can adapt this old house for use as a garage. 我们可以将这座旧房改造成一个车库。


Her mother had adopted a disapproving attitude. 她母亲采取了不赞成的态度。 They have decided to adopt me as their own daughter. 他们已决定收养我做女儿。

2、 above, over, on, beneath, below, under above 表示“在……之上”,“在……上面”,表示位置高于某物,强调某 物体在另一物体的上方,两者既不垂直也不接触. 它的反义词是 below。 over 表示在某物的正上方(或垂直的上方),两个物体也不接触。它的反 义词是 under。 on 表示 “在……的上面” , 两个物体接触 (指某物体在另一物体的表面上) 。 它的反义词是 beneath。 beneath 表示在……的下面的意思时,相当于 below,尤其相当于 under。 但这是旧用法或文学用语,现在很少用。例如: [e.g.] Children are playing beneath the window.孩子们在窗子下面游 戏。 below 表示“在……下面”的意思时,指处于比某物低的位置,不一定 在某物的正下方。它的反义词是 above。 [e.g.] Write your name below the line.在线下写上你的名字。 We are below the moon.我们在月下。



这个词表示“穿,佩戴”时指一种状态,与表示动作的 put on/dress 可以 进行对比。 [e.g.] My little sister is wearing a blue coat today. (正在穿着的状态) It’ s getting hotter now; better not put on so many clothes. (指动作) Dress yourself quickly; there is only five minutes to go. (指动作)

这个词还有一个难点必须注意, 就是当它与 out 连用构成词组 wear sb. out 时,注意它是个及物动词词组,就是必须有宾语。 [e.g.] The hard work wore everyone here out. 但是,我们也可以把这个句子这样改写: Everyone here was worn out by the hard work. 注意改成被动时必须用 sb. be worn out 结构。 同样的用法还适用于 tire sb. out。

4、be afraid of 与 be afraid to do 两个词组均有“害怕”之意,但有区别。 be afraid of doing: be worried that something (usually can’t be avoided) might happen 担心,害怕(往往时无法主观上控制的事情)。 [e.g.]


I took the other way this morning because I was afraid of meeting my deskmate. be afraid to do sth.: dare not do sth. (and therefore you may not do it) 不敢做某事(所以可以不做,主观上可以控制) [e.g.] Mum, it’s so dark outside; I am afraid to go out alone.

5、suffer 和 suffer from 这两个词语有时候有点混淆。suffer 指一般的损害、痛苦等等,但 suffer from 指长期的或习惯性的痛苦或困难。 suffer (1).感到疼痛、痛苦 suffer the result /heavy losses /injuries 承受结果/遭受大损失/负伤 [e.g.] He died very quickly; he didn't suffer much. 他死得很快,没有多 少痛苦。 (2)承受,遭受 [e.g.] You must be prepared to suffer consequences. 你要准备承担后 果。 suffer from (1)患有(疾病等) [e.g.] She suffers from headache. 她患头痛病



(2)为...所苦,因...而吃苦头 [e.g.] Our business has suffered from lack of investment. 我们的企业因缺乏 投资而受苦。 I'm suffering from a real lack of time this week. 我这周为时间不够用而苦。 Mrs. White's little boy is suffering from a bad flu bug again. 怀特太太的小孩又再患了严重的感冒。

6、lonely 与 alone alone “单独的,独自,仅”其“孤独”之意一般不表示内心的孤独,而是表 示没有外援,没有同伴等意。 alone 作形容词时,只能做表语;放在名词后的 alone 是副词,表示“仅仅,只有”之意。 lonely 表示内心’孤独的,寂寞的”感情色彩浓重,渴望有人来伴或帮忙, lonely 即可做表语,也可以做前置定语,表示“孤独的”或“偏僻的”。 [e.g.] She is alone at home. 她独自一人在家。 He is not alone in this idea. (有这种想法的不只是他一个人。) I like to work alone. 我喜欢独自一人工作。 Han Mei was reading alone when the teacher came into the classroom. 老师走进教室时,韩梅正独自一人在看书。 He alone was in the secret. (只有他一人知道内情。)


