一．名词 纵观高考试题，试题中出现的考点主要有：名词的复数形式；不可数名词的辨认；抽象名词转换成普通名词的名词一 体词；名词作定语；双重所有格；名词前多个形容词排列。 I. 名词的种类： 专有名词 普通名词 可数名词 不可数名词 国名地名人名，团体机构 名称 个体名词 集体名词 抽象名词 物质名词 II. 名词的数： 名词可数与不可数及修饰词： 常考
的抽象名词有：advice, chalk, furniture, patience, paper, clothing, fun, power, work, oil, jewelery, homework, sugar, information, salt, knowledge, luck, weather, progress, news (word), money 注意：another 不能修饰不可数名词，可说 another book，不可说 another news。 1. 规则名词的复数形式： 名词的复数形式，一般在单数形式后面加-s 或-es。现将构成方法与读音规则列表如下： 规则 例词 1 map-maps, sea-seas, girl-girls, day-days 一般情况在词尾加-s 2 class-classes, box-boxes, watch-watches, dish-dishes 以 s, x, ch, sh 结尾的名词后加-es leaf-leaves, thief-thieves, knife-knives, loaf-loaves, wife-wives 变-f 和-fe 为 v 再加-es 以-f 或-fe 结尾的 3 词 belief-beliefs, chief-chiefs, proof-proofs, roof-roofs, gulf-gulfs 加-s 4 party-parties, family-families, story-stories, city-cities 以辅音字母加 y 结尾的名词，变 y 为 i 加-es 以元音字母加 y 结尾的名词，或专有名词以 y 结 5 toy-toys, boy-boys, day-days, ray-rays, Henry-Henrys 尾的，加-s hero-heroes, Negro-Negroes, potato-potatoes, tomato-tomatoes 一般加-es 以辅音字母加-o 6 piano-pianos, photo-photos, auto-autos, kilo-kilos, solo-solos 不少外来词加-s 结尾的名词 zero-zeros/zeroes, volcano-volcanoes/ volcanos 两者皆可 7 radio-radios, bamboo-bamboos, zoo-zoos 以元音字母加-o 结尾的名词加-s 8 truth-truths, mouth-mouths, month-months, path-paths, 以-th 结尾的名词加-s 2. 不规则名词复数： 英语里有些名词的复数形式是不规则的，现归纳如下： 规则 例词 1 改变名词中的元音字母或其他形式 man-men, woman-women, foot-feet, goose-geese, mouse-mice 2 单复数相同 sheep, deer, series, means, works, fish, species li, yuan, jin, 3 只有复数形式 ashes, trousers, clothes, thanks, goods, glasses, compasses, contents 4 一些集体名词总是用作复数 people, police, cattle, staff 部分集体名词既可以作单数（整体）也可以作 audience, class, family, crowd, couple, group, committee, government, 5 population, crew, team, public, enemy, party 复数（成员） customs(海关), forces(军队), times(时代), spirits(情绪), drinks(饮 6 复数形式表示特别含义 料), sands(沙滩), papers(文件报纸), manners(礼貌), looks(外表), brains(头脑智力), greens(青菜), ruins(废墟) Americans, Australians, Germans, Greeks, Swedes, Europeans 加-s 表 示 Swiss, Portuguese, Chinese, Japanese 单复数同形 7 “某国 以 -man 或 -woman 结 尾 的 改 为 人” Englishmen, Frenchwomen -men,-women sons-in-law, lookers-on, passers-by, story-tellers, boy friends 将主体名词变为复数 合成名 8 无主体名词时将最后一部分变为复数 grown-ups, housewives, stopwatches 词 women singers, men servants 将两部分变为复数 III. 名词的所有格：
名词在句中表示所有关系的语法形式叫做名词所有格。所有格分两种：一是名词词尾加’s 构成，二是由介词 of 加名词 构成。前者多表示有生命的东西，后者多表示无生命的东西。 1. ’s 所有格的构成： the boy’s father, Jack’s book, her son-in-law’s photo, 单数名词在末尾加’s 复数名词 一般在末尾加’ the teachers’ room, the twins’ mother, the children’s toys, women’s rights, Dickens’ novels, Charles’s job, the Smiths’ house Japan’s and America’s problems, Jane’s and Mary’s bikes Japan and America’s problems, Jane and Mary’s father 不规则复数名词后加’s 以 s 结尾的人名所有格加’s 或者’ 表示各自的所有关系时,各名词末尾均须加’s 表示共有的所有关系时在最后一词末加’s
表示＂某人家＂＂店铺＂，所有格后名词省略 the doctor’s, the barber’s, the tailor’s, my uncle’s 2. ’s 所有格的用法： today’s newspaper, five weeks’ holiday １ 表示时间 2 the earth’s atmosphere, the tree’s branches 表示自然现象 3 the country’s plan, the world’s population, China’s industry 表示国家城市等地方的名词 4 the ship’s crew, majority’s view, the team’s victory 表示工作群体 5 a mile’s journey, five dollars’ worth of apples 表示度量衡及价值 6 the life’s time, the play’s plot 与人类活动有特殊关系的名词 7 某些固定词组 a bird’s eye view, a stone’s throw, at one’s wit’s end(不知所措) 3. of 所有格的用法： 用于无生命的东西：the legs of the chair, the cover of the book 用于有生命的东西，尤其是有较长定语时：the classrooms of the first-year students 用于名词化的词：the struggle of the oppressed 四 几个容易误用的名词的单复数： 1. 单复数相同：sheep, deer, fish, Chinese, Japanese, means, works 2. 只有复数：cattle, people 3. 常以复数形式出现：trousers, glasses, thanks, clothes, remains（遗物）, contents, goods, congratulations, means, sports, preparations（准备）, tears, repairs, regards, games（运动会） 4. 以 s 结尾的学科或专有名词常作单数： politics, maths, physics, the United States, The United Nations 五、几组易错名词的用法： 1. many a + 单数名词 = many + 复数名词 2. 集合名词：family, team, audience, enemy, public, group, class, government, company, police, party 作主语时，若看作一个整体时，谓语动词用单数；若表示组成分子，则用复数。 e.g. The police are on duty at the street corner. My family is / are going to have a long journey. 3. population: 1）作为“人口”的总称或“居民”的总数是不可数名词，谓语用单数。 2）问“多少人口”时，不说 how many 或 how much，而用 what。 3）在谈到“人口比??多”时，常用 large，great； “人口少”时，常用 small，而不用 much，many 或 little。 4）当谈及“有人口”时， 习惯上用 have a population of?。 5）当“百分数/分数+ of the population”作主语时，谓语用复数。 6）表示某个地区人口时，其前应有定冠词。 7）population 不能与 people 连用。 e.g. The population in China is very large, and 80% of the population are farmers. The city has a population of the million. 六、表示“许多”的词组： 1. 代替 many，修饰可数名词的有：a great number of, a large number of, a good number of, a great many, many a 2. 代替 much，修饰不可数名词的有：a great deal of 3. 既可修饰可数名词又可修饰不可数名词的有：a lot of, lots of, plenty of, a large / great / good quantity of, large quantities of
e.g. The teacher gave us a large number of examples. 七、用定冠词加上姓氏的复数形式，表示其全家人或夫妇两人： the Smiths 八、名词的双重所有格的用法： 1. 只能用于指人的名词 a friend of my sister’s 2. 前一名词必须泛指或有 this，that，those，another，some，every，several，such，any，which，what 修饰或限制，或 前面有数词。 九、名词前多个形容词的排列顺序： 描绘性+大小/新旧/年龄/温度/形式+颜色/形状+起源/出处+材料/目的分类 e.g. a pretty little American girl an old stone bridge a small round pine table the dirty old green coat 十、名词用来作定语，修饰名词： 有生命的多用’s 或 s’的所有格，无生命的多用 of 短语。 一个名词直接做定语修饰另一个名词，往往属于固定的搭配。 telephone number, school education, air pollution, research work, bus driver, coffee cup, sports meet, village people 十一、表示具有某种特性、状态、特点、情感、情绪的人或事，表示变化了的词义，这一类抽象名词已完全名词化变 为可数名词： 1. in surprise / a surprise 2. with pleasure / a pleasure 3. have pity on sb. / It’s a pity. ( What a pity.) 4. a man with experience / an experience 5. light（光） / a light（灯） 6. have difficulty in doing sth. / meet with many difficulties 7. failure ( success ) 8. danger（危险） / a danger（危险物） 十二、常用名词辨异： 1. accident / incident: accident 常指不幸的，预料不到的，突发性的意外事件，如灾祸、灾难等；还常与 by 连用，by accident 偶然 类似: come across, happen to do, chance to do, by chance e.g. He had met with an accident on the way. This is why he was late for the meeting. incident 指不重要的小事或引起公众注意的事件；也指事变、战争等。 e.g. My father told me of an incident that took place on his first day at school. 2. affair / business / matter affair 的单数形式作“事情、事件”解，复数形式作“事务、业务”解，用指国内、国际的事务。 business 作“生意” “行业” ，没有复数形式。 matter 作“事情、东西、问题”解，通常指必须考虑和处理的事情。 另外：1）the matter 麻烦事 2）v. 主要用于否定句、疑问句，表示“要紧，有重大关系” 3）no matter ? , as a matter of fact 4）matter 物质 3. clothes / cloth / clothing / dress clothes 统指衣服，不能与数词连用，但可以说 many（a few，those，my）clothes， 说“一套衣服”可以表达为“a suit of clothes” ，其后的谓语动词用复数形式。 cloth 指做衣服的衣料， 是不可数名词， 但用于特殊用途的布， “台布” 如 “抹布” 等是可数名词， 复数形式为 clothes。 clothing 指衣服、服装的总称，是集合名词，没有复数形式。 一件衣服 a piece of clothing / an article of clothing，不能说 a suit of clothing dress 指穿在外面的衣服，尤指在社交场合的衣服，可数名词。 4. fun / joke fun 和 joke 都有“开玩笑”的意思，fun 是不可数名词，而 joke 可用做动词，表示“开玩笑” fun 不能用作动词。 ，而 同某人开玩笑：make fun of, play a joke / jokes on sb. make a joke / jokes about sb. / sth. 5. e moment (that)… / for the moment
in a moment“一会儿后” ，指从现在往后的一段时间，也可指“很短的一段时间内” 。 after a moment“一会儿后” ，用于过去或将来的某时起往后一段时间。 for a moment 作一段时间解时，指“很短暂的一整段时间” 。 at the moment“当时” “目前” at this moment, then） （= the moment that 表示“一??就??” for the moment 暂时、目前 6. pay / wage / salary pay 是不可数名词，是个常用词，可替代其他两个词。 salary 是可数名词、不可数名词，按月、季或年发给的工资，一般指脑力劳动者的工资。 wage（常用复数） ，一般指体力劳动者的工资，按日或星期来计算的。 7. strength / force / energy / power strength 常指固有的潜在力量，指人时，着重力气。 force 主要指自然界的力量，如暴力、势力、军事力量等。 energy 主要指“人的精力、自然界的能量” power 主要指做一件事情所依靠的能力。 十三、Repeat: 1. If we had followed his plan, we could have done the job better with less money and fewer people. 2. Shortly after the accident, two dozen police were sent there to keep order. 3. We have worked out the plan and now put it into practice. 4. He is going camping with two other little boys. 5. We’ve missed the last bus. I’m afraid we have no choice but to take a taxi. 6. He gained his wealth by printing works of famous writers. 7. If by any chance someone comes to see me, ask them to leave a message. 8. You’ll find this map of great value in helping you to get round London. 练习 1. The ____ of the room were covered with ____. A. roofs, leafs B. roofs, leaves C. rooves, leafs D. rooves, leaves 2. There are three ____ in our factory. A. woman doctors B. women doctors C. woman doctor D. women doctor 3. Which do you prefer ____ or ____? A. potatos, tomatos B. potatos, tomatoes C. potatoes, tomatos D. potatoes, tomatoes 4. They are ____ of different presses(出版社). Now they are having a meeting in one of the ____ office. A. editor-in-chiefs, editors-in-chief’s B. editors-in-chief, editor-in-chief’s C. editors-in-chiefs, editor’s-in-chief’s D. editors-in-chief, editors-in-chief’s 5. The ant has two ____. A. stomaches B. stomacks C. stomach D. stomachs 6. He doesn’t like ____ for supper. A. chick B. chicken C. chickens D. chicks 7. It was ____ hot weather that many of us went swimming. A. so B. such C. so as D. such a 8. ____ wonderful space they saw on the room! A. How B. How a C. What D. What a 9. We know ____ travels not so fast as light. A. sound B. sounds C. the sounds D. a sound 10. My family raise a lot of ____, including two ____. A. cattle, cows B. cows, cattle C. cattles, cows D. cow, cattles 11. A number of soldiers ____ at he camp gate（军营门口）. A. have gathered B. has gathered C. is D. was 12. The Browns have spent a large ____ of money on their new car. A. deal B. amount C. number D. size 13. ____ work has been done to improve the people’s living standard. A. Many B. A great many C. A great deal of D. A number of 14. Mr Li shook ____ warmly with a friend. A. hand B. a hand C. hands D. the hands
15. Two ____, please. A. coffee B. coffees C. cup of coffee D. cups coffee 16. I can’t pay as ____ as he asked for. A. high price a B. high price C. a high price D. high a price 17. ____ knowledge of space develops rapidly. A. Man’s B. Men’s C. Mens’ D. Person’s 18.I stayed at ____. A. Xiao Wang’s B. Wang’s home C. the Wangs D. home of Wang 19. Sister Carrie works in a ____ factory. A. shoes B. shoses C. shoe D. shoe’s 20. Have you ever read ____? A. today newspaper B. newspaper today C. newspaper of today D. today’s newspaper 21. Two ____ walk didn’t made me tired. A. hour B. hours C. hour’s D. hours’ 22. The mother over there is ____ mother. A. Julia and Mary B. Julia and Mary’s C. Julia’s and Mary’s D. Julia’s and Mary 23. Li Ming’s handwriting is better than ____ in the class. A. anyone’s B. anyone else C. anyone’s else’s D. anyone else’s 24. The children are playing ____ on the ____. A. sand, sand B. sands, sands C. sand, sands D. sands, sand 25. If these trousers are too big, buy a smaller ____. A. set B. one C. copy D. pair 26. Tom usually takes a ____ in bus on rainy days. A. walk B. ride C. trip D. travel 27. We have no ____ about where she has gone. A. information B. news C. message D. flash 28. Food and ____ are daily necessities（需要）for the people. A. cloth B. clothe C. clothes D. clothing 29. My ____ of hearing is not so good as it used to be. A. strength B. sense C. power D. skill 30. The ____ caused by carelessness ____ yesterday. Many workers were killed. A. incident, was happened B. matter, happened C. event, was taken place D. accident, took place 31. The room was so quiet that she could hear the ____ of her heart. A. beating B. ways C. knocking D. striking 32. ____ has been told not to throw waste things anywhere. A. The public B. People C. Women D. Man 33. He was an ____ in the government ____. A. office, official B. official, office C. officer, office D. official, officer 34. There are several ____ in this novel who are different in ____. A. character, character B. characters, characters C. character, characters D. characters, character 35. We visited him ____ when he was in hospital. A. every other days B. each other day C. every other day D. every two day 36. My friend will return in ____. A. one day or two B. a day or two C. one day or two D. a or two days 37. ____ is always difficult for me. A. Translation B. Translate C. The translation D. A translation 38. ____ of this novel is excellent, quite to my surprise. A. Translation B. Translate C. The translation D. A translation 39. The police ____ looking into the matter now. A. be B. is C. are D. are going to 40. The Chinese are ____ brave and hard working people. A. the B. a C. / D. one 41. No news ____ good news. A. is B. are C. have D. has 42. Maths still ____ very difficult for me, though I have done my best. A. looks B. seems C. is D. are 43. ―Where ____ my trousers?‖ the boy asked. A. is B. was C. were D. are 44. How happy they are! Obviously, they are ____. A. in nice spirits B. in nice spirit C. in high spirits D. in high spirit 45. I saw many ____ seated in the corner reading something. A. Japanese B. Japaneses C. of Japanese D. of Japaneses
46. Father went to his doctor for ____ about his heart trouble. A. an advice B. advice C. advices D. the advices 47. We are ____ and they are ____. A. Englishmen, Germans B. Englishmen, German C. Englishmans, Germans D. Englishmen, Germen 48. ____ are made of ____. A. A glass, a glass B. Glasses, glass C. The glass, the glass D. Glasses, glasses 49. I’ll have to buy ____ trousers. A. a B. two C. a pair of D. a couple of 50. ____ is needed in cold countries. A. A lot of clothes B. Much clothing C. Many a cloth D. Lots of clothes
二．冠词 冠词分为不定冠词（a, an） ，定冠词（the） ，和零冠词。 I. 不定冠词的用法： 1 A plane is a machine that can fly. 指一类人或事，相当于 a kind of 2 A boy is waiting for you. 第一次提及某人某物，非特指 3 We study eight hours a day. 表示“每一”相当于 every，one 4 We are nearly of an age. 表示“相同”相当于 the same 用于人名前，表示不认识此人或与某名人有 A Mr. Smith came to visit you when you were out 5 That boy is rather a Lei Feng. 类似性质的人或事 6 用于固定词组中 A couple of, a bit, once upon a time, in a hurry, have a walk, many a time 7 用于 quite, rather, many, half, what, such 之后 This room is rather a big one. 8 用于 so(as, too, how)+形容词之后 She is as clever a girl as you can wish to meet. a 与 one 的对比 1. 尽管 a 和 one 这两个在意义上有些相似，但它们几乎不能互换使用。 2. 在连续记数时，习惯上，用 one 而不用 a。 3. 在名词前使用 one 往往表示数量上的对比。 4. 用在某些固定词组中。 e.g. all of a sudden（突然） as a matter of fact（事实上） in a hurry，in a word，do sb. a favour，pay a visit to， hand of（少 ， ， a 量的） length of（一根、一段） variety of（种种） depth of（深度为） article of（一件） total of（总共） ，a ，a ，a ，an ，a ，an average of（平均） ，one by one，one after another，one day 用在某些物质名词前，该物质名词便具体化了。 a coffee, a heavy rain 5. 用在某些抽象名词前，该抽象名词前便具体化了。 He has a knowledge of chemistry. The get-together was a great success. 6. 用在专有名词前，表示类似的一个或某一个。 He is a Kong Fansen. A Mrs Smith wishes to speak to you. 7. 表示“同一个”的意思。 The two boys are of an age. These umbrellas are of a (=the same) colour and size. 8. 不定冠词的特殊位置：how/so/as/too+形容词+不定冠词+名词 so kind a man = such a kind man too difficult a book II. 定冠词的用法： 1 The horse is a useful animal. 表示某一类人或物 2 the universe, the moon, the Pacific Ocean 用于世上独一无二的事物名词前 3 Would you mind opening the door? 表示说话双方都了解的或上文提到过的人或事 4 play the violin, play the guitar 用于乐器前面 5 the reach, the living, the wounded 用于形容词和分词前表示一类人 6 the Greens, the Wangs 表示“一家人”或“夫妇” 7 He is the taller of the two children. 用于序数词和形容词副词比较级最高级前
8 用于国家党派等以及江河湖海，山川群岛的名词前 9 用于表示发明物的单数名词前 10 在逢十的复数数词之前，指世纪的某个年代 11 用于表示单位的名词前 12 用于方位名词， 身体部位名词， 及表示时间的词组前 III. 零冠词的用法： 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8
the United States, the Communist Party of China, the French The compass was invented in China. in the 1990’s I hired the car by the hour. He patted me on the shoulder.
