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英语动词时态呼应Microsoft PowerPoint 演示文稿


时态的呼应
? 从句(宾语从句、主语从句、表语从句、同位语 从句、定语从句、状语从句)中谓语动词的时态, 常受主句中谓语动词的时态的影响,这种现象叫 做时态的呼应.此外,时态的呼应也体现在包含 两个或两个以上的谓语的简单句以及并列句中。 宾语从句中的时态的呼应 1)You know/have known that Jack lives/will live in Lond

on. …lived/has lived in London for 5 years. 1.如果主句中谓语动词为一般现在时或现在完成时, 从句中谓语动词可以用任何所需的时态.

2.如果主句中谓语动词为过去时,从句中谓语 动词一般要用过去时.分为三种情况:
2) I learned from his letter that he was in Spain. 3) My friend told me that he was studying French.

①如果从句和主句中的谓语动词的动作同时发生,

从句要用一般过去时或过去进行时.

但如果从句内容为不受时间限制的普遍真理 或目前已存在的客观事实,则仍用一般现在时. 4)My teacher told me that the earth moves around the sun. 5)He said that London is a great city.

6)He said that he had posted the letter. 7)I knew that he had left for Beijing two hours before. ②如果从句中的谓语动词的动作发生在主句中的 谓语动词的动作之前,从句要用过去完成时. 8)They didn't know when they would visit the Great Wall. 9)He said that he would be waiting for me at his house at 7:30 tomorrow afternoon.

③如果从句中的谓语动词的动作发生在主句 中的谓语动词的动作之后,从句要用过去将来 时或过去将来进行时.

? 除宾语从句外,主语从句,表语从句,同位语从句也 都遵循上述时态呼应的规律. 10)I am afraid that you _________________ don't see/didn’t see (not see) my point.
decided/have decided 11)That is why we _________________ (decide) to put off the meeting.

12)It was known to all of us that Prof Li played ______(play) a key role in the research. 13)The news that the Chinese team_______ had won (win) the game got around.

定语从句随主句的时态呼应
14)She is the only person who knows me well. 15)The book I needed was not in the library. 16)Do you know the man who came to see Tom yesterday? 17)I have lost the money that I withdrew (支取) from the bank this morning. 如果定语从句中的谓语动词的动作与主句中的谓 语动词的动作同时发生,定语从句与主句用相同 的时态,如果不同时发生就用不同的时态.

状语从句从句随主句的时态呼应
18)Every time I have a cold, I have a bad headache. 19)Whenever we see him, we speak to him. 20)Wherever he goes, he takes his pet dog with him. ①every time, whenever, wherever引导时间, 地点状语从句时,状语从句与主句往往都用一般 现在时,表示反复发生的动作.

21)The moment/When I saw him, I knew that there was no hope. 22)Lucy was worried because she hadn't heard from her parents for a long time. ②如果状语从句与主句中的谓语动词的动作同时发生,
从句与主句用相同的时态,如果不同时发生就用不同 的时态.

23)When I was cooking in the kitchen, someone knocked at the door.
③如果主句谓语和从句谓语都发生在过去,动作时间长 的用过去进行时,表达谈话背景;动作时间短的用一 般过去时表达新的信息。

? 24)I'll phone her after I arrive there. ④主将从现
25)If you will cook the dinner, I will do washing up.

如果你愿意作饭,我将洗碗.
26)Let me know if you have any problems. 27)Please wait until our headteacher comes. 28)You can stay with us as long as you wish. ⑤当主句是祈使句或含有像can一样具有将来含 义的情态动词时,从句里也要用一般现在时代替 一般将来时。

简单句各谓语间的时态呼应: 29)Every summer we go to the seaside and swim in the sea there. 30)Mr Li got up, had breakfast and went to work.
当简单句包含两个或两个以上的谓语时,这些谓语通常要 用相同的时态.

并列句各分句间谓语动词的时态呼应: 31)Some of his suggestions have been adopted, but others have been turned down. 32)He had promised to meet me at the gate, but he didn't turn up. 各分句同时发生用相同的时态;不同时发生 用不同的时态.

高考链接
1.When you are home,give a call to let me know you safely.(2010年全国卷) A. are arriving B. have arrived C. had arrived D. will arrive

2.The manager was concerned to hear that two of his trusted workers ______. (2012年山东卷) A. will leave B. are leaving C. have left D. were leaving

3.The discovery of gold in Australia led thousands to believe that a fortune_______.(2010年全国卷) A. is made B. would make C.was to be made D. had made

4.Planing so far ahead_______ no sense for so many things will have changed by next year. (2011年全国卷) A.made B .is making C.makes D.has made

5.When Alice came to life, she did not know how long she ________ there.(2011年全国卷) A. had been lying B. has been lying C. was lying D. has lain
6.I wasn’t sure if he was really interested or if he_______ polite.
(2011年全国卷) A. was just being
C.had just been B.will just be D.would just be

7."Life is like walking in the snow", Granny used to say, "because every step .“ (2012年全国卷) A. has shown B. is showing C. shows D. showed
8.I had been working on math for the whole afternoon and the numbers_____ before my eyes.(2012年全国卷) A. swim B. swum

C. swam

D. had swum

9.Mum, I was wondering if you could lend me a few dollars until I______ on Friday. (2012年辽宁卷) A. get paid B. got paid C. have paid D. had been paid
10.After Jack had sent he _______ working on (2012年山东卷) A. had started B. C. started D. some e-mails, his project. has started starts

短文改错中对时态呼应的的考查
(2012全国卷)

I learned early in life that I had to be more patient and little aggressive. From the time I was about four until I was about six, I destroyed each of my toy. I was happy when the toys worked, but when things did wrong, I got angry and broke it. For a while ∧ parents bought me new toys. But before long they began to see which was happening. When I tear apart my fifth birthday toy train, my father said, "That's it. No more toys to you." My punishment lasted a year. Meanwhile, I found out that with more patience I must make my toys to last . My attitude changed from then on.

(2010全国卷)

It was a chance of a lifetime to win the first prize on the Story Writing Show. All I had to do was to write a story or present it. My teachers have been telling me how great my writing was. So if ∧they had said was true, I would have a chance of winning the prize. What were better, I had useful help. There was Uncle Chen, ∧ gentleman living near my house, who was a very much famous writer. He agreed to reading my story and give me some advices on how to write like a real writer.


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