This year alone, we’ ve already planted ten thousand trees. 仅是今年, 我们已经栽了一万棵树。 At heart, I’m a lonely man. 内心深处我很孤独。 That’s a lonely island. 那是一个荒凉的岛屿。 We never feel lonely in Shanghai. 在上海我们从不感到孤独。 I was alone but I didn’t feel lonely. 我独自一人,但我并不感到孤独。 二、句型 1、There 引导的倒装句。 通常,There 引导的倒装句有两种:一种时 There be 句型,另一种时 There +含有状态意义的动词(如 live, stand, lie, come, happen 等)。 [e.g.] Once upon a time there lived an old fisherman by the sea. There stands a high-rise in front of our company. There lies a wide road behind our school. There happened to be quite a few students in the classroom when the earthquake occurred. 有时候,如果把句中的时间或地点状语放置句首,则可以省略 there。 [e.g.] On that island, one hundred years ago, lived the Phantom. (课文例 子) Behind our school lies a wide road.


2、… enough to do … 足够……地…… [e.g.] Only one man was brave enough to follow. (课文例子) The boy was old enough to do something easy for his mother. My brother is clever enough not to be cheated by anyone.

这个句型还可以变成疑问句,表示“劳驾……”: [e.g.] Would you be kind enough to lend me your MP3 player this afternoon? = Would you be so kind as to lend me your MP3 player this afternoon?

3、ever 用于三种句型中。 ever 用作副词,意为“曾经、以前、无论何时、总是”等,其用法比较灵 活,需要细细体会与反复实践: (1)用于一般疑问句,意为“曾经、这以前”,现代汉语中一般不译出。 [e.g.] Does she ever go outat night?她通常晚上外出吗?



Have you ever beento Beijing?你曾去过北京吗? When you wereworking there,did youever meet a foreigner?你在那 里工作时曾见过外国人吗? 注意 1.ever 用于疑问句时,其答语中不用 ever,若否定则用 never,如: Have you ever heard the song sung?Yes,I have.(No,Never.) 注意 2.“Did you ever...?”有时单独使用或用于反问句,表示“惊 讶、愤怒、怀疑”等。如: Did you ever hear such nonsense?你真的听到过如此胡言乱语? Did you ever see the UFO?你还见到过飞碟? (2)用于否定句,意为“无论何时都不……,至今不曾……”。 [e.g.] Nothing ever happens in the lonely village. 这个遥远的小村子至今未 出过事。 We hardly ever go shopping there. 我们至今未在那里买过东西。 I have not ever been there alone. 我从未单独去过那里。 注意:ever 虽可与 not 连用,但通常习惯用 never 代替。 (3)用于条件句,译为“真的,有机会”。 [e.g.] If you ever come to Beijing, please let me know. 如果有机会来北京, 请告诉我。 If you ever have any problems, please call me. 你若真有问题,请打电 话。



(4)与比较级连用,译为“以前、以往、任何时候”。 [e.g.] It is raining hard than ever.雨下得比以前更大了。 When she got the letter, she became angrier than ever. 拿到信时,她 比以前更生气了。 (5)与最高级连用,译为“空前、有史以来、从来没有” 。 [e.g.] I think she is the best actress ever. 我认为她是至今最优秀的演员。 This is the best film I have ever seen. 这是我看过的最好的影片。 一、词与词组 1、attempt 这个单词并非是一个容易掌握的词,这可能跟它的词性以及有点特 别的用法有关。从词性来看,它可以作名词,并且往往有一个特别的搭配 “the/one’s attempt to do…”。 [e.g.] His attempt to explain the workings of the universe led to the development of nuclear energy. (课文例子) The two superpowers both collude and struggle with each other in a vain attempt to redivide the world. 这两个超级大国即勾结又争夺, 妄图重新 瓜分世界。

另一个词组时 make an/every attempt to do (at doing sth.),“试图做 某事”。


[e.g.] Will they make any attempt to resettle the victims in this earthquake? 他们会想方设法重新安置此次地震中的受害者吗?

attempt 作动词时,后面一般接 to do: Before they fled the country, the enemy vainly attempted to destroy all the factories. 敌人在逃往国外前,妄图把所有工厂都毁掉。