专有名词，物质名词，抽象名词，人名地名等名词前 Beijing University, Jack, China, love, air
名词前有 this, my, whose, some, no, each, every 等限制 I want this book, not that one. / Whose purse is this? March, Sunday, National Day, spring 季节，月份，星期，节假日，一日三餐前 Lincoln was made President of America. 表示职位，身份，头衔的名词前 He likes playing football/chess. 学科，语言，球类，棋类名词前 by train, by air, by land 与 by 连用表示交通工具的名词前 husband and wife, knife and fork, day and night 以 and 连接的两个相对的名词并用时 Horses are useful animals. 表示泛指的复数名词前 在 turn，go（变成、成为）变成后面的名词做短语时，名词前不加冠词。但 become 后面的名词前一定要加冠词。 9 在一个以“普通名词+as”所引导的让步状语从句中，该普通名词前不加冠词。 固定搭配。 in debt， good (bad) health， good condition， great demand， great need of， time of danger， office 就职）in honour in in in in in in （ ， of，in trouble (difficulty)，in favour of，with anger，in general，in size，in character（在性格上） sight，in (out of) order， ，in on business， holiday， on leave， watch， fire， on on on heart and soul， knife and fork， sea， at husband and wife， brother and sister，from morning till night，on horseback 五、特殊情况 1. 部分词组中有冠词和没有冠词其含义不同。一般说来，名词前 无冠词，则表示抽象意义；名词前有冠词，则表示具体意义。 out of problem （不成问题） out of the problem ， （不可能） take place， the place of， hospital， the hospital， table， ， take in in at at the table，in front of，in the front of，three of us，the three of us，on earth，on the earth，of age（成年） an age（同岁 ，of 数） ，lose colour（脸色苍白） ，lose the colour（褪色） ， 2. 有些词组中用定冠词 the 还是不定冠词 a ，意义不同。 a number of the number of 3. 注意当单数可数名词被 so、as、how、too 等词修饰时，冠词的位置要放在形容词后面。比较 such。 练习：做一轮配套练习 三．代词： I. 代词可以分为以下七大类： I, you, he, she, it, we, you, they 人 称 主格 1 代词 宾格 me, you, him, her, it, us, you, them 2 3 4 5 6 物 主 形容词性 代词 名词性 反身代词 指示代词 疑问代词 关系代词 my, your, his, her, its, our, their mine, yours, his, hers, its, ours, theirs myself, yourself, himself, herself, itself, ourselves, yourselves, themselves this, that, these, those, such, some who, whom, whose, which, what, whoever, whichever, whatever that, which, who, whom, whose, as one/ some/ any, each/ every, none/ no, many/ much, few/ little/ a few/ a little, other/ another, all/ both, neither/ either
一、 it 的用法： 1. 代替指示代词 this 或 that 2. 用作人称代词 3. 表示时间、天气、距离等 4. 引导词，在句中充当形式主语或形式宾语 1) It seems that ? ≯ Sb. seems to do / to be doing / to have done
2) It appears that ?≯ Sb. appears to do / to be doing / to have done 3) It happens that ?≯ Sb. happens to do / to be doing / to have done 4) It is no use / useless / no good doing sth. 5) It is said / reported / believed that … 6) It has been proved that ? 事实证明?? 7) It is + adj. + for sb. / of sb. to do sth. 8) It is a pity that … 9) It is certain that … 10) It is time ( that ) ?（虚拟语气） 11) It is necessary that ?（虚拟语气） 12) Sb. + v. + it + n. / adj. + to do sth. / doing sth. / that… feel it an honour to do… make it clear to sb. to do find it no use doing 13) It is / was + 被强调的部分 + that / who ? 14) It was ( not ) / will ( not ) long ( hours ) before … 15) It is not until ? that ?≯ Not until ? 16) It takes sb. some time to do sth. 二、反身代词： come to oneself（苏醒）/ be not oneself（身体不舒服） congratulate oneself on（暗自庆幸） enjoy oneself express oneself（表达） devote oneself to（致力于） dress oneself（穿衣） find oneself（发觉自己在） help oneself to（随便吃） hide oneself（躲藏） keep sth. to oneself（保守秘密） make oneself at home（不要拘束，就像在自己家里一样） make oneself + p.p. seat oneself 三、替代词 so 的用法： 1. So do I. 后者与前者相同，两个不同的主语。 2. So I do. 重复前面的内容，同一个主语。 3. I do so. 指代前面的内容。 4. So it is with? 如果前面是两个或两个以上的句子，而且里面包含不同的人称、数或时态等时，so 可以替代从句中的 that 宾语从句下面的动词，多用此种替代方法。 5. 常用结构： I’m afraid so. ≯ I’m afraid not. I think so. ≯ I don’t think so. I believe so. ≯ I believe not. I hope so. ≯ I hope not. I suppose / fear / imagine so. ≯ I suppose / fear / imagine not. I have been told so. 四、such 与 so 的不同用法： 1. such 置于冠词之前，但常用在 some / any / every / many / all / no 之后。 such an interesting book ≯ so interesting a book no such thing / one such animal 2. such + adj. +不可数名词/名词的复数形式
3. so many / few / much / little +可数/不可数名词 so many people / so little money / such a little girl 4. such 用于特殊结构 Such is our study plan. 5. so that（目的/结果）≯ in case（没有 such that） such … as… II. 不定代词用法注意点： 1. one, some 与 any: 1) one 可以泛指任何人，也可特指，复数为 ones。some 多用于肯定句，any 多用于疑问句和否定句。 One should learn to think of others. Have you any bookmarks? No, I don’t have any bookmarks. I have some questions to ask. 2) some 可用于疑问句中，表示盼望得到肯定的答复，或者表示建议，请求等。 Would you like some bananas? Could you give me some money? 3) some 和 any 修饰可数名词单数时，some 表示某个，any 表示任何一个。 I have read this article in some magazine. Please correct the mistakes, if any. 4) some 和数词连用表示“大约” ，any 可与比较级连用表示程度。 There are some 3,000 students in this school. Do you feel any better today? 2. each 和 every: each 强调个别，代表的数可以是两个或两个以上，而 every 强调整体，所指的数必须是三个或三个以上。 Each student has a pocket dictionary. / Each (of us) has a dictionary. / We each have a dictionary. Every student has strong and weak points. / Every one of us has strong and weak points. 3. none 和 no： no 等于 not any，作定语。none 作主语或宾语，代替不可数名词，谓语用单数，代替可数名词，谓语单复数皆可以。 There is no water in the bottle. How much water is there in the bottle? None. None of the students are (is) afraid of difficulties. 4. other 和 another: 1) other 泛指“另外的，别的”常与其他词连用，如：the other day, every other week, some other reason, no other way, the other 特指两者中的另外一个，复数为 the others。如： He held a book in one hand and his notes in the other. Two students in our class failed, but all the others passed the exam. 2) another 指“又一个，另一个”无所指，复数形式是 others，泛指“别的人或事”如： I don’t like this shirt, please show me another (one). The trousers are too long, please give me another pair / some others. Some like football, while others like basketball. 补充：常用代词辨异： 1. one, ones, that, those, it ◆one 与 ones 可以用来代替前面提到过的可数名词，one 指单数，ones 指复数。 ▲ ①one 与 ones 既可指人也可指物，ones 不可单独使用，也不可用 those，these 直接修饰，但可用 the 修饰，或 these + adj. + ones。 ▲ ②one 可代替可数名词为中心的整个名词词组，而 ones 不能。 ▲ ③one 不能加不定冠词，除非中间有形容词。 ▲ ④one 可单独使用，作“任何人”解。 ◆that 与 those， 代替前面提到过的不可数名词， that those 代替前面提到过的复数名词。 That， those 后面跟定语从句时， 关系代词不能用 that。 ◆one 和 it 都可以用来代替前面出现过的单数名词。one 代替这类东西的任何一个，it 代替前面所指的特定的东西。 2. no one, none ① no one = nobody，只指人，不指物，谓语动词用单数。 ② no one 没有固定范围，故其后不接 of 短语。none 可接 of 短语。 No one，nobody 用于简略回答时，不能用来对“How many”或“How much”做否定回答。 e.g. Is there anyone who can do the experiment? No one.
③ none 表示三个或三个以上的人或事物中“没有一个”或“任何一个都不” 。表示不可数名词时，谓语用单数； 表示可数名词时，单复数均可。 ④ none 常用来对“How many”或“How much”做否定回答，也可对 any + of 短语构成的一般疑问句做否定回 答。而 no one 用来回答“Who”引导的特殊疑问句。 3. both, either, neither ◆ both 两者都， 作主语时谓语动词用复数。作形容词时，可直接修饰名词，如有定冠词 the，物主代词或指示代词修 饰名词，需置 both 之后。both 指两个人或物，不可与单数名词或不可数不清名词搭配，只与复数名词搭配。 ◆ either 两者中的任何一个，跟谓语动词的单数。作形容词用，只能和单数可数名词连用，作案不定代词时，可单独 使用，也可跟 of 短语。 ◆ neither 两者中无任何一个，用法同 either。 六、Repeat: 1. Kate and her sister went on holiday with a cousin of theirs. 2. There are so many kinds of books on sale that I can’t make up my mind which to buy. 3. Tom’s mother kept telling him that he should work harder, but it didn’t help. 4. I was disappointed with the film. I had expressed it to be much better. 5. They were all very tired, but none of them would stop to take a rest. 6. I hope there are enough glasses for each guest to have one. 7. I hate it when people talk with their mouths full. 练习：做配套练习 四．形容词和副词 I. 形容词： 1. 形容词的位置： 1) 形容词作定语通常前置，但在下列情况后置： 1 修饰some, any, every, no和body, thing, one等构成的复合不定代词时 nobody absent, everything possible 2 以-able, -ible 结尾的形容词可置于有最高级或 only 修饰的名词之后 the best book available, the only solution possible 3 alive, alike, awake, aware, asleep 等可以后置 the only person awake 4 和空间、时间、单位连用时 a bridge 50 meters long 5 成对的形容词可以后置 a huge room simple and beautiful 6 形容词短语一般后置 a man difficult to get on with 2) 多个形容词修饰同一个名词的顺序： 3) 复合形容词的构成： 1 形容词+名词+ed kind-hearted 6 名词+形容词 world-famous 2 形容词+形容词 dark-blue 7 名词+现在分词 peace-loving 3 形容词+现在分词 ordinary-looking 8 名词+过去分词 snow-covered 4 副词+现在分词 hard-working 9 数词+名词+ed three-egged 5 副词+过去分词 newly-built 10 数词+名词 twenty-year II. 副词 副词的分类： 1 时间副词 soon, now, early, finally, once, recently 5 频度副词 always, often, frequently, seldom, never 2 地点副词 here, nearby, outside, upwards, above 6 疑问副词 how, where, when, why how, when, where, why, whether, however, 3 方式副词 hard, well, fast, slowly, excitedly, really 7 连接副词 meanwhile 4 程度副词 almost, nearly, very, fairly, quite, rather 8 关系副词 when, where, why III. 形容词和副词比较等级： 比较形容词和副词 1. 形容词＋ly, 有时会构成意义完全不同的副词 hard(困难的)—hardly（几乎不） dead(死的)—deadly(致命的) late(晚的)—lately(最近) fair(公平的)—fairly(相当) ２．注意：有些副词有两种形式，一个与形容词同形，一个以 ly 结尾，但它们的含义是不同的．例如：
l) close 接近地 closely 仔细地，密切地 2) free 免费地 freely 自由地，无拘束地 3) hard 努力地 hardly 几乎不 4) late 晚，迟 lately 近来 5) most 极，非常 mostly 主要地 6) wide 广阔地，充分地 widely 广泛地 7) high 高 highly 高度地，非常地 8) deep 深，迟 deeply 抽象意义的“深” 9) loud 大声地 loudly 大声地(含有喧闹的意思) 10) near 邻近 nearly 几乎 ３.以-ly 结尾的形容词： lively、 lonely、 lovely、 deadly、 friendly、 ugly、 silly、 likely、 brotherly、 manly、 timely 等。 （×） eg. He spoke to me very friendly.（∨） He spoke to me in a very friendly way. 四：比较级和最高级 1. 构成 ： 大部分双音节词、加后缀构成的词（如 slowly, useful） 、源于分词的形容词（如 tired） 、所有的多音节词，加 more 构成 比较级，加 the most 构成最高级， 副词的最高级可省去 the.请注意：作表语的形容词最高级前，如果不是和别人、他 物相比，常不加 the. eg. We are busiest on Monday. 2．修饰比较级、最高级的程度词 1) even / still / rather /much / far/ a lot/ a great deal / a little/ a bit＋比较级 We are working still harder now. 现在我们工作更加努力。 2) 数词+ 名词＋比较级 eg. He is two inches taller than his father. 他比他爸爸高两英寸。(或说 He is taller than his father by two inches. ) She could not take a step further. 她一步也不能走了。 3) 比较级＋by far , 在前面，应在二者中间加“ the” ．如: He is taller by far than his brother. He is by far the taller of the two brothers. 4) the second/ third ＋最高级 by far 3. 无比较级和最高级的形容词 有些形容词本身含义无程度差别,因此没有比较级和最高级． 常见的有： right, wrong, perfect, possible, impossible, mistaken, dead, favourite 等。这些词不能被程度副词修饰，但可以被 quite(完全地)，completely 等修饰。eg. quite right/ impossible， completely dead. 4. 和冠词连用 the ＋形容词原级＋v(复)，指一类人或物 the ＋ 形容词比较级，指两者中“较?的”的那一个，eg. the younger of the two a/ an ＋形容词比较级 eg. The pen is expensive. I want a cheaper one. ( a) ＋most＋形容词最高级 “非常?” eg. a most beautiful city 5. 相关结构 1) 原级比较：肯定句 as?.as?., 否定句 not so / as?.as?.. 2) 比较句： 比较级 ＋than?.或 more (less) ?.than?.. The furniture in this shop is less beautiful than that in that shop.(注意代词 that 的用法) 3) 比较级＋ and＋比较级 或 more and more＋比较级 “越来越? ” richer and richer, more and more interesting 4) The more?.., the more?..“越?， 越?” The more you look at the picture, the better you will like it. 5) 比较级＋than any other ＋n. （单） （适用于范围一致时） (all) other ＋n.（复） any ＋n.(单) （适用于范围不一致时） He is taller than any other student / all other students in his class. any student in my class. 形容词和副词的比较等级分为原级，比较级和最高级。比较级和最高级的构成一般是在形容词和副词后加-er 和-est， 多音节和一些双音节词前加 more 和 most。 1. 同级比较时常常用 as…as…以及 not so(as)…as…如：I am not so good a player as you are. 2. 可以修饰比较级的词有：much, many, a lot, even, far, a bit, a little, still, yet, by far, any, a great deal。 3. 表示一方随另一方变化时用“the more…the more…‖句型。如：The harder you work, the more progress you will make. 4. 用比较级来表达最高级的意思。如：I have never spent a more worrying day.