2、本课介词搭配特别多,现整理如下: (1) regard … as (a genius) 把……当作天才 (2) have a gift/genius/talent for music 有音乐天赋 (3) be curious about sth. 对……好奇 (4) on these trips 在这些行程中 (5) learn/know sth. by heart 牢记…… (6) agree with sb./one’s opinion / what one says 同意某人 (7) agree to a plan/a suggestion/ an arrangement 同意计划/建议/安 排 (8) agree on sth. with sb. 就……与某人达成一致的看法



(9) the Nobel Prize for Physics 诺贝尔物理奖 (10) award sb. sth. / award sth. to sb. 给某人颁奖 (11) reward sb. with sth. (for …) (因为……)而酬谢某人 (12) in honour of sb. 为了纪念某人 (13) make important discoveries or inventions in … 在……方面作出重 要的发现和发明 (14) present sth. to sb. / present sb. with sth. 向某人呈献…… (15) at the award (graduation/wedding) ceremony 在颁奖(毕业/婚 礼)仪式上 (16) (sb.) be honoured with invitations to this grand occasion 荣幸地 被邀参加这次盛会 (17) on this occasion 在这个场合

3、agree 后面接不同的介词。 这个问题总是困扰许多学生,其实一个简单有效的记忆办法就是: agree with 接 sb. / 观点一类的词 (idea/opinion/view/point/ what one says) agree to 接“计划,建议和安排” agree with sb. on sth. 就……取得相同的看法 个人觉得这个办法很好记忆, 配上一定的例子就是一把万能钥匙了。 你说还有什么不好理解的。 不过, 这里提供另一种解释方法, 个人觉得有点新意, 不过还是殊途同归。



agree 后面接介词法比较复杂,常见用法有: (1) (2) 一致。 (3) 涉及讨论的题目用 about。 They never agree about politics. 关于政治问题, 他们总是意见不

(2)要确定一样事情用 on。

(4) Can we agree on a date for the next meeting? 我们能不能为下 次会议确定一个时间? (5) (3)涉及一件建议或计划用 to。

(6) He’s agreed to our suggestion about the holiday. 他已经同意 我们关于假日的计划了。 (7) (8) 见。 (9) (4)涉及意思、想法、分析、解释以及涉及人的时候用 with。 They might not agree with his opinions. 他们可能不同意他的意

(5)agree 后可接动词不定式或宾语从句。

We agree to leave at once. 我们同意马上离开。 agree 一般常用口语用法 (1)I can’t argue with you about that. 我无法与你争辩那件事。 (2)You can say that again. 你说的对极了。 (3)You took the words right out of my mouth. 你已说出我心里的话。 (4)I was about to say the same thing. 我正想提出同样看法。



(5)I couldn’t agree with you more. 我非常赞同您的看法。 注意: 上列类似用语"I couldn’t agree with you more.",按字面翻译为 “我无法再更加同意你了”,实则表示“我非常赞同你”。注意这是固定句型, 助动词必须用 couldn’t,而不可用 can’'t。

4、join, join in 和 take part in 这组词在表示“参加”时也是学生经常提问或犯难的问题。我们不妨从三个 方面来辨别他们的差异。 (1)加入某党派、某组织或某社会团体,用 join,不可用 join in。 [e.g.] ①He will never forget the day when he joined the Party. 他永远也忘 不了他入党的那一天。 ②His brother joined the army three years ago. 他哥哥是三年前参军 的。 (2)说参加某种活动用 join in,如说“与其人一起做某事”,则用 join sb. in sth. / doing sth. 。[e.g.] ①May I join in the game? 我可以参加这个游戏吗? ②Come and join us in the discussion. 来和我们一起讨论吧! ③We are having supper now. Would you like to join us? 我们正在吃 晚饭,你也来和我们一起吃好吗? join in 多指参加小规模的活动如“球赛、游戏”等,常用于日常口语。 [e.g.]