5. 表示倍数的比较级有如下几种句型： Our school is three times larger than yours./Our school is four times as large as yours./Our school is four times the size of yours. 6. 表示“最高程度“的形容词没有最高级和比较级。如：favourite, excellent, extreme, perfect。 形容词，副词 高考题选： 1. John has three sisters. Mary is the ___ of the three. (MET88) A. most cleverest B. more clever C. cleverest D. cleverer 2. The students are___ young people between the age of sixteen and twenty. (MET88) A. most B. almost C. mostly D. at most 3. She told us ___story that we all forgot about the time. (MET88) A. such an interesting B. such interesting a C. so an interesting D. a so interesting 4. It is impossible for so___ workers to do so___work in a single day. (MET88) A. few, much B. few, many C. little, much D. little, many 5. The horse is getting old and can\'t run ___ it did. (MET88) A. as faster as B. so fast than C. so fast as D. as fast as 6. The story sounds___ . (MET89) A. to be true B. as true C. being true D. true 7. I\'d been expecting ___ letters the whole morning, but there weren\'t ___ for me. (MET89) A. some; any B. many; a few C. some; one D. a few; none 8. This year they have produced ___ grain ___ they did last year. (MET89) A. as less; as B. as few; as C. less; than D. fewer; than 9. After the new technique was introduced, the factory produced ___ tractors in 1988 as the year before. A. as twice many B. as many twice C. twice as many D. twice many as 10. The pianos in the other shop will be , but______ . (MET90) A. cheaper; not as better B. more cheaper; not as better C. cheaper; not as good D. more cheap; not as good 11. ---Can I help you? ---Well, I\'m afraid the box is___ heavy for you, but thank you all the same. (MET90) A. so B. much C. very D. too 13. If we had followed his plan, we could have done the job better with ___ money and ___ people. (MET90) A. less; less B. fewer; fewer C. less; fewer D. fewer; less 14. Oh, John. ___ you gave me! (MET90) A. How a pleasant surprise B. How pleasant surprise C. What a pleasant surprise D. What pleasant surprise 15. ---How did you find your visit to museum? ---I thoroughly enjoyed it. It was ___ than I expected. (MET91) A. far more interesting B. even much interesting C. so more interesting D. a lot much interesting 16. Canada is larger than ___ country in Asia. (NMET91) A. any B. any other C. other D. another 17. Those oranges taste___ . (MET91) A. good B. well C. to be good D. to be well 18. The experiment was ___ easier than we had expected. (NMET91) A. more B. much more C. much D. more much 19. ___ food you\'ve cooked! (NMET91 ) A. How a nice B. What a nice C. How nice D. What nice 20. Go and get your coat. It\'s ___ you left it. (MET92) A. there B. where C. there where D. where there 21. John was so sleepy that he could hardly keep his eyes___ . (MET92) A. open B. to be opened C. to open D. opening 22. ---Are you feeling ___? ---Yes, I\' m fine now. (NMET92) A. any well B. any better C. quite good D. quite better 23. Which is___ country, Canada or Australia? (MET92) A. a large B. larger C. a larger D. the larger 24. ---Will you give this message to Mr. White, please? ---Sorry, I can\'t. He ___. (MET92) A. doesn\'t any more work here B. doesn\'t any longer here work C. doesn\'t work any more here D. doesn\'t work here any longer 26. ___ terrible weather we\'ve been having these days! (MET92) A. How a B. What a C. How D. What 27. It takes a long time to go there by train. It\'s___ by road. (MET93) A. quick B. the quickest C. much quick D. quicker 28. ___ from Beijing to London! (MET93) A. How long way it is B. What a long way is it C. How long way is it D. What a long way it is
29. She doesn\'t speak___ her friends, but her written work is excellent. (MET93) A. as well as B. as often as C. so much as D. as good as 30. ---Mum, I think I\'m___ to get back to school. ---Not really, My dear. You\'d better stay at home for another day or two. (NMET93) A. so well B. so good C. well enough D. good enough 31. ---If you don\'t like the red coat, take the blue one. ---OK, but do you have size___ in blue? This one\'s a bit tight for me. (NMET93) A. a big B. a bigger C. the big D. the bigger 32. John plays footbal___ , if not better than, Davi. (NMET94) A. as well B. as well as C. so well D. so well as 33. We all write___ ,even when there\'s net much to say. (NMET94) A. now and then B. by and by C. step by step D. more or less 35. If there were no examinations, we should have ___at school. (NMET94) A. the happiest time B. a more happier time C. much happiest time D. a much happier time 36. ---Have you finished your report yet? ---No, I\'ll finish in___ ten minutes. (NMET95) A. another B. other C. more D. less 37. ---I\'d like ___ information about the management of your hotel, please. ---Well, you could have ___ word with the manager. He might be helpful. (NMET95) A. some; a B. an; some C. some; some D. an; a 38. If we work with a strong will, we can overcome any difficulty,___ great it is. (NMET95) A. what B. how C. however D. whatever 39. We decided not to climb the mountains because it was raining ____. (NMET96) A. badly B. hardly C. strongly D. heavily 40. How beautifully she sings! I have never heard ___. (NMET96) A. the better voice B. a good voice C. the best voice D. a better voice 41. Tony is going camping with ___ boys. (NMET93) A. little two other B. two little other C. two other little D. little other two 42. ---How was your recent visit to Qingdao? (NMET95) ---It was great. We visited some friends, and spent ___the days at the seaside. A. few last sunny B. last few sunny C. last sunny few D. few sunny last 44. Wait till you are more___ .It\'s better to be sure than sorry. (NMET97) A. inspired B. satisfied C. calm D. certain 45. Professor White has written some short stories, but he is ___ known for his plays. (NMET98) A. the best B. more C. better D. the most 46.___ to take this adventure course will certainly learn a lot of useful skills. (NMET2000 ) A. Brave enough students B. Enough brave students C. Students brave enough D. Students enough brave 49. It is generally believed that teaching is___ it is a science. (NMET2001) A. an art much as B. much an art as C. as an art much as D. as much an art as 50.---I\'m very ___with my own cooking. It looks nice and smells delicious. ---Mm, it does have a ___smell. (2002 春招) A. pleasant; pleased B. pleased; pleased C. pleasant; pleasant D. pleased; pleasant 51.Boris has brains. In fact ,I doubt whether anyone in the class has ___IQ. A. a high B. a higher C. the higher D. the highest 五．动词 I. 动词的时态： 1. 动词的时态一共有 16 种，以 ask 为例，将其各种时态的构成形式列表如下： 现在时 过去时 将来时 ask / asks asked shall/will ask 一般 am/is/are asking was/were asking shall/will be asking 进行
过去将来时 should/would ask should/would be asking
have/has asked had asked shall/will have asked should/would have asked 完成 shall/will have been asking should/would have been asking 完成进行 have/has been asking had been asking 2. 现在完成时与一般过去时的区别： 1) 现在完成时表示过去发生的动作或存在的状况，但和现在有联系， 强调的是对现在造成的影响或结果，它不能同表 示过去的时间状语连用，汉译英时可加“已经”等词。简言之，利用过去，说明现在。如： I have already read the novel written by the world-famous writer. (已经看过，且了解这本书的内容) 2) 一般过去时只表示过去发生的动作或状态，和现在无关，它可和表示过去的时间状语连用，汉译英时可加“过” ， “了”等词。简言之，仅谈过去，不关现在。如： I read the novel last month. (只说明上个月看了，不涉及现在是否记住) I lived in Beijing for ten years.（只说明在北京住过十年，与现在无关） 3. 现在完成时与现在完成进行时的区别： 两者都可以表示 “从过去开始一直持续到现在” 在含义上如着重表示动作的结果时， ， 多用现在完成时， 如着重表示动 作一直在进行， 即动作的延续性时， 则多用现在完成进行时。 一般不能用于进行时的动词也不能用于现在完成进行时。 I have read that book.我读过那本书了。 I have been reading that book all the morning. 我早上一直在读那本书。 4. 一般将来时的表达方式： 将来时 用法 例句 1 will/shall+动词原形 My sister will be ten next year. 表示将来发生的动作或存在的状态 含有“打算，计划，即将”做某事，或表示很有 It’s going to clear up. 2 be going to+动词原形 We’re going to have a party tonight. 可能要发生某事 be + doing 进行时表示 go, come, start, move, leave, arrive 等词可用进行时 He is moving to the south. 3 Are they leaving for Europe? 将来 表示按计划即将发生的动作 表示安排或计划中的马上就要发生的动作，后面 I was about to leave when the bell rang. 4 be about to + 动词原形 The meeting is about to close. 一般不跟时间状语 5 be to + 动词原形 We’re to meet at the school gate at noon. 表示按计划进行或征求对方意见 时刻表上或日程安排上早就定好的事情，可用一 The meeting starts at five o’clock. 6 一般现在时表示将来 The plane leaves at ten this evening. 般现在时表示将来 某些固定句型中时态是固定的： 1.This / That / It is the first time +从句（用现在完成时） 2.It’s / has been +一段时间+since 从句（用过去时） 3.Hardly / No sooner had sb. done when / than +从句（用过去时） 4.It will be +一段时间+before 从句（用一般现在时）/ It was +一段时间+before 从句（用过去时） 5. It’s time+从句（用过去时或 should do） 6.would rather+从句（用一般过去时/过去完成时） It’s getting late. I’d rather you took a taxi there. The film was boring. I’d rather I hadn’t gone to see it. II. 动词的被动语态： 常用被动语态 构成 常用被动语态 构成 1 一般现在时 am/is/are asked 6 过去进行时 was/were being asked 2 一般过去时 was/were asked 7 现在完成时 have/has been asked 3 一般将来时 shall/will be asked 8 过去完成时 had been asked 4 过去将来时 should/would be asked 9 将来完成时 will/would have been asked 5 现在进行时 am/is/are being asked 10 含有情态动词的 can/must/may be asked 被动语态的否定式是在第一个助动词或情态动词后加 not，短语动词的被动态不可漏掉其中介副词。固定结构 be 注 going to, used to, have to, had better 变为被动态时，只需将其后的动词变为被动态。 如： Trees should not be planted in summer. / The boy was made fun of by his classmates. 意 Newspapers used to be sent here by the little girl. 汉语有一类句子不出现主语，在英语中一般可用被动结构表示。如： 事 It is believed that… It is generally considered that… It is said that… It is well known that… It must be pointed out that… It is supposed that… 项 It is reported that… It must be admitted that… It is hoped that…
下面主动形式常表示被动意义：如： The window wants/needs/requires repairing. The book is worth reading twice. The door won’t shut. / The play won’t act. The clothes washes well. / The book sells well. The dish tastes delicious. / Water feels very cold. 下面词或短语没有被动态： leave, enter, reach, become, benefit, cost, equal, contain, last, lack, fit, fail, have, appear, happen, occur, belong to, take place, break out, come about, agree with, keep up with, consist of, have on, lose heart 等等 1.动词 sell, write, read, open, lock, shut, wear, wash, keep, cook, cut, burn, run 等与 well, smoothly, easily 等连用时，说明主语 内在的“性能” “特点” ，用主动代替被动； 2.表示状态特征的连系动词如 smell, taste, feel, sound, look, prove 等用主动语态表示被动意义； 3.不及物动词及一些固定短语不能用被动语态： come up, run out（用完） give out（耗尽） go out（熄灭） come out（出 , , , 版）, come to light, belong to, break out, lose heart, die out, own, have, possess, happen, occur 等； 4.当 want, require, need 作“需要”解，后接 doing/ to be done 作宾语，此时动词 do 与主语为动宾关系； 5.be worth 后接 doing 作宾语，用主动形式表示被动意义； 6.不定式 to blame（该受责备）表示被动意义；Who is to blame? 7.在“主语+be+形容词（for sb.）+to do”结构中，to do 用主动形式； 8.在“主语+谓语+宾语（名词）+动词不定式 to do（作定语修饰前面的名词，且为动宾关系；主语与 to do 为主谓关系 时，此动词不定式用主动形式；如：I have a meeting to attend. 练习一：动词时态与语态（1） 1. When I saw Mary, she ______ on the piano. A. is playing B. plays C. was playing D. played 2. She ______ the door before she goes away. A. had locked B. is locking C. has locked. D. was locking. 3. A hunter is a man who ______ animals. A. catch B. catches C. will catch D. was catching 4. What _____ if I drink this? A. happens B. is happening C. will happen D. is happened 5. I will visit you if Father ______ me. A. let B. lets C. is letting D. will let 6. Look out! That tree _____ fall down. A. is going to B. will be C. shall D. would 7. My uncle _____ to see me. He\'ll be here soon. A. comes B. is coming C. had come D. came 8. They can\'t leave until they _____ their work. A. did B. are doing C. have done D. has done 9. \"Has he seen this film?\" \" Yes. He ______ it several days ago. \" A. saw B. has seen C. had seen D. was seeing 10. Now Mike isn\'t here. He ______ Mr Green\'s. Perhaps he ______ back in a few minutes. A. went to; is coming B. has gone to; will come C. has been to; will be D. is going to; has come 11. That day he ._______ his clothes before he came to see me. A. has washed B. washed C. had been washing D. was washed 12. I haven\'t finished my composition. I ______ for two hours and a half. A. have written it B. have been writing it C. wrote it D. am writting it 13. I will take my daughter with me when I _____ ShangHai, A. go to B. will go to C. have been to D. have gone to 14. This bright girl ______ the truth in front of the enemy. A. didn\'t say B. couldn\'t speak to C. said D. didn\'t tell 15. The bridge which ______ last year looks really beautiful. A. was built B. built C. was set up D. had been built 16. \" When ______ school begin?\" \" Next Monday. \" A. has B. does C. did D. is going to 17. I will ______ here till you give me some money. A. leave B. not leave C. come D. return 18. I _____ here since I moved here. A. will work B. worked C. work D. have been working 19. Every time I _____ there, I will buy him something nice. A. went B. will go C. go D. have gone 20. It was said that his father ______. A. has died B. died. C. has been dead D. had died 21. We won\'t go unless you ______ soon. A. had come B. came C. will come D. come 22._____six years since I began studying English. A. They have been B. it is C. It was D. There are 23. They ______ the Summer Palace three times.