①Come along, and join in the ball game. 快,来参加球赛。 ②Why didn't you join in the talk last night? 昨晚你为什么没参加座 谈? (3)take part in 参加(群众性活动、会议等),往往指参加者持积极态 度,起一份作用。 [e.g.] ①A great number of students took part in May 4 Movement. 大批学 生参加了五四运动。 ②We are going to have an English evening. Do you want to take part? 我们准备举办一个英语晚会,你想参加吗? ③How many of you are going to take part? 你们多少人准备参加? ④All the students took an active part in the thorough cleaning. 所有 的学生都积极参加了大扫除。

【注意】take part in 是惯用词组,part 前一般不用冠词,但 part 前有形 容词修饰时,要用不定冠词。 [e.g.] Lincoln took an active part in polities and was strongly against slavery. 林肯积极参加政治活动,强烈反对奴隶制。

5、award 与 reward



award 表示 “颁奖” (to give a prize) , 它的结构是 award sb. sth./award sth. to sb.。 [e.g.] The school awarded him the top prize. He was awarded the first prize. reward 是表示“酬谢;报答”(give sb. sth. or some money in return for what one has done),它的结构是 reward sb. with sth.。 [e.g.] We will reward him with a large sum of money for his devotion to his work.

二、句型 1、It’s a pleasure to do sth. 做……很快乐。 这个句型非常简单,所以就不啰嗦了。 2、I wish 引导的宾语从句用虚拟语气。 wish 后宾语从句用虚拟语气,即非真实的情况,其谓语部分有时态 变化: (1)表示对现在情况虚拟时,动词用一般过去时(行为动词用 did,be 动 词用 were); (2)对过去的情况进行虚拟时,动词用“过去完成时 (had done) 或情态 动词的过去时 +现在完成时(如 could have done)”形式; (3)表示将来情况的虚拟时,用“情态动词的过去时形式 + 动词原形 (如 might do)。”


[e.g.] I wish I had been to the concert last night. I wish he would forgive me. I wish I would remember all the English words in a week.

同例: 在 as if /as though 引导的状语从句中,谓语动词与 wish 引导的宾 语从句中的虚拟形式相同。 [e.g.] He talked as if he had known Tom for a long time. He talks as if he were the boss. 他说起话来就像他是老板。

3、with + 名词+ 分词。 这个结构也可以简单称之为 with 结构, 在句子中一般充当伴随、 原 因等状语。注意这个结构中分词的选用(过去分词还是现在分词)。现在分词有 主动和进行的意思,过去分词有被动和完成的意思。 [e.g.] They left the university, with Einstein driving. (课文例子) With the boy leading the way, the villagers spent little time finding the enemy’s position. 有孩子领路,村民们不多时就找到了敌人的位置。 With so much work to do, he will stay indoors all day long.


With the work done already, he made a phone call to Mr Bush, inviting him to play tennis. 一、词与词组 1、relative 及其相关的 relate, relation, relationship, relativity 本课立出现了名词 relative,那么首先要学会这个词,然后再学习掌握相关 的几个词。 relative 作为名词,非常简单,解释为“亲戚,亲属”,最多知道远亲、近 亲该怎么说: [e.g.] My aunt is my only immediate relative. 我的姑妈是我唯一的至亲。 relative 作形容词,解释为“相对的,比较的;与……有关的”,主要的介 词搭配是 to: [e.g.] He asked me some questions relative to the subject. 他问了我几个与 该主题相关的问题。 Nothing's fixed in this world; everything is relative. 世界上没有什么是 一尘不变的,一切都是相对的。 relate 是动词,主要的意思是:讲,叙述;使有联系;有关,涉及 [e.g.] Can you relate what happened in your childhood to your present state of mind? 你能否把你童年时的遭遇同目前的心境联系起来?



relation,名词,意思是:关系;往来: [e.g.] What’s the relation between the two words? They are anxious to develop friendly relations with their neighboring countries. relationship, 名词,意思是:关系,关联(相当于 relation);人际关系: [e.g.] The children learned about the relationship between the moon and the tides. 孩子们弄懂了月球与潮汐的关系。 What is your relationship to the victim? 你是受害者的什么人? relativity,名词,意思是:相对性: [e.g.] Not everyone can understand Einstein's Theory of Relativity. 不是每个人都能读懂爱因斯坦的相对论的。

2、serve 的众多用法。 serve 这个词的用法比较多,而且也是易出错的单词,所以学习起来必 须特别用心。它可以分为及物和不及物两种用法。 (1)及物动词用法:⑴为……服务;⑵招待(顾客),伺候(吃饭),端 (菜) [e.g.]



We must serve the people heart and soul. Sir, what may I serve you with? Lenin considered that theory should serve practice. 列宁认为理论必 须为实践服务。 They were busy serving the day’s last buyers. 他们正忙着接待这天的 最后一批顾客。 He served me a cup of coffee. 他给我端上了一杯咖啡。 Dinner is served. In the west, tea is often served with milk. 在西方,茶通常和牛奶一起饮 用。 First come, first served. 先来先接待。 Do they serve beer here? 他们这儿有啤酒吗? They were then served with hot green tea. 然后主人给他们斟上了热腾 腾的绿茶。(有时可以和 with 连用)

(2)不及物动词用法:⑴工作,服役;⑵充当,作……之用(和 as 连用); ⑶起……作用(和不定式连用) [e.g.] He went to the front to serve in the army. He served for two years in the foreign office. 他在外交部干了两年。 Sometimes he served as waiter at a restaurant. (此时,serve as 后面 接人的话如 waiter,前面通常不用冠词)



A large wooden box served as our table. The postcard served him as a bookmarker. 这张明信片作了他的书签。 This accident serves to show the importance of taking preventive measures. 这次事故说明了采取预防措施的重要性。

3、separate(形容词,读[ ])与 separate(动词,读[ ]) separate 可以用作形容词,同时也可作动词,注意它们的特点。最大的特 点是与介词 from 的两用及词组 separate A from B 或 A is separated from B。 (1)adj. ⑴分离的;不相连的 (from) ⑵个别的;单独的;独立的 [e.g.] Cut it into three separate parts. 把它切成三份。 Keep the onions separate from the bread or they’ll make it smell. 把 洋葱与面包分开,不然会串味。 The word has 3 separate meanings. I want a separate room. (2)⑴vt. 分割,分离,使分散 ⑵区分,识别 ⑶vi. 分离,分手 [e.g.] Theory should by no means be separated from practice. 该脱离实际。 理论绝不应

England is separated from France by the Channel. 英法两国由英吉利 海峡隔开。


It’s not difficult to separate a butterfly from a moth. 区别蝴蝶和蛾不 难。 We should never separate from the masses. 我们绝不应该脱离群众。 We did not separate until two o’clock.

4、ignore 和其相关的词 动词 ignore 的含义:take no notice of/pay no attention to sth.,强调 “故意,有意地不注意”,所以有“无视,不顾,不予理睬”之意。 [e.g.] We shouldn’t ignore the fact that his family is in heavy debt. 我们不 该无视他家深陷债务的事实。 Even the best of men ignored that simple rule. His letters were ignored. We could ignore him and go direct to the chairman, but we'd be skating on very thin ice. 我们可以不理会他而直接去找主席, 但那样做我们就如履薄冰了. He's his own man, but he doesn't ignore advice. 他虽然自有主张,但 并不轻视别人的意见。 形容词 ignorant 从动词而来,因此有“不知道的,无知的,不无学术的” 之意,注意介词搭配是 of。 [e.g.] He is ignorant of what happened.


They are ignorant, but not stupid and will learn quickly. 他们并没有受 过教育,但并不愚笨,学起来长进会很快。 名词 ignorance 同样来自动词,意思是“不知,无知,愚昧”,搭配的介 词同样是 of。 [e.g.] We are in complete ignorance of his plans. Please forgive my ignorance. Ignorance of the law is no excuse. 多法律的无知不是借口。 二、句型 1、so … that…以及类似的 such … that…。 这两个句型比较熟悉,它们都属于结果状语从句,记住典型的例子。但是它 们也可以用于倒装句中,这点要特别注意。 [e.g.] In Hangzhou, there is a kind of water lily whose pads are so huge that a person can stand on them. (课文例子) He is such a learned person that every one of us, including the headmaster, respects him very much. 他很有学问,每个人,包括校长,都 很尊敬他。 So deeply were we touched that tears filled our eyes. (倒装) To such length did she go in rehearsal that the two actors walked out. 她的彩排进行得那么长,以致于两个演员都走出去了。(倒装)