A. have gone to B. have been to C. have been in D. have gone into 24. \"How long haven\'t we seen each other? \"\"Well, it _____ nearly two years since we ______ last. \" A. is/have met B. was/had met C. is/met D. has been/had met 25. \"Have you seen the art exhibition?\" \"No, _____ there. \" A. it was not being held B. they didn\'t hold C. it had not held D. they were holding it 26. Don\'t get off the bus until it ______. A. stop B. will stop C. stopped D. has stopped 27. \"Where ______ the recorder? I can\'t see it anywhere.\" \"I _____ it right here. But now it\'s gone. \" A. did you put/have put B. have you put/put C. had you put/was putting D. were you putting/have put 28. They asked me to have a drink with them. I said that it was 10 years since I ______ a good drink. A. had enjoyed B. was enjoying C. enjoyed D. had been enjoying 29. Don\'t come tonight. I would rather you _____ tomorrow. A. come B. came C. will come D. coming 30. ______ you ______? A. Do/marry B. Have/married C. Have/been married D. Are/married 31. When he ______ all the newspapers, he\'ll go home. A. sells B. has sold C. will have sold D. will be sold 32. \"This cloth _____well and _____ long. \"\"Ok. I\'ll take it. \" A. washes/lasts B. is washed/lasted C. washes/is lasted D. is washing/lasting 33. \"Hurry up, you ______ on the phone. \" \"Oh, I\'m coming. Thank you. \" A. are wanted B. are being wanted C. want D. are wanting 34. I ______ see you, but I didn\'t, for I had no time. A. had wanted to B. has wanted to C. wanted D. was wanted 35. I ______ in Guang Zhou for six years by this October. A. have lived B. was living C. will be living D. shall have lived 36. By this time next year he ______ from the college. A. will be graduating B. should be graduating C. will have graduated D. is graduating 37. Our teacher told us that the earth _____ from west to east. A. turns B. turn C. has turned D. had turned 38. My brother _____ while he _____ his bicycle and hurt himself. A. fell/was riding B. fell/were riding C. had fallen/rode D. had fallen/was riding 39. Bill said he ____ twenty-one the next year. A. was going to be B. was about to be C. could be D. was to be 40. It is high time you _____ in bed now. A. are B. were C. will be D. would be 41. After a while an agreement _____. A. was arrived at B. was arrived in C. was arrived D. has been arrived 42. The air liner from Beijing _____ at 3:00 p.m. A. is about to arrive B. has arrived C. arrives D. is going to arrive 43.______,that step is not safe! A. Look around B. Look up C. Look out D. Look down 44. \"Have you _____ him to give up smoking?\" \"No. I _____, but he wouldn\'t listen.\" A. persuaded/tried B. tried/persuaded C. tried/tried D. persuaded/persuaded 45. The research laboratory is going to ______ the new type of computer to use. A. take B. make C. put D. send 46. I don\'t know when he ______, but when he ______, I\'ll let you know. A. will come/comes B. comes/will come C. comes/comes D. will come/will come 47. How much do you think that vase _____? A. is cost B. used C. was paid for D. cost 48. I _____ that he would be able to leave tomorrow, but it\'s beginning to look diffcult. A. hope B. had hoped C. hoped D. am hoping 49. ―Come on, Peter, I want to show you something.‖ ―Oh, how nice of you, I _____ you _____ to bring me a gift.‖ A. never think/are going B. never thought/ were going C. didn’t think/ are going D. hadn’t thought/ were going 50. It’s a nice flat, but it _____ a proper bathroom. A. haven’t got B. hasn’t got C. wouldn’t get D. doesn’t have got 51. She had a shock when she heard the news, _____? A. hadn’t she B. didn’t she C. wouldn’t she D. won’t she
52. This liquid _____ the salt at room temperature. A. became mixed with B. was mixed by C. mixes with D. has been mixing by 练习二、动词时态与语态（2） 53. An exhibition of paintings ____ at the museum next week. A. are to be held B. is to be held C. are holding D. will hold 54. I\'m sorry, sir. Your recorder isn\'t ready yet. It _____ in the factory. A. is being repaired B. is repaired C. has been repaired D. hasn\'t repaired 55. Every possible means , but none prove successful. A. has tried B. has been tried C. is being tried D. tried 56. _______ that they can pass the written exam this time. A. That is hoped B. It is hoped C. That hopes D. It hopes 57. My little sister has broken my watch. ---- My watch _____ by my little sister. A. is broken B. has broken C. have been broken D. has been broken 58. He was cleaning his room when I entered the house. ---- His room _____ by him when I entered the room. A. was being cleaned B. was cleaned C. was being cleaning D. has been cleaned 59. I shall have Finished reading the novel by dinner time. ---- This novel _____ reading (by me) by dinner time. A. will have finished . B. will has been finished C. will have being finished D. will have been finished 60. You ought to keep these three rooms clean. ----These three rooms ______ (by you). A. are oughted to keep clean B. ought to kept clean C. ought to be kept clean D. ought to have been kept clean 61. You are about to write a poem, aren\'t you? ---- A poem _____ (by you), _____ ? A. is about to be written, aren\'t you B. is about to be writing, isn’t it C. is about to be writing, aren\'t you D. is about to be written, isn’t it 62. She had better leave a note to him. ---- A note _____ to him (by her). A. had better left B. had be better left C. had better be left D. had better been left 63. He doesn\'t do his homework every day. ---- His homework ______ by him every day. A. doesn\'t be done B. aren\'t done C. don\'t be done D. isn’t done 64. We must take care of our parents when they are old. ---- Our parents ______ when they are old. A. must be taken care B. must be took cars C. must take care of D. must be taken care of 65. People look down upon him because he is a liar. ---- He _____ because he is a liar. A. is looked down B. is looked down upon C. looks down upon D. looks down 66. Father will give me a dictionary on my birthday. ---- A dictionary ______ me by Father on my birthday. A. shall be given to B. will give C. shall give to D. will be giving to 67. We elected her leader. ---- She by us. A. is elected leader B. was leader elected C. was elected leader D. leader was elected 68. ---- People who live along this road receive their mail in these boxes. ---- Why are all of the______? A. grey painted mailboxes B. mailboxes grey painted C. mailboxes painted grey D. painted grey mailboxes 69. I saw him enter the room. ---- He ______ the room. A. is seen enter B. is seen to enter C. was seen to enter D. was seen enter 70. The question asked by him is hard _____ . A. to answer B. to be answered C. to be answering D. for answer 71. How sweet the music ______! A. sounds to be B. is sounded C. is sounded to be D. sounds 72. In warm weather fruit and meat ______ long. A. don\'t keep B. cannot be kept C. are not kept D. are not keeping
73. He received a telegram ___ \"Mother Sick.\" A. written B. said C. reading D. writing 74. The classroom ______ 30 feet long. A. measures B. is measured C. has D. has length 75. Do you remember ______ ? A. how it is done B. it how to be done C. How is it done by D. how to do 76. to have been rich. A. They say B. It is said C. He is said D. That was said 77. Mathematics is difficult ______. A. to learn B. for learning C. to be learned D. of learning 78. My hair is so long that I must go to a barber\'s shop and______. A. have to cut it B. have it cut C. get it to be cut D. to cut it 79. The pencil ______ well. A. writes B. is written C. was written D. writing 80. ---- I can\'t see the blackboard very well. ---- Perhaps you need ______. A. to examine your eyes B. to have your eyes examined C. to have examined your eyes D. to be examined your eyes 81. ---- Where is the coffee table? ---- Tom just had it ____ away. A. move B. moving C. moved D. moves 82. Good medicine ______ to the mouth. A. tastes bitter B. tastes bitterly C. is tasted bitter D. is tasted bitterly 83. Which girl won the prize? _____ A. By which girl is the prize won? B. Which girl was the prize won? C. By which girl did she win the prize? D. By which girl was the prize won? 84. --- Where did you get that handsome picture? ---- It was _____ by my father. A. given for us B. a gift to us C. given to us D. a gift for us 85. A young hen is ______ a chicken. A. named B. known C. spelled D. called 86. ---- How does Alma like her new work? ---- She ______ with the hour. A. can\'t satisfy B. isn\'t satisfied C. doesn\'t satisfy D. hasn\'t satisfied 87. ---- Why do you call your son Mouse? ---- He wants ______ by the name. A. to call B. to be called C. to be calling D. being called 88. His idea, though good, needs ______ out. A. being tried B. to try C. tried D. to be tried 89. The man living in the next door is known _____the police. A. with B. to C. by D. of 90. Cotton is first made ______ thread and then it was woven ______ cloth. A. up of, up of B. into, into C. of, of D. from, from 91. ______ here last night. A. Something strange was happened B. Strange something was happened C. Something strange happened D. Strange something happened 92. ---- I\'d like to buy that coat. ---- I\'m sorry, _____. A. it was sold B. it\'s selling C. it\'s been sold D. it had been sold 93. Gunpowder was discovered in the twelfth century, but_____. A. man did not put it to use in war two hundred years liter B. until two centuries more it was used in war C. not used in war until two hundred years later D. in war did not use it two hundred years afterwards 94. The five-year-old girl by her parents. A. is looked B. has looked for C. is being looked for D. has been looked
七．情态动词 I. 情态动词基本用法： 情态动词 用法 否定式 能力（体力，智力，技能） can can not / cannot /can’t do 允许或许可（口语中常用） could couldn’t do 可能性（表猜测，用于否定句或疑问句中）
疑问式与简答 Can…do…? Yes,…can. No,…can’t. May…do…? Yes,…may. may may not do 可以（问句中表示请求） No,…mustn’t/can’t. 可能，或许（表推测） Might…do…? Yes,…might 祝愿（用于倒装句中） might might not do No,…might not. Must…do…? Yes,…must. 必须，应该（表主观要求） must must not/mustn’t do No,…needn’t/don’t have to. 肯定，想必（肯定句中表推测） Do…have to do…? 只好，不得不（客观的必须，有时态人称 have to don’t have to do Yes,…do. No,…don’t. 变化） ought not to/oughtn’t to Ought…to do…? ought to 应当（表示义务责任，口语中多用 should do Yes,…ought. No,…oughtn’t. 将要，会 Shall…do…? 用于一三人称征求对方意见 shall shall not/shan’t do Yes,…shall. No,…shan’t. 用于二三人称表示许诺、命令、警告、威 胁等 应当，应该（表义务责任） should should not/shouldn’t do Should…do…? 本该（含有责备意味） will will not/won’t do Will…do…? 意愿，决心 Yes,…will. No,…won’t. 请求，建议，用在问句中 would 比较委婉 would not/wouldn’t do would Dare…do…? dare dare not/daren’t do 敢（常用于否定句和疑问句中） Yes,…dare. No,…daren’t. Need…do…? 需要 need need not/needn’t do Yes,…must. No,…needn’t. 必须（常用于否定句和疑问句中） Used…to do…? used not/usedn’t/usen’t to Yes,…used. No,…use(d)n’t. used to do 过去常常（现在已不再） Did…use to do…? didn’t use to do Yes,…did. No,…didn’t. II. 1. 表示请求和允许: can, could , may, might. 过去式使语气更委婉，答语应用原形。 --- Could I use your computer tomorrow morning? --- Yes, you can.( 否定回答可用：No, I’m afraid not.) 2．表示推测：理论可能性 can 可能性 肯定句 must, may ,might, could 疑问句 can 否定句 can’t (不可能)，may not (可能不) 1)can 表示理论上的可能性，指某事或情况可能发生，但并不说明实际上真的发生. Children can be very tiring. 2)反意问句。 He may know the plan, doesn’t he? You must have studied English before, haven’t you? You can’ t have been caught in the rain last night, were you? 3．could & be able to 在肯定句中 could 表示过去有 “能力” was / were able to 表示过去有能力而且确实做成了某一件事， 相当于 managed 做， to do?或 succeeded in doing sth. The fire spread through the hotel very quickly but everyone was able to get out. 4. may / might as well do sth “还是?好”“不妨” You might as well tell me the truth. 你还是把真相告诉我的好。 、 5. must 和 have to 1) must 表示的是说话人的主观看法, 而 have to 强调客观需要。 2）否定形式含义不同。mustn’t 禁止，不许可，don’t have to 不必 3) must 偏要（做令人不快的事）eg. Must you shout so loudly? 6. shall 和 should Shall 1) 表示说话人征求对方意见和向对方请示，用于第一、三人称。 When shall my father be able to leave hospital?