2、as… as… 结构引导从句。 是指第二个 as 引出从句,是一个不易掌握的现象。不过,如果你好好研究 以下下列内容,也不难理解,记住,关键要与例子结合。

定语从句中, 一般的从句关系代词是 which、 who、 whom、 that、 whose, 其代替主句中的人或物,在从句中做主语、宾语或定语。而学生在学习过程中, 常会遇到 as 作为关系代词出现,做起题来,无从下手,就此笔者对 as 作为关系 代词引导定语从句的情况做一归纳,以供参考。

(一)as 引导限制性定语从句 主要结构有: ⑴the same…as ⑵as…as ⑶such…as ⑷so…as

主句中出现 the same,as,such,so 修饰先行词,需选择 as 做关系代词 在定语从句中做主语或宾语。 [e.g.] It’s the same person as we wanted to find yesterday. 我们昨天要找 的是同一个人。 Such girls as he knows are good at English. 他所认识的女孩都擅长英 语。 Do you have such books as we like? 你有我们喜欢那种书吗? In the West, eating lotus roots or seeds is not as popular as it is in Asia. (课文例子) There is so warm a house as we want to live in. 这里有如此暖和的房 子,我们都想住在里面。


He has so difficult a problem, as none of us can solve. 他有如此难的 一个问题,我们没有人能解决。 (二)引导非限制性定语从句 ⑴ as 引导非限制性定语从句,指代整个主句内容,从句可置于句首,句中 或句尾。 [e.g.] As everyone knows, China is a beautiful country with a long history. 每个人都知道,中国是一个有着悠久历史的美丽国家。 The earth, as we know, moves round the sun. 地球,我们都知道,围着 太阳转。 Tom works hard and is willing to help others, as we all know. 汤母工 作努力,并且乐于助人,这一点我们都知道。

⑵ 非限制性定语从句中的谓语为被动式时,常用 as 做主语。 be said/known/announced/reported/mentioned/expected/discussed [e.g.] Grammar, as has been said before, is not a set of dead rules. 语法,就像以前所说,不是一套死规则。 As is known to all, Taiwan is part of China . ⑶ as 引导非限制性定语从句,有“如,似,正像”的含义,因此,下列句 式多用 as。



as has been said above 如上所说 as anybody can see 正像每个人所看到的那样 as we had expected 正如我们所预料的那样 [e.g.] Things are not always as they appear. 事情并不一直像他们表面那样。 The boy has as much progress as we had expected. 正像我们所预料的 那样,这个男孩取得了大的进步。 最后要说明的是由 as, which 引导的非限定性定语从句,as 和 which 可代整个主句, 相当于 and this 或 and that。 As 一般放在句首, which 在句中。 [e.g.] As we know, smoking is harmful to one’s health. The sun heats the earth, which is very important to us. 3、be found in … 在什么地方有…… 这个句型其实是一种很地道的表达法。许多人往往把它翻译成“在哪里被发 现”,显然有误。最近一次英语考试中有一句翻译“这种开花植物只有在中国华 南和亚洲的其他地区被找到”,就是典型的表达失误。 其实 find 在这里的意思是“知道是有的,见到……存在”,而非“发现”。 [e.g.] This kind of bird is only found in Asia. 这种鸟儿只有亚洲有。 It can be found in South China and other parts of Asia. (课文例子) Deep forests are found in both the eastern and western highlands. 东西两面的高原上都有茂密的森林。


There was not a soul to be found in the house. 屋里一个人都没有。 Kangaroos are fond in Australia. 大袋鼠产于澳洲。

4、It is time to do … 和 It is time that sb. did(有时候 should do)sth. 作为高一学生,It is time to do…的用法可以说是小菜一碟,可是 It is time that sb. did sth. 这个句型就不一定每个人都十分明了,故作说明。 在 It is time that sb. did sth. 句型中,说话者的意思是“该是……的时候 了”,言下之意,“再不……就来不及了”,因此它表达的是说话者的一种语气, 而涉及到语气的往往跟过去时态有千丝万缕的联系(尤其表现在虚拟语气中)。 而且在 time 之前还可以用 high,about 加强语气。 [e.g.] It’s high time that he learnt how to put in good order everything that belongs to him. It’s high time you started working. It’s high time we began our class. It is about time you cleaned your room. If I were in that situation, then it would be about time that I buried my head in my hands for a cry.




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