2)表示说话人给对方的命令、警告、允诺或威胁以及说话人的决心。 You shall go with me (命令) / You shall have the book when I finish it.（允诺） He shall be punished （威胁）/ Nothing shall stop me from doing it. (决心) Should 1) 表示劝告和建议“应该” 2) “按道理应当” “估计”(=ought to) They should be there by now, I think. 3） 用于第一人称表示说话人的一种谦逊、客气、委婉的语气。I should advise you not do that.我倒是劝你别这样做。 4） 在条件句中表示“万一” ，主句不一定用虚拟语气。 Ask Tom to ring me up if you should see him. /Should I be free tomorrow, I’ll come. 5） Why / How + should 结构表示说话人对某事不能理解，感到意外、惊异等意思， 意为“竟然” It seems so unfair that this should happen to me.这种事竟然发生在我身上真不公平。 7. will 和 would 1) 表示意志和意愿。will 指现在，would 指过去。If you will listen to me, I’ll give you some advice. 2) 表示请求、建议，would 比 will 委婉、客气。Will (Would ) you please pass me the book? 3) 表示习惯性动作， “总是” “惯于” ，will 指现在，would 指过去。 Fish will die without water. Every evening, she would sit by the window, deep in thought. 4). 表示功能， 意为“能” 或“行” The machine won’t work. 5) 表示预料或猜想。It would be about ten when he left home.猜想他离开家时大约十点。 8. would & used to 1) 表示过去持续的状态和情况用 used to; would 不与表示状态的动词连用。 There used to be a hospital here. / There would be a hospital here.( × ) 2) would 常与 often, sometimes, for hours 等表示时间的副词（短语）连用。 We would sit in the yard every evening and listened to his story. 3) used to 强调过去的行为同现在的对比， “过去怎样， 含有 而现在却不这样了” 的含义. eg. He will not spend the money on books as he used to. 9. dare 和 need 两者作为情态动词都不用于肯定句，常用于否定句、疑问句和条件从句中。习惯用语 I dare say（可能，或许，我揣测） 除外。实义动词用法同于一般动词。但在否定句中，dare 后的 to 可省略，即：don’t / doesn’t dare (to ) do?. need 作 为实义动词时，用在否定句中时，其后的 to 不能省略。 He dare go there alone. ( × ) He dares to go there. He dares not go there alone. ( ×) He dare not go there alone . / He doesn’t dare ( to ) go there alone. He stood there without daring lift his head.(× ) He stood there without daring to lift his head. 10．情态动词+ have done,表示过去 比较： 情态动词+ do , 表示现在或将来。 cf. needn’t have done & didn’t need to do… She need not have come yesterday. 她昨天本不必要来的。 （但却来了） She didn’t need to come yesterday. 她昨天不必来。 （实际上也没来）
八．非谓语动词 I. 非谓语动词的分类、意义及构成： 非谓语形式 不定式 现在 分词 过去 分词 构成 时态和语态 to do to be done to be doing to have been done to have done doing being done having done having been done done 否定式 特征和作用 复合结构 for sb. to do 具有名词，副词和形容词的作用 sth. 在句中做主、宾、定、表和状语 具有副词和形容词的作用 在句中做定、表、宾补和状语 sb’s doing 具有名词的作用 在句中做主、宾、定和表语
在非谓 语前加 not
doing being done having done having been done II. 做宾语的非谓语动词比较： 动名词
情况 只接不定式做宾语的 动词 只接动名词做宾语的 动词或短语
意义基本相同 两 者 都 可 以 意义相反
常用动词 hope, want, offer, long, fail, expect, wish, ask, decide, pretend, manage, agree, afford, determine, promise, happen mind, miss, enjoy, imagine, practise, suggest, finish, escape, excuse, appreciate, admit, prevent, keep, dislike, avoid, risk, resist, consider can’t help, feel like, succeed in, be fond of, object to, get down to, be engaged in, insist on, think of, be proud of, take pride in, set about, be afraid of, be tired of, look forward to, devote oneself to, be worth, be busy, pay attention to, stick to begin, start, like, love, hate, prefer, continue（接不定式多指具体的动作，接动名词多指一般或习 惯行为） need, want, require（接动名词主动形式表示被动意义，若接不定式则应用被动形式） stop to do 停止手中事，去做另一件事 stop doing 停止正在做的事 remember/forget/regret to do（指动作尚未发生） go on to do（接着做另外一件事） remember/forget/regret doing（指动作已经发生） go on doing（接着做同一件事） try to do（设法，努力去做，尽力） mean to do（打算做，企图做） try doing（试试去做，看有何结果） mean doing （意识是，意味着） can’t help to do（不能帮忙做） can’t help doing（忍不住要做）
III.非谓语动词做宾语补足语的区别： 常见动词 与宾语的逻辑关系及时间概念 例句 ask, beg, expect, get, order, tell, 主谓关系。 强调动作将发生或已经 I heard him call me several times. want, wish, encourage 完成 不定式 have, notice, see, watch, hear, feel, let, make 主谓关系。强调动作正在进行，尚 I found her listening to the radio. 现在分词 notice, see, watch, hear, find, keep, 未完成 have, feel 动宾关系。动作已经完成，多强调 We found the village greatly 过去分词 changed. 状态 IV. 非谓语动词做定语的区别： 区别 举例 与被修饰词往往有动宾关系，一般式表示将来，进行式表示 I have a lot of papers to type. 不定式 I have a lot of papers to be typed. 与谓语动作同时发生，完成式表示在谓语动词之前发生 Shall we go to the swimming pool? 动名词 通常指被修饰词的用途，无逻辑上的任何关系 表示动作与谓语动作同时发生 the boiling water / the boiled water 现在分词 与被修饰词之间是主谓关系， 与被修饰词之间是被动关系，表示动作发生在谓语动作之 the developing country/the developed country 过去分词 the falling leaves / the fallen leaves 前，现已经完成 V. 非谓语动词做主语和表语的区别： 区别 举例 多表示一个特定的具体的将来的动作，做主语时可以借助于 it 把不定 My dream is to become a teacher. 不 定 式移到句子后面。做表语有时可和主语交换位置，而且意义不变，并 To obey the law is important. (dream, business, wish, idea, plan, duty, 式 且还能用 what 来提问主语或表语。 task 做主语时常用) 与不定式的功能区别不大，然而它更接近于名词，表示的动作比较抽 It is no use saying that again and again. 动名 象，或者泛指习惯性的动作，有时也可以用 it 做形式主语，做表语时 Teaching is my job. 词 可以和主语互换位置。 无名词的性质，不能做主语。但是有形容词的性质，可以做表语，多 The situation is encouraging. 表明主语的特征性质或者状态等，可被 very, quite, rather 等副词修饰。 The book is well written. 分词 现在分词多含有 “令人…” 之意， 说明主语的性质特征， 多表示主动， (常见分词有 astonishing, moving, tiring, 主语多为物。过去分词一般表示被动或主语所处的状态，含有“感 disappointing, puzzling, shocking,
boring, amusing 及其-ed 形式)
【要点点拨】 英语句子中谓语动词的数必须与主语的人称和数取得一致，这就叫做主谓一致。解决主谓一致主要遵循三个原则：语 法一致原则、意义一致原则和就近一致原则。 1：either , neither , each , one , the other , another , anybody , anyone , anything , somebody , someone , something , everything ,everybody , everyone ,no one , nothing ,nobody 做主语时，谓语一般用单数。 Neither of the two sentences is correct . Everything around us is matter . (注意：none , neither, all ,any 作主语时，谓语可用单数，也可用复数，具体取决于说话人的意思。) None of them owns/own a car . Neither of the boys are / is interested in geography. All are here. And all that can be done has been done. 2 ：表示“时间、距离、金额、重量、面积、体积、容积”等度量的名词做主语时，谓语用单数。 Five minutes is enough . Four hundred francs is a lot of money . 3：each ?and each ?，every ?and every ;no ?and no ;many a ?and many a ?等结构由于强调个体行为，因此谓语 动词使用单数。 Each boy and each girl has got a new English-Chinese dictionary . No sound and no voice is heard for a long time . 4：从句、不定式、动名词或短语作主语时谓语动词使用单数形式。 To say something is one thing , to do it is another .（to say something , to do 是不定式） “How do you do?” is not a question but a greeting .（How do you do ?是句子，作主语） (注意：what 引导主语从句时应注意其所指的具体内容来确定谓语的单复数。) What we need is more time ,while what they need are more doctors and medicines . 5：one and a half 后面带名词的复数，谓语动词常用单数。One and half bananas is left on the table . 6：用 and 连接的两个名词表示单一概念时谓语动词使用单数。 The headmaster and Party secretary is going abroad next month . Bread and butter is my usual breakfast . 7 ：有些名词呈复数形式，但并不表示复数概念。 The news is disappointing that a chemical works is to be built in the west of the city . 8：名词由 and 或 both ?and 连接主语时，谓语动词使用复数形式。 Both coffee and beer are on sale in the shop . 9：people , public , police , cattle 做主语时，谓语动词习惯上使用复数。 The police have caught the murderer. And people are talking about the news. 考点 10： 表示成双、 成套的名词作主语时， 谓语动词使用复数。 Your trousers are too long, but these shoes fit you quite well. 但有 a pair of 连接时，谓语动词使用单数。A pair of gloves is a nice present for her. 11: 不可数名词作主语，但前面有表示数量的复数名词修饰时，谓语动词用复数。 Three million tons of oil are exploited every year in the oil field. 12: 在 or , either ---or --- , neither--- nor --- ,not only --- but also --- , not --- but --- , there be 等结构中，采取就近原则，即谓语 动词使用单数还是复数取决于最靠近的主语的单复数。 Either the teacher or the students are to blame. Not only the students but also their teacher is enjoying the film. 考点 13 : 下列结构用于引起一个附加的成分， 谓语动词的形式应不受附加成分的影响而于前面的主语取得一致: as well as ; rather than ; like ; except ; besides ; with ; along with ; including ; such --- as--- ;; No one but Jack and Mary knows about it . I as well as they am ready to help you . 考点 14：some of ; plenty of ; a lot of ; most of ; the rest of ; all(of ) ; half (of );分数或百分之+of +名词做主语时，以名词的单 复数为准。 A lot of students are waiting outside .And lots of the time has been wasted . More than 70% of the earth’s surface is covered by water . Ten percent of the apples are bad . The rest of the story needs no telling . He stayed at home and the rest of the boys were out at play . 15： a kind of ; this kind of ; many kinds of 和名词+ of this kind 等以及与 kind 意思相近的 type , sort 等构成的类似的短 由 语做主语时，谓语动词与 of 前的名词取得一致。 This kind of apple sells well in China . Apples of this kind are highly priced . 16：more than 开头的句子，看其后面的名词。
More than one answer is written on the blackboard . More than two hundred soldiers were killed in the battle . 17: 定语从句中谓语动词的形式与先行词一致， 但one of +复数名词+who/ that 引导的定语从句的谓语动词的形式看one 的前面是否有 the (only )等修饰语，有为单数，无为复数。 This is one of the best books that have appeared this year. She is the only one of those women who doesn’t know a thing about knitting(编织) . 18: population ; company ; class . team ; family ; group ; nation ; world ; government 等词做主语时，如果强调整体，谓语动 词使用单数；如果强调组成成员，谓语动词使用复数。 Our family has a reunion every year . His family are waiting for him . 19 ：the +形容词，表示一类人，谓语动词用复数;若指单数，则用单数谓语动词。 The rich are for the plan , but the poor are against it . The true is to be distinguished from the false . 真实应与假相区别。(the true / the false 表单数概念) 20：a number of + 复数名词 结构应用复数动词。the number of + 复数名词 结构应用单数动词。如： A number of people were killed and injured in the explosion . The number of people who were killed in the tsunami(海啸) has grown to 160,000. 注： “many a + 单数可数名词”作主语时，谓语动词用单数。 主谓一致练习 1.I, who____ your friend, will try my best to help you with your English. A.am B.is C.are D.be 2. The rich ____ not always happy. A.are B.is C.has D.have 3. Neither Tom nor Jack and I ____ his students. A.are B.am C.is D.was 4. Mary as well as her sisters ____ Chinese in China. A. are studying B. have studied C. studies D. study 5. Neither my father nor I ____ at home. A.am B.is C.are D.be 6. Not only my brother but also I ____ good at painting. Both of us ____ good painters., A.are;are B.am;am C.ani;are D.is;is 7. Every\' boy and every girl ____ to attend the evening party. A.wish B.wishes C.is like D.like 8. Over 80 percent of the population of China ____ peasants. A.was B.is C. would be D.are 9. The population of China ____ larger than that of .any other country in the world. A.is B.are C.has D.have 10. Every means ____ tried but without any result. A. have been B.is to be C.are to be D. has been 11. Alice, together with two boys,____ for having broken the rule. A. was punished B. punished C. were punished D. being punished 12. The League secretary and the monitor____ asked to attend the .meeting this afternoon. A.is B.was C.are D.is being 13. The great writer and professor____. A. is an old man B. are both old men C. is an old man and a young man D. were two Chinese 14. There ____ a pen, two pencils and three books on the desk. A.are B.is C.has D.have 15. A large number of students in our class____ girls. A. are B. was C. is D. be 16. The number of deer, mountain lions and wild roses ____ much if people leave things as they are. A. doesn\' t change B.don\'t change C.change D.changed 17. The Arabian Nights ____ well known to the English. A. is B. are C. was D. were 18. Chairman Mao\' s works ____ published. A. has been B.have been C.was D.is 19. A chemical works____ built there. A. is to being B.have been C. were to D.has been 20. The Olympic Games ____ held every ____ years. A.is;four B.are;four C.is;five D.are;five 21 .The United States of America one of the most developed countries in the world. A.is B.are C.was D.were 22.He is the only one of die students who ____ elected. A. are B.have C.has D.is 23.Theis is one of the most interesting questions that ____ asked. A.have B.has C. have been D.has been 24.Many a man ____ come to help us. A.have B.has C.is D.are 25.\"All____ present and all____ going on well,\" our monitor said. A.is;is B.are;are C.are;is D.is;are 26. The police ____ the murderer everywhere when he suddenly appeared in a theatre. A. is searching for B. were searching for C. are searching for D. were searching
27.Your trousers____ dirty.You must have____ washed. A.is;il B.are;it C.are;them D.is;them 28.This pair of trouseis ____ too long for him. A.is B.be C.are D.were 29. One and a half bananas ____ left on the table. A.is B.are C.has D.have 30. Eight times eight ____ sixty - four. A.is B.are C.get D.equal 31 .Ten minutes____ an hour when one is waiting for a phone call. A.seems B.seem C.seemed D.seemes 32.____of the money____ nm out. A. Three-fifth; has B. Three-fifth; has been C. Three-fifths; has D. Three-fifths; have 33. The whole class ____ the teacher attentively. A. are listening to B. is listening to C.are listening D. is listening 34.1 have finished a large part of the book, the rest of which___ more difficult. A.is B.are C.was D.were 35. Between the two rows of trees ____ the teaching building. A.stand B.stands C. standing D.are 36. Large quantities of water ____ for irrigation. A. is needed B. has -needed C. are needed D. need 37. That they were wrong in these matters ____ now clear to us all. A. is B.was C.are D.all 38.What we need____ good textbooks. A.is B.are C.have D.has 39. What you said just now____ the matter we are discussing. A.have something to at B. has something to do with C.had something to do with D.has been something to do with 40. More than one member ____ against the plan. A. is B.are C.has D.have 41. When and where to build the new factory ____ yet. A. has not decided B. is not decided C. are not decided D. have not decided 42. Half of the fruit ____ bad. A. are B. has C. is D. have 43. ____ either of your parents come to see you recently? A. Have B. Had C. Has D. Is 44. Mathematics ____ the language of science. A. are B. are going to be C. is D. is to be 45. My family ____ small. A. is B. were C. are D. makes 46. The following ____ some other examples. A. are B. is C. was D. were 47. They both have some friends; but his ____ more active. A. is B. will be C. was D. are 48. Both rice and wheat ____ grown in that country. A. is B. are C. was D. has 49. Early to bed and early to rise ____ a good habit. A. are B. is C. were D. was 50. To play basketball and to go swimming ____ useful for character-training. A. was B. is C. are D. were 51. Either he or I ____ to attend the mass meeting this evening. A. is B. am C. are D. be 52. ____ either he or I to attend the mass meeting this evening. A. is B. am C. are D. be 53. An iron and steel works, with some satellite factories, ____ to be built here. A. are B. were C. is D. will 54. She as well as her brother ____ a League member. A. are B. were C. will D. is 55. His family ____ a big one. Now the family ____ watching TV. A. is, are B. are, is C. is, is D. are, are 56. It is I who ____ going to attend the meeting tomorrow. A. is B. am C. are D. be 57. More than 60% of the students ____ the countryside. A. is B. are C. is from D. are from 58. Many a man ____ the novel. A. has read B. have read C. is read D. are read 59. Tom is the only one of the students who ____ going to swim this afternoon.
A. is B. was C. are D. were 60. Here ____ a pen, a few pencils and some paper for you.
A. are B. is C. was D. were
九．定语从句 I. 定语从句起了形容词的作用， 在句中修饰一个名词或代词。 被修饰的词叫做先行词， 引导定语从句的词叫关系词， 他的作用一是放在先行词与定语从句中间起了连接作用，二是在从句中担当一个成分，并与先行词保持数的一致。 关系词 先行词 从句成分 例句 备注 who Do you know the man who is talking with your mother? 人 主语 Mr. Smith is the person with whom I am working whom, which 和 whom 人 宾语 The boy (whom) she loved died in the war.. that 在从句中做 I like those books whose topics are about history. 宾语时，常可以 whose 人，物 定语 The boy whose father works abroad is my deskmate. 省略，但介词提 关系 前时后面关系代 A plane is a machine that can fly. 代词 that 人，物 主语，宾语 词不能省略，也 She is the pop star (that) I want to see very much. 不可以用 that The book (which) I gave you was worth $10. which 物 主语，宾语 The picture which was about the accident was terrible. He is such a person as is respected by all of us. as 做宾语一般不 as 人，物 主语，宾语 This is the same pen as I lost yesterday. 省略 when I will never forget the day when we met there. 时间 时间状语 可用 on which 关系 where This is the house where I was born. 地点 地点状语 可用 in which 副词 why I can’t imagine the reason why he turned down my offer. 可用 for which 原因 原因状语 II. that 与 which, who, whom 的用法区别： 情况 用法说明 例句 1． 先行词为 all, everything, anything, nothing, little, 1.He told me everything that he knows. 2.All the books that you offered has been much,等不定代词时。 given out. 2． 先行词被 all, any, every, each, much, little, no, some, 3.This is the best film that I have ever read. few 等修饰时 只用 that 的情况 4.We talked about the persons and things 3． 先行词有形容词最高级和序数词修饰时 that we remembered. 4． 先行词既指人又指物时 5.He is the only man that I want to see. 5． 先行词被 the only, the very 修饰时 6.Who is the man that is making a speech? 6． 句中已经有 who 或 which 时，为了避免重复时 1． 在非限制性定语从句中，只能用 which 指代物，用 He has a son, who has gone abroad for further study. who/whom 指人 只用 which, who, 2． 在由“介词+关系代词”引导的定语从句中，只能 I like the person to whom the teacher is talking. whom 的情况 用 which 指物，whom 指人。 3． 先行词本身是 that 时，关系词用 which, 先行词为 Those who respect others are usually respected by others. those, one, he 时多用 who。 III. as 与 which 的区别： 定语从句 区别 例句 限制性定 名词前有 such 和 the same 修饰时，关系代词用 as,不 He is not such a fool as he looks. Don’t read such books as you can’t understand. 语从句中 能用 which as 和 which 都可以指代前面整个主句。 如果有 “正如， They won the game, as we had expected. 非限制性 象”的含义，并可以放在主句前，也可以放在后面， They won the game, which we hadn’t expected. 定语从句 那么用 as；而 which 引导的从句只能放主句后，并无 As is well known, he is a famous film star in the 中 1980s. “正如”的意思。 IV. 限制性定语从句与非限制性定语从句的区别： 类别 语法意义及特征 例句 限制性定语从 对先行词起修饰限制作用，如果去掉，主句意思就不完整明 The accident happened at the time when 句 确，这种从句与主句的关系十分密切，写时不用逗号分开。 I left. 非限制性定语 对先行词作附加的说明， 与主句的关系不十分密切， 较松散。 His mother, whom he loved deeply, died
从句和主句之间用逗号分开， 相当于一个插入语， 不能用 that ten years ago. 引导，关系代词做宾语时也不能省略。
定语从句练习 1. The man ____ visited our school yesterday is from London. A. who B. which C. whom D. when 2. The woman ____ is talking to my mother is a friend of hers. A. whose B. who C. whom D. which 3. Because of my poor memory, all ____ you told me has been forgotten. A. that B. which C. what D. as 4. Do you remember those days ____ we spent along the seashore very happily? A. when B. where C. which D. who 5. Tom did not take away the camera because it was just the same camera ____ he lost last week. A. which B. that C. whom D. as 6. Those ____ want to go please sign their names here. A. whom B. which C. who D. when 7. Where is the man ____ I met this morning? A. when B. where C. which D. who 8. Who is the woman ____ is sweeping the floor over there? A. who B. / C. that D. when 9. The man ____ you talked just now is a worker. A. who B. whom C. to whom D. to who 10. The man ____ you are going to make friends is my father’s neighbour. A. with whom B. when C. to whom D. which 11. The doctor ____ is leaving for Africa next month. A. the nurse is talking to him B. whom the nurse is talking C. the nurse is talking to D. who the nurse is talking 12. The man ____ around our school is from America. A. which you showed B. you showed him C. you showed D. where you showed 13. He talked about a hero ____ no one had ever heard. A. of whom B. from whom C. about that D. who 14. In fact the Swede did not understand the three questions ____ were asked in French. A. where B. who C. in which D. which 15. Have you read the book ____ I lent to you? A. that B. whom C. when D. whose 16. Finally, the thief handed over everything ____ he had stolen to the police. A. that B. which C. whatever D. all 17. The foreign guests, ____ were government officials, were warmly welcomed at the airport. A. most of them B. most of that C. most of whom D. most of those 18. This is the very letter ____came last night. A. who B. which C. that D. as 19. I know only a little about this matter; you may ask ____ knows better than I. A. whoever B. whomever C. anyone D. the one 20. This is the school ____ we visited three days ago. A. where B. / C. when D. what 21. This is the factory ____ we worked a year ago. A. where B. that C. which D. on which 22. Nearby were two canoes ____ they had come to the island. A. which B. in which C. that D. / 23. Jack is pleased with ____ you have given him and all ____ you have told him. A. that, what B. what, that C. which, what D. that, which 24. Do you work near the building ____ colour is yellow? A. that B. which C. its D. whose 25. In the dark street, there wasn’t a single person ____ she could turn for help. A. whom B. who C. to whom D. form whom 26. Is this school ____ we visited three years ago? A. the one B. which C. that D. where 27. Is this the school ____ we visited three years ago? A. the one B. where C. in which D. / 28, How many students are there in your class ____ homes are in the country? A. whose B. who C. whom D. which 29. Alice received an invitation from her boss, ____ came as a surprise. A. it B. which C. that D. he 30. The train was crowded and I had to get into a carriage ____ already seven other people. A. when there were B. which there were C. that there were D. where there were 31. I live in the house ____ windows face south. A. which B. whose C. where D. in that 32. ---- What game is popular with them? ---- The ____ most is tennis. A. game they like it B. game they like C. best game they like D. best game they like it 33. They stayed with me three weeks, ____ they drank all the wine I had.
A. which B. which time C. during which time D. during which 34. The room ____ Mr White lives is not very large. A. that B. which C. where D. when 35. Don’t forget the day ____ you were received into the Youth League. A. when B. that C. at which D. where 36. I’ve finished writing the novel, ____ is to be published next month. A. that B. what C. which D. when 37. He returned home safe and sound after a fierce battle, ____ was unexpected. A. which B. as C. that D. it 38. ____ we is known to all, English is not very difficult to learn. A. What B. As C. That D. Which 39. The old man had three sons, all of ____ died during World War Ⅱ. A. whose B. that C. whom D. who 40. I have bought two pens, ____ write well. A. none of which B. neither of which C. both of which D. all of which 41. Do you know the reason ____ she has changed her mind? A. why B. which C. for that D. of which 42. He failed in the exam, ____ proves that he wasn’t working hard enough. A. which B. what C. it D. that 43. During the week ____ he tried to collect materials for his article. A. following B. followed C. to follow D. that followed 44. ____ was expected, he succeeded in the exam. A. It B. Which C. As D. That 45. He studied hard and later became a well-known writer, ____ his father expected. A. that was what B. what was that C. and which was D. which was what 46. We should read such books ____ will make us better and wiser. A. when B. as C. whose D. what 47. You must show my wife the same respect ____ you show me. A. when B. as C. whose D. what 48. He is absent ____ is often the case. A. what B. which C. who D. as 49. It is the first time ____ I have come to your city. A. that B. which C. what D. when 50. Who ____ has the same idea as it will do it in this way. A. who B. that C. whom D. which 51. I shall never forget those years ____ I lived in the country with the farmers, ____ has a great effect on my life. A. that, which B. when, which C. which, that D. when, who 52. This is the only book ____ I can find. A. that B. which C. it D. with which 53. I don’t like ____ you speak to her. A. the way B. the way in that C. the way which D. the way of which 54. That is one of those books that ____ worth reading. A. is B. are C. has D. have 55. This is the only one of the students whose handwriting ____ the best. A. is B. are C. has D. have 56. There was ____ to prevent the accident. A. something could do B. anything we could do C. nothing we couldn’t do D. nothing we could do 十．名词性从句 种类 作用 常用关联词 例句 Whether he will come or not doesn’t matter 在复合句中做主语，相当于名词，一般 much. 主语从句 置谓语之前，也可用 it 作形式主语，主 that, whether, if, as Whoever comes here will be welcome. 语从句放主句之后 if, as though, who, 在复合句中做表语，相当于名词，位于 表语从句 whose, which, how, It looks as if it is going to snow. 系动词之后 when, where, why, He asked me which team could win the game. 宾语从句 在复合句中做宾语，相当于名词 what, whatever, 放 在 名 词 之 后 (news, problem, idea, whoever, wherever You have no idea how worried we are. 同位语从 suggestion, advice, thought, hope, fact 等) The fact that he lied again greatly surprised us. 句 表明其具体内容 名词性从句可分为主语从句、宾语从句、表语从句和同位语从句。 【考点 1】名词性从句中引导词 that 与 what 的使用场合。 1． that 引导名词性从句时，不在从句中充当任何成分，只起连接作用；而 what 是连接代词，在从句中充当成分。 ① ______ made the school proud was _______ more than 90% of the students had been admitted to key universities. (2003 上海春季) A. What / because B. What / that C. That / what D. That / because 2．that 在主语从句、表语从句和同位语从句中不可省略, 但当有两个和两个以上的宾语从句并列时，第二个从句以下
的 that 不可省略。 如：She said (that) she had left school and that her parents would find her a job. ② Word comes ________ a group of Australian guests will come to visit our school next week. A. that B. which C. 不填 D. about which (2005 天津?2 月) 3．介词后的宾语从句常用 what，whether 引导，不用 that，which 引导。但在介词 besides，except，in 后可用 that 引导 宾语从句。在有 it 作先行词时，that 可用来引导介词后的宾语从句。 ③ The other day, my brother drove his car down the street at ____ I thought was a dangerous speed. A. as B. which C. what D. that (2004 上海春季) 【考点 2】名词性从句中引导词 whether 与 if 的用法区别。 引导及物动词或形容词后的宾语从句 可以互换的场合： He is not sure if / whether he can manage to do it. 当与 or not 分开使用时 He wondered if / whether we will attend the meeting or not. 只能用 whether 不能用 if 的场合：引导表语从句、同位语从句及位于句首的主语从句; 引导介词后的宾语从句（有时 可省略）;后面紧跟 or not 时; 后面直接跟动词不定式时 ④ _____ the flight to New York will be delayed is ____ I’m especially worried about. (2003 南京) A. If ; what B. Whether ; that C. When ; that D. Whether ; what 【考点 3】 在动词： 一坚持 （insist） 二命令 、 （order， command） 三建议 、 （suggest， advise， propose） 四要求 、 （demand， require，request，ask）后的宾语从句和这些动词的过去分词后的主语从句，以及这些动词的名词引出的表语从句和同 位语从句中，谓语部分常用（should）do 形式。 ⑤ I advised that he _____ to the hospital at once, but he insisted that he _____ quite well then. (2005 年山东?2 月) A. be sent; was feeling B. was sent; sent C. be sent; feel D. should be sent; should feel 【考点 4】名词性从句的语序只能是陈述句语序，宾语从句的时态应该与主句的谓语动词的时态保持一致。 ⑥ They are teachers and don’t realize ______ to start and run a company. (2004 黄冈) A. what takes it B. what they take C. what takes them D. what it takes 【考点 5】whoever，whichever，whatever，whenever，wherever 和 however 在引导名词性从句时不可与 no matter who / which / what/ when/ where / how 替换，因为后者只能引导让步主语从句。 ⑦ —— Have a nice trip! —— Thanks. I’ll telephone you from _____ I get to by tomorrow evening. (2004 广州) A. wherever B. every place C. whenever D. no matter where 练习 名词性从句 1. Do you see _____ I mean? A. that B./ C. how D. what 2. Tell me_____ is on your mind. A. that B. what C. which D. why 3. We must stick to _____ we have agreed on. A. what B. that C. / D. how 4. Let me see _____. A. that can I repair the radio B. whether -I can repair the radio C. I can repair the radio D. whether can I repair the radio 5. Keep in mind _____. A. that the teacher said B. what did the teacher say C. that did the teacher say D. what the teacher said 6. Could you advise me _____? A. which book should I read first B. what book should I read first C. that book 1 should read first D. which book I should read first 7. He was criticized for _____. A. he had done it B. what he had done C. what had he done D. that he had done it 8. Would you kindly tell me _____? A. how can I get to the Beijing Railway Station B. how I can get to the Beijing Railway Station C. where can I get to the Beijing Railway Station D. whether can I get to the Beijing Railway Station 9. Mrs. Smith was very much impressed by _____. A. what had she seen in China B. that she had seen in China C. what she had seen in China D. which had she seen in China 10. We took it for granted ___ A. that they were not coming B. that were they not coming C. they were coming not D. were they not coining 11. I really don\'t know _____ A. I should do next B. what should I do next C. what I should do next D. how I should do next 12. I\'m afraid _____.
A. the little girl will have to be operated on B. that will the little girl have to operate on C. the little girl will have to operate on D. that will the little girl have to be operated on 13. She walked up to _____ . A. where did I stand B. where I stood C. I stood there D. where I stood there 14. Can you tell me _____? A. who is that gentleman B. that gentleman is who C. who that gentleman is D. whom .is that gentleman 15. We\'ll give you _____. A. that do you need B. what do you need C. whatever you need D. whether do you need 16. They want us to know _____ to help us. A. what can they B. what they can C. how they can D. how can they 17. We must put _____ into practice. A. what we have learned B. that we have learned C. that have we learned D. what have we learned 18. Did she say anything about _____? A. that the work was to be done B. how was the work to be done C. that was the work to be done D. how the work was to be done 19. He was never satisfied with _____. A. what she had achieved B. had what she achieved C. she had achieved D. that she achieved 20. These photographs will show you _____. A. what does our village look like B. what our village looks like C. how does our village look like D. how our village looks like 21. Peter insisted _____ he pay the bill. A. on that B. what C. that D. on which 22. They urged _____ the library open during the vacation. A. when B. where C. why D. that 23. We wish we could have learned _____ when we were at high school. A. what you did B. that you had done C. that what you did D. what did you do 24.1 will describe to you _____ I saw when there. A. what B. that C. which D./ 25. From _____ I should say he is a good worker. A. what 1 know of him B. that I do know of him C. what do I know of him D. that do I know of him 26. I will give this dictionary to __ wants to have it. A. whomever B. anyone C. whoever D. someone 27._____ they will come here hasn\' t been decided yet. A. What B. That C. When D. Where 28. _____ was said here must be kept secret. A. Who B. The thing C. Whatever D. Where 29. It is still a question _____ we shall have our sports meet. A. if B. that C. what D. when 30. I\'m going anyway. _____ she will go is up to her to decide. A. If or not B. Whether or not C. If D. That 31. It is strange _____ she have left without saying a word. A. that B. what C. why D. how 32. It is very clear _____ our policy is a correct one. A. what B. that C. why D. where 33. _____ Mr Zhang said is quite right. A. That B. When C. What D. Whether 34. It has been decided _____ he will be sent there. A. if B. whether C. why D. that 35. It doesn\' t matter _____he\' s come back or not. A. if B. whether C. that D. when 36. It\'s a great pity _____ we won’t be able to finish the task on time. A. when B. that C. why D. where 37. It happened _____ I wasn\'t there that day. A. when B. why C. where D. that 38._____ you have done might do harm to other people. A. What B. That C. Which D. The things 39. _____ leaves the room last ought to turn oft the lights. A. Anyone B. The person C. Whoever D.Who 40._____ the 2000 Olympic Games won\'t be held in Beijing is known to all. A Whether B.If C Whenever D. That 41. _____ fails to see this will make a big mistake. A. That B. Whoever C. Whether D. Whether or not 42. __ we need more equipment is quite obvious. A. What B. Whether C. That D. Whatever 43. Has it been announced _____? A. when are the planes to take off B. that are the planes to take off C. where are the planes to take off D. when the planes are to take off 44. That is _____ we all support his idea. A. what B. why C. where D. when 45. That’s _____ we should do. A. that B. what C. how D. why 46. _____ is troubling me is _____ I don’t understand _____ he said A. What; that; what B. What; what; what C. That; that; what D. Why; that; which
47. Things were not _____ they seemed to be. A. when B. why C. that D. what 48. That’s _____ I want to say. A. all what B. what C. all which D. what that 49. That’s _____ . A. where our differences lie B. our differences lie there C. where do our differences lie D. that where our differences lie 50. That is _____ . A. where lived he there B. where did he live C. where he lived D. that where he lived 51. The questions is _____. A. whether is it worth doing B. that if it is worth doing C. whether it is worth doing D. if it is worth doing 52. Water will continue to be _____ it is today next in importance to oxygen. A. how B. which C. what D. as 53. That\'s_____. A. how did I become a teacher B. how I became a teacher C. how a teacher I became D. that I became a teacher 54. They are just _____. A. that what shall I have B. what shall I have C. that I shall have what D. what I shall have 55. It looked ____. A. as if it was going to rain B. that as if it was going to rain C. as if was it going to rain D. as if that it was going to rain 56. That\'s_____. A. how she did it B. that how did she do it. C. how did she do it D. what she did it 57. That is _____ we decided to put the discussion off. A. where B. which C. that D. why 58. That’s _____ I lived when I was ten years old. A. where B. at which C. there where D. when 59. My suggestion is _____ we should send a few comrades to help them. A. if B. that C. when that D. that where 60. The idea _____ all people are selfish is wrong. A. what B. that C. why D. if 十一。状语从句 种类
注意点 主句表示将来意义时， 从句须用一般现在时； while when, whenever, while, as, before, after, until, till, by the 引导的从句中动词一般是延续性的；until 用在肯 时间状语 time, as soon as, hardly…when, no sooner…than, the 定句中主句动词是延续性的，而否定句中主句动 moment, the minute, immediately, directly, instantly 词为短暂性的。 where, wherever 地点状语 because 语气最强，since 较弱，表示大家都明了的 原因状语 because, as, since, now that 原因，as 又次之。 条件状语 if, unless, once, in case, as long as, on condition that 从句中动词时态不可用将来时，常用一般时代替 so that 和 in order that 后常接 may, should, could, 目的状语 so that, in order that, for fear that would 等情态动词 结果状语 so…that, such…that 比较状语 than, as…as, not so/as…as, the more…the more 方式状语 as if, as though, as as if 和 as though 引导的从句一般用虚拟语气。 though, although, even if, even though, as, no matter as 在让步状语从句中常用倒装形式；although 和 what, whatever, no matter who, whoever, no matter 让步状语 though 用正常语序，可和 yet 连用，但不可和 but which, whichever, no matter how, however, no matter 连用 when, whenever 【考点 1】when，while 与 as 的用法 均可表示“当??的时候” ，但有区别： when 既可接表示动作性或短暂性的动词， 也可接表示状态的动词， 不强调主从句谓语动作同时发生。 有时还有 “这时” 的意思。while 常接持续性的动词，强调主从句谓语动作同时发生，常用进行时。有时还有对比意义，意为“然而” 。 as 强调同时发生或伴随进行。常用一般现在时或过去时，意为“一边??一边??” 。有时还有“随着”含义。 ① I do every single bit of housework ________ my husband Bob just does the dishes now and then. A. since B. while C. when D. as (2004 广西) 【考点 2】 “一??就??”几种表达法
once，as soon as，the moment / minute，immediately / directly / instantly 引导的从句常用一般现在时或过去时。 hardly / scarcely ? when?和 no sooner ? than ?结构中， 前句常用过去完成式 （常用部分倒装形式） 后句用过去式。 ， On doing sth.，each / every / the first / the last + time 后也可直接接从句，一起作时间状语。 ② — Did you remember to give Mary the money you owed her? — Yes. I gave it to her _____ I saw her. (2004 北京西城) A. while B. the moment C. suddenly D. once 【考点 3】because，as，since 与 for 的用法比较 because：表示直接的原因或理由。用于回答 Why 的问题。because 与 so 不能同时并列使用。 since：表示对方已知的，无须加以说明的既成事实的理由。译为“既然” 。 as：表示十分明显的原因，一般说明因果关系。 for：常出现在并列句中，不说明主句行为发生的直接原因，只提供一些补充说明，且不可位于句首。 ③ _______ you are leaving tomorrow, we can eat dinner together tonight. (2004 江苏启东) A. For B. Since C. When D. while 【考点 4】no matter 后可接 who，whom，whose，which，what，when，where，how，whether 引导的让步主语从句可用 whoever，whomever，whenever，whichever，whatever，wherever， however 替换，但在 ever 引导其它从句时不可用 no matter 引导。 ④ _______, I have to put it away and focus my attention on study this week. (2004 上海春季) A. However the study is amusing B. No matter amusing the story is C. However amusing the story is D. No matter how the story is amusing 【考点 5】until / till 的用法 ⑤ It was __________ back home after the experiment. (2004 湖北) A. not until midnight did he go B. until midnight that he didn’t go C. not until midnight that he went D. until midnight when he didn’t go ⑥ ——Was his father very strict with him when he was at school? —— Yes. He had never praised him ______ he became one of the top students in the grade. A. after B. unless C. until D. when (2003 北京春季) 【考点 6】引导让步主语从句应注意等几个问题 1． although / though ， if / though 引导 ( 注意 although / though 引导从句时， 由 even 主句不能用 but， 但可用 yet 或 still) 。 2．由 whether ? or (not) 引导 3．由 though 或 as 引导的倒装句中。 4．though 用作副词，可位于句末，并用逗号分开。 ⑦ —— Dad, I’ve finished my assignment. —— Good, and _______ you play or watch TV, you mustn’t disturb me. (2003 上海) A. whenever B. whether C. whatever D. no matter 【考点 7】before 用法 注意 before 在下列句型中的使用 It will be + 一段时间 + before + 从句; It won’t be long before + 从句 before 一词在不同的句型中就有不同的意思， “在??之前” 如： 、 “过了??才” 、 “没??就” 、 “不知不觉就??” 等。 ⑧ It will be a long time _____ Mr. Black ______ back abroad. (2002 湖北八校) A. before; comes B. since; has come C. before; will come D. after; will come 【考点 8】where 引导的定语从句与 where 引导的地点状语从句的区别 ⑨ ——I have learned that a large new building will be set up ______ the Twin Towers once stood. —— So have I. But the American people haven’t yet got over the shock of September 11. A. where B. when C. which D. that (2004 江苏南通) 【考点 9】so that 可引导目的状语从句和结果状语从句 ⑩ Roses need special care ________ they can live through winter. (2004 全国卷) A. because B. so that C. even if D. as 【考点 10】状语从句的省略用法 1．当 when，while，if，unless 引导状语从句时，如果主从句的主语一致，且谓语部分由 be 动词构成（或者从句中有 it is?）时，可省略主语和 be 动词（或省略 it is） 。 2．在虚拟条件状语从句中，如果从句中有 had，should，were 时，可省略 if，用“had，should，were + 主语”形式。 3． 以 as，than 引导的比较状语从句可全部或部分省去。
4．as if 和 as though 从句可用省略形式，后接不定式、分词、形容词和介词。 ⑾ The research is so designed that once ____ nothing can be done to change it. (NMET2002) A. begins B. having begun C. beginning D. begun ⑿ Generally speaking, _____ according to the directions, the drug has no side effect. (2003 上海) A. when taking B. when taken C. when to take D. when to be taken 状语从句练习 1. I’ll let you know ____ he comes back. A. before B. because C. as soon as D. although 2. She will sing a song ____ she is asked. A. if B. unless C. for D. since 3. We will work ____ we are needed. A. whenever B. because C. since D. wherever 4. Read it aloud _____ the class can hear you. A. so that B. if C. when D. although 5._____ you go, don\'t forget your people. A. Whenever B. However C. Wherever D. Whichever 6. It is about ten years _____ I met you last. A. since B. for C. when D. as 7. They will never succeed, _____ hard they try. A. because B. however C. when D. since 8. _____ still half drunk, he made his way home. A. When B. Because C. Though D. As 9. _____ she was very tired, she went on working. A. As B. Although C. Even D. In spite of 10. Busy _____ he was, he tried his best to help you. A. as B. when C. since D. for 11. I learned a little Russian _____ I was at middle school. A. though B. although C. as if D. when 12. _____ we got to the station, the train had left already. A. If B. Unless C. Since D. When 13. _____ the rain stops, we\' 11 set off for the station. A. Before B. Unless C. As soon as D. Though 14. She was _____ tired _____ she could not move an inch. A. so, that B. such, that C. very, that D. so, as 15. We didn’t go home _____ we finished the work. A. since B. until C. because D. though 16. I\'ll stay here _____ everyone else comes back. A. even if B. as though C. because D. until 17. Although it\'s raining, _____ are still working in the field. A. they B. but they C. and they D. so they 18. Speak to him slowly _____ he may understand you better. A. since B. so that C. for D. because 19. You\'ll miss the train ______ you hurry up. A. unless B. as C. if D. until 20. When you read the book, you\' d better make a mark _____ you have any questions. A. at which B. at where C. the place D. where 21. We\'d better hurry ______ it is getting dark. A. and B. but C. as D. unless 22. I didn\' t manage to do it _____ you had explained how. A. until B. unless C. when D. before 23._____ he comes, we won\'t be able to go. A. Without B. Unless C. Except D. Even 24. I hurried _____ I wouldn\'t be late for class. A. since B. so that C. as if D. unless 25. _____ I catch a cold, I have pain in my back. A. Every time B. Though C. Even D. Where 26. What\'s the matter _____ they still haven\'t answered the telegram? A. when B. that C. though D. however 27. Bring it nearer _____ I may see it better. A. although B. even though C. so that D. since 28. You may arrive in Beijing early _____ you mind taking the night train. A. that B. though C. unless D. if 29. Helen listened carefully _____ she might discover exactly what she needed. A. in that B. in order that C. in case D. even though 30. More people will eat out in restaurants _____ they do today. A. than B. when C. while D. as 31._____ hard she tries, she can hardly avoid making mistakes in her homework. A. Much B. However C. As D. Although 32. Poor _____ it may be, there is no place like home, _____ you may go. A. as; wherever B. though; whenever C. in spite of; when D. that; wherever 33. The child was __ immediately after supper. A. enough tired to go to bed B. too tired to go to bed C. so tired that he went to bed D. very tired, he went to bed 34. The history of nursing __ the history of man. A. as old as B. is old than C. that is as old as D. is as old as 35. _____ born in Chicago, the author was famous for his stories about New York. A. Since B. Once C. When D. Although
36._____ we stood at the top of the building, the people below were hardly visible. A. As B. Although C. Unless D. In spite of 37. Scarcely was George Washington in his teens _____ his father died. A. than B. as C. while D. when 38. _____ David goes, he is welcome. A. Whichever B. However C. Wherever D. Whatever 39. The house stood _____ there had been a rock. A. which B. at which C. when D. where 40. Small _____ it is, the pen is a most useful tool. A. because B. so C. if D. as 41. After the new technique was introduced, the factory produced _____ tractors in 1988 as the year before. A. as twice many B. as many twice C. twice as many D. twice many as 42. The piano in the other shop will be _____, but _____. A. cheaper; not as better B. more cheap; not as better C. cheaper; not as good D. more cheap; not as good 43. John plays football _____, if not better than, David. A. as well B. as well as C. so well D. so well as 44. Although he is considered a great writer, A. his works are not widely read B. but his works are not widely read C. however his works are not widely read D. still his works are not widely read 45. ___ the day went on, the weather got worse. A. With B. Since C. While D. As 46.—What was the party like? —Wonderful. It\' s years _____ I enjoyed myself so much. A. after B. when C. before D. since 47. It was not _____ she took off her dark glasses _____ I realized she was a famous film star. A. when; that B. until; that C. until; when D. when; then 48. If we work with a strong will, we can overcome any difficulty, _____ great it is. A. what B. how C. however D. whatever 49. After the war, a new school building was put up _____ there had once been a theatre.
十二。倒装句 种类 倒装条件 here, there, up, down, in, out, off, away 等副词开头的句子 完全 表示强调 倒装 表示地点的介词短语作状语位于句首 强调表语，置于句首，或为保持句子平衡 never, hardly, scarcely, seldom, little, not until, not 等表示否 定意义的副词放于句首 only 和修饰的状语放于句首 not only…but also 连接并列的句子，前倒后不倒 neither…nor…连接并列的句子，前后都倒装 部分 so…that, such…that 中的so 或such 及修饰的成分放于句 倒装 首时前倒后不倒 as 引导的让步状语 so, neither 或 nor 表示前句内容也适用于另外的人或事。 用于表示祝愿的祈使句中 省略 if 的虚拟条件 十三。虚拟语气
例句 Out rushed the children. Under the tree stood two tables and four chairs. Present at the meeting were 1,000 students. Hardly did I know what had happened. Only then did he realized the importance of English. Not only does he know French, but also he is expert at it. Neither do I know it, nor do I care about it. So busy is he that he can not go on a holiday. Child as he is, he has learned a lot. He can play the piano. So can i. May you be in good health! Were I you, I would not do it in this way.
例句 If he were here, he would help 与现在事实相反 us. If I had been free, I would If 引导的条 与过去事实相反 have visited you. 件从句 If it should rain tomorrow, we 与将来事实相反 would not go camping. They are talking as if they had as if 引导的状语从句中动词用过去式或过去完成式 been friends for years. 其它状语从 句 in order that / so that 引导的状语从句中动词用 can / could / may / might / Turn on the light so that we can see it clearly. would 等+动词原形 He suggested that we not demand, suggest, order, insist 后接的从句中动词为 should+动词原形 change our mind. 宾语从句 wish 后的从句中分别用过去式，过去完成式和 should/would+动词原形表 I wish I could be a pop singer. 示与现在，过去和将来情况相反 在 It is necessary / important / strange that…, It is suggested / demanded / It is strange that such a person 主语从句 should be our friends. ordered / requested that… 等从句中，谓语动词用 should+动词原形 It’s high time that we left. It is time that…句型中动词用过去式或 should+动词原形 I would rather you stayed at would rather 所接的从句中动词用过去式或者过去完成式 其它句型中 home now. If only our dream had come If only 句型中动词常用过去式或者过去完成式，表示强烈的愿望 true! 十四。重要句型 1. It was not until midnight that he finished his task. 2. Not until he came back from abroad was I able to see him again. 3. The harder you work, the greater progress you will make. 4. He walked around the house, gun in hand. 5. May you be in good health! 6. Wish you a pleasant journey back home! 7. The professor was a humorous man with big nose and deep-set eyes. 8. What surprised me most was his imagination and patience. 9. He lay on the grass, with his eyes looking at the sky and his hands under his head. 10. Sitting under the tree are Mr. Green and his first teacher. 11. On the wall hang two pictures of famous scientists. 12. Looking back upon those past years, he couldn’t help feeling very proud. 13. No sooner(Hardly) had he arrived at the theatre than(when) the play started. 14. Young as he is, he has learned advanced mathematics. 15. How I regret the hours wasted in the woods and fields! 16. There stands a beautiful vase in the corner of the room. 17. Ten miles north of the town lies a paper factory. 18. There goes the bell. 19. Nowhere has the world ever seen such a bird as here. 20. It is no use crying for help. 21. If only I had been your student in the middle school! 22. It is believed that such a thing will not happen again. 23. Only when he explained did I realize the reason for this. 24. ―He works particularly hard.‖ “So he does, and so do you.” 25. Not only Alice but also Jane and Mary are tired of having one examination after another. 26. Such was Albert Einstein, a simple person of great achievements.
用法 从句动词：过去式（be 用 were） 主句动词：should/would/could/might+动词原形 从句动词：had+过去分词 主句动词：should/would/could/might+have+过去分词 从句动词： 过去式 / should+动词原形 / were+不定式 主句动词：should/would/could/might+动词原形
倒装结构随堂练 1. ____ smoking, he would not have got cancer in the lung. A. Was he given up B. Had he given up C. Did he give up D. If he gave up 2.So funny ______that everyone burst into laughing. A. she looked B. was she looking C. did she look D. had she looked 3.Not once in these years ____ the prices of these products. A. we changed B. have we changed C. did we change D. we have changed 4. ―Why can’t I smoke? ―At no time ______ in the meeting-room.‖ A. does smoking is permitted B. is smoking permitted C. smoking is permitted D. permits smoking 5.In such a hurry ______ his office that he forgot to lock the door. A. did he leave B. he left C. he had left D. has he left 6.Only after _____ reached eighteen ______ join the army. A. have you ; you can B. have you ; can you C. you have ; you can D. you have ; can you 7.Nowhere else in the world ______ more friendly people than in China. A. you will find B. can you be able to find C. you may have found D. can you find 8.Not until 1998 ______ back to his hometown. A. came he B. that he came C. did he come D. that he did come 9.Hardly ______ when it started raining. A. the game had begun B. the game began C. did the game begin D. had the game begun 10.So little ______ agree on the plan that they could not settle the differences. A. did they B. do they C. they did D. they did not 11.Only after I read the text over again ____ its main idea. A. that I knew B. did I know C. I could know D. I did know 12.Little ______ when I took the trip where it would lead me. A. have I known B. had I known C. do I know D. did I know 13. ______ did the students realize they were mistaken. A. It was until B. It was not until then C. Not until then D. Not until 14.Only by reading a lot ______ progress in English. A. you can make B. can you make C. will you able to make D. can make you 15.Seldom ______ time to go shopping these days. A. did I have B. do I have C. have I D. I have 高考英语情态动词和虚拟语气经典试题（A） 1. I was really anxious about you. You _______ home without a word. A. mustn’t leave B. shouldn’t have left C. couldn’t have left D. needn’t leave 2. — Write to me when you get home. — __________. A. I must B. I should C. I will D. I can 3. You can’t imagine that a well –behaved gentleman ______ be so rude to a lady. A. might B. need C. should D. would 4. Mr. Bush is on time for everything. How ____ it be that he was late for the opening ceremony ? A. can B. should C. may D. must 5. He hesitated for a moment before kicking the ball, otherwise he ______ a goal. A. had scored B. scored C. would score D. would have scored 6. — I hear you’re got a set of valuable Australian coins. ______ I have a look ? — Yes, certainly. A. Do B. May C. Will D. Should 7. — Is John coming by train ? — He should, but he ______ not. He likes driving his car. A. must B. can C. need D. may 8. It has been announced that candidates ______ remain in their seats until all the papers have been collected. A. can B. will C. may D. shall 9. It is hard for me to imagine what I would be doing today if I _______ in love at the age of seven, with the Melinda Cox Library in my hometown. A. wouldn’t have fallen B. had not fallen C. should fall D. were to fall
10. — I heard they went skating in the mountains last winter. — It _____ true because there was little snow there. A. may not be B. won’t be C. couldn’t D. mustn’t be 11. Oh, I’m not feeling well in the stomach. I ______ so much fried chicken just now. A. shouldn’t eat B. mustn’t have eaten C. shouldn’t have eaten D. mustn’t eat 12. How I wish every family ______ a large house with a beautiful garden ! A. has B. had C. will have D. had had 13. Naturally, after I told her what to do, my daughter _____ go and do the opposite ! A. may B. can C. must D. should 14. — The room is so dirty. _____ we clean it ? — Of course. A. Will B. Shall C. Would D. Do 15. A left –luggage office is a place where bags _____ be left for a short time, especially at a railway station. A. should B. can C. must D. will 课后练习 倒装常考题 1.Never in my wildest dreams ______ these people are living in such poor conditions. (安徽卷) A. I could imagine B. could I imagine C. I couldn’t imagine D. couldn’t I imagine 2. Never before _____ in greater need of modern public transport than it is today. (上海卷) A. has this city been B. this city has been C. was this city D. this city was 3. Little ______ that we were watching his every move, so he seemed to be going his own way in this business. A. he realized B. he didn’t realize C. didn’t he realize D. did he realize 4. They have a good knowledge of English but little _____ they know about German A. have B. did C. had D. do 5. Seldom ______ any apology when mistakes are made. A. we receive B. do we receive C. we received D. did we receive 6. Seldom ______ an article that was so full of lies. A. have I read B. I have read C. had I read D. I had read 7.Hardly ______ Edinburgh than they were ordered to return to London. A. had they reached B. they had reached C. have the reache D. they have reached 8. —Did Linda see the traffic accident? —No, no sooner _______ than it happened. A. had she gone B. she had gone C. has she gone D. she has gone 9. No sooner ______ mowing the lawn than it started raining A. have I started B. I have started C. had I started D. I had started 10.Maybe you have been to many countries, but nowhere else _____such a beautiful place. (2004 辽宁卷) A. can you find B. you could find C. you can find D. could you find 11.Not until I began to work _____ how much time I had wasted. A. didn't I realize B. did I realize C. I didn't realize D. I realized 12. — My room gets very cold at night. — ______. (江苏卷) A. So is mine B. So mine is C. So does mine D. So mine does 13. —It’s burning hot today, isn’t it? —Yes. ______ yesterday. (福建卷) A. So was it B. So it was C. So it is D. So is it 14.If Joe’s wife won’t go to the party, ______. A. he will either B. neither will he C. he neither will D. either he will
1．Football is a very interesting game , is played all over the world． A．that B．which C．it D．who 2．The last place we visited was the Great Wall． A．which B．that C．where D．it 3 He talked happily about the men and books interested him greatly in the school． A．which B．who C．it D．that 4．His uncle works in a factory bicycles are made． A．that B．which C．where D．there
5．I often thought of my childhood , I lived on a farm． A．which B．where C．when D．who 6．Jack’s dog became ill and died , made him very lonely ． A．as B．which C．that D．this 7．I wonder how much ． A．cost these shoes B．do these shoes cost C．these shoes cost D．are these shoes cost 8．Computers can only give out has been stored in them . A．that B．which C．what D．anything 9．My friend wouldn’t tell me his new car ． A．how much he paid for B．how much did he pay C．he paid how much for D．did he pay how much 10．It doesn’t matter I rest or not ． A．if B．whether C．that D．when 11．The trouble is we are short of tools ． A．what B．that C．how D．which 12． I can’t understand is he wants to change his mind． A．That , that B．Which , what C．What , what D．What, why 13．The thought he might fail in the exam worried him ． A．which B．that C．when D．/ 14．The fact he is an orphan is well known． A．what B．that C．which D．/ 15． I will accept the gift is none of your business． A．If B．Whether C．What D．Which 16． I have will be yours sooner or later ． A．No matter what B．No matter whatever C．Whatever D．That 17. Is this the factory __________ you visited the other day? A. that B. where C. in which D. the one 18. Is this factory __________ some foreign friends visited last Friday? A. that B. where C. which D. the one 19. Is this the factory __________ he worked ten years ago? A. that B. where C. which D. the one 20. The wolves hid themselves in the places __________ couldn’t be found. A. that B. where C. in which D. in that 21. I have bought the same dress __________ she is wearing. A. as B. that C. which D. what 22. He failed in the examination, __________ made his father very angry. A. which B. it C. that D. what 23. We’re talking about the piano and the pianist __________ were in the concert we attended last night. A. which B. whom C. who D. that 24. It was in 1969 __________ the American astronaut succeeded in landing on the moon. A. that B. which C. when D. in which 25. He has two sons, __________ work as chemists. A. two of whom B. both of whom C. both of which D. all of whom 26. I have many books, some of __________ are on chemistry. A. them B. that C. which D. those 27. I don’t like __________ you speak to her. A. the way B. the way in that C. the way which D. the way of which 28.______ surprised me most was the news ______ our team won. A. That; that B. What; which C. What; that D. That; which 29.This is the only book ______ I want to read. A. which B. that C. what D. as 30、I was about to leave my house the phone rang. A．while B． when C．as D．after 31、They did not stop fighting there was no enemy left. A．until B．after C．when D．since 32、It is five days we came here. A．when B．before C．as D．since 33、It was not long he got to know it. A．when B．before C．after D．Until 34、I was reading a novel he was watching TV. A．when B．while C．before D．as 35、Put the medicine you can easily get it.
A．so that B．where C．which D．there 36、We will go the Party wants us to go. A．wherever B．there C．to the place D．which 37、 there is a will there is a way. A．When B．Where C．Whether D．How 38. After three days’ waiting, there was no doubt in the mother’s mind _______ the police could find her lost child. A. how B. that C. where D. whether 39. Everything depends on _____ they will support you about it. A. if B. which C. whether D. that 40. After ten years, she changed a lot and looked different from___ she used to be. A. that B. whom C. what D. who 41、 you go , you should bear the motherland in your mind. A．Where B．Wherever C．Whatever D．However 42、It was he was ill that he was absent yesterday. A．because B．as C．since D．now that 43、―Why can’t you do it now?‖― I’m too busy.‖ A．Since B．As C．Because D．For 44、 everybody is here, Let’s begin our meeting. A．Now that B．Because C．For D．When 45、They worked hard they finished their work ahead of time. A．so B．so that C．such D．so as to 46、He was weak he couldn’t stand up. A．such, that B．so, that C．very, that D．so, as to 47、The house cost we didn’t buy it. A．so much money that B．so many money that C．such much money that D．such many money that 48、It is all of us can do it. A．so easy exercise that B．such easy an exercise C．such easy exercise D．so easy an exercise that 49、They stopped at Tianjing they might visit the TV tower. A．so B．because C．so that D．in order 50、 it was late , she went on working. A．Though B．Because C．Since D．Whether 51、 the pain was bad, he did not complain. A．Although, but B．Though, but C．Though, yet D．Even, still 52、 telephones, tell him I’m out. A．No matter whoever B．Who C．Whoever D．Anyone 53、I’ll tell him about it I see him. A．as soon as B．so soon as C．while D．as 54、I had hardly sat down the telephone rang A．than B．when C．as D．after 55 You will succeed in the end ____ you give up halfway. A. even if B. as though C. as long as D. unless 56. _____ I suggest, he always disagrees. A. However B. Whatever C. Whichever D. Whoever 57. _____ she goes, there are crowds of people waiting to see her. A. Wherever B. However C. Whichever D. Whoever 58. I thought she was the very girl that I should marry _______ I met her. A. first time B. for the first time C. the first time D. by the first time 59. Don’t play by the river _______ you fall in and drown! A. in case B. so that C. in order that D. when 60. ________ the grandparents love the children, they are strict with them. A. While B. As C. Since D. Because 十五 简 单 句 【要点提示】 1、感叹句：感叹句有两个基本句式句式： 1）What + N. phrase + subject + be / v. ! 这里的名词短语有以下三种可能：a、 a / an + adj. + 名词单数 b、adj. + 名词复数 c、adj. + 不可数名词 e.g. What a lovely boy he is! What sweet flowers they are! What cold weather it is! 2) How + adj. + the + N.(单数、复数、不可数)+ subject + be / link-v. e.g. How lovely the boy is! How sweet the flowers are! How could the weather is! How smooth the silk feels! 另：上两种感叹句可以相互转换
有时, 在上下文明确的情况下，可以省略 How 后面的形容词。 e.g. How (fast / well)the students work! How well / beautifully)she sings! 2、反意疑问句： 1) 反意疑问句一般遵循：前面肯定，反意部分否定、前面否定反意部分肯定的原则。 e.g. He likes playing football, doesn’t he? You don’t watch TV in the evening, do you? 注：a、当前否后肯时，要注意它的答局的意思。 e.g. She doesn’t speak English, does she? Yes, she does.(不，她讲英语的) No, she doesn’t. (是的，不讲) 2）祈使句的反意部分用 won’t you?/ shan’t we? 或 will you?/ shall we? 但常用 will you?/ shall we? e.g Lend me a hand, will you? Let us pass through the room, will you? Don’t make any noise, will you? Let’s play tennis now, shall we? 3）含有否定意思的副词：hardly、no、not、never、seldom、little、scarcely 等，属于准否定词，用于句中时，该句 即为否定句。 e.g. He hardly goes home on Sundays, does he? The little boy seldom tells lies, does he? 但是像 unfair、 useless、 impossible、 dislike 等词， 虽然也有否定意思， 但由于它们是在一个词前加前缀 dis- / im- / un- 等 或在词后加后缀 -less 构成的，不属于准否定词。当这些词用于句中时，该句并不是否定句，即：反意部分仍用否定 式。 e.g. You dislike the way he speaks, don’t you? It is impossible to finish the work in three hours, isn’t it? 4) must 表示推测时，反意部分用 must 后面的动词的相应助动词形式。 e.g. He must know both English and French, doesn’t he? She must have know the answer to the question, hasn’t she? They must have visited the farm last week, didn’t they? 注意：a、Let me 引起的祈使句，反意部分用 will you? / won’t you? / may I。 b、当陈述部分主语是：—body 或—one 构成的不定代词时，反意部分的主语用 he 或 they；是—thing 时，用 it。 c、I am ?.. 的反意部分用 aren’t I? 3、双宾语：有些英语动词可以接双宾语，句式为： subject + vt. + sb.(间接宾语)+ sth.（直接宾语） 英语中，能接双宾 语的常用动词有：ask、promise、cause、play、leave、make、do、bring、buy、reach、order、teach、offer、serve、show、 tell、wish?. 。 e.g. Can I ask you a question, Sir? She made me a model ship for my birthday. 注：带双宾语的句子可以被改为 subject + vt. + sth(直接宾语)+ 介词 + sb. 的形式。 其中的介词，常用的有：to、 for、 of ?.。归纳如下： hand owe pay post promise read return send show teach… sth. to sb. boil buy draw choose earn find gather order save sing … sth. for sb. ask request demand sth. of / from sb. 另还有：play a joke / trick on sb ; play a game with / against sb. e.g. Excuse me, you demand too much from / of me. May I ask a question of you? 4、句型：Subject + link-v. + n. / adj. 在该句型中的系动词有特定含义，有“人称、数、时态”等形式变化。常用的有： 显得：look , appear , seem 变得：become , come , fall , get , go , grow , run , turn 持续是：continue , keep , remain , stand , stay 听（闻、尝、摸）起来：sound, smell, taste, feel 证明是：prove e.g. His words proved right. The dish smells wonderful. 5、有些动词不表示动作，而表示事物的特性，用主动形式表示被动含义，这类动词有： wash, write, sell, drive, feel, hang?.等。 e.g. Some pictures are hanging on the wall. This kind of car drive smooth and fast. The pen writes well so sells well.
【要点点拨】 1. It’s the first time that???.(从句中用现在完成时) It was for the first time that???(强调句，对状语 for the first time 进行强调)
It’s (high) time that??..(从句中用过去时或 should do) 2. It’s the same with sb. / So it is with sb.表示某人也如此（用于前句中既有肯定又有否定或两个不同类的谓语动词） 3.?be about to do / be doing??when??.正要做/正在做??就在那时??. 3. A is twice / three times as +原级+as B; A is twice / three times the n. of B.; A is twice / three times +比较级+than B 5. It’s a waste of time / money doing / to do… ?.It’s no use / good doing……… It’s possible / probable / (un) likely that………. It makes great / no sense to do??做某事很有/没意义 6. There’s no use / good doing…….; There’s no sense / point (in) doing…… There is no need for sth. / to do…….; There is (no) possibility that????（同位语从句） 7.The+比较级??.., the+比较级???越??.., 越??. 9(注意：前半句为从句，用一般现在时代替将来时) ； 8.It seems / appears ( to sb. ) that sb?.在某人看来某人?.= Sb. seems / appears to be / to do / to be doing / to have done…….. It seems / looks as if??.好象/似乎?.. 9.It (so) happened that sb. ??..某人碰巧??..= Sb. happened to be / to do / to be doing / to have done….. 10.It is said / thought / believed / hoped / supposed ….that sb…=Sb. is said to be / to do / to be doing / to have done?.(注意： 这种 句型里如带动词 hope 则不能变成简单句，因为无 hope sb. to do 结构) 12??.such??.that??.如此??.以致于（引导结果状语从句） ??.such??..as??像??..的这种??(as 为关系代词，引导定语从句，在从句里充当主、宾、表) 13. Do you mind if I do sth.? / Would you mind if I did sth.? 14. The chance is that??../ (The )Chances are that???.很可能??. 15.Check / Make sure / See to it / See that??..(从句中常用一般现在时) 确信/务必??.. 16. depend on it that??..取决于 see to it that??.负责/设法做到??. 注意：除了 except / but / in 等介词可以直接接 that 从句，其它介词后必须用 it 做形式宾语； 17．It is / was +介词短语/ 从句/ 名词/代词等+that??? How / When / Where / Why is / was it that………..? 注意：此句型为强调句，当被强调的为表示人的词时，还可用 who 连接；强调主语时，从句后的谓语动词应与前面的 主语保持一致；注意与定语从句的区别） 18.How is it that??..（这几个句型都表示“怎么会??.?” “怎么发生的？” How come+从句？ ） How does / did sth. come about? ( How did it come about that…….?) 如:How come you are late again? 19.There seems / appears / happens to be / must be / can’t be / is (are, was, were) said to be / is (are, was, were) thought to be…. 表示 “.似乎有/碰巧有/一定有/不可能有/ 据说有/认为有??..” 介词（如 of ）there being want / wish / expect there to be 要/希望/期待有??.. adj. / adv. enough for there to be??.足够??.会有??. 注意： being / there to be 为 there be 的非谓语形式； is said / thought that there is / are??=There is / was / are / were said there It (thought) to be??. 如： I have never dream of there being such a good chance for me. It won’t be cold enough for there to be a frost tonight. 20. 疑问词+插入语+陈述语序？ Who do you think he’ll have attend the meeting? 21. But for+n. / pron., sb. / sth. would (not) have done?..要不是??., 某人早就??(表示虚拟语气)=If it had not been for?..,??./ If there had not been ??., ??.. 22. It won(’t) be long be fore +从句（从句中用一般现在时）不久/很久就要??. It was (not) long before+从句（从句中用一般过去时）不久/很久才??.. 23.Those who????.(从句及主句中谓语动词用复数形式). Anyone who????= Whoever???..(从句及主句中谓语动词用单数形式) 24??.主句（一般现在时或过去时）?...when 从句?.(might / should do 或 might / should have done) 表示”对比”,意思 为 “本该??(可)而却”,主句中为陈述语气,从句里为虚拟语气,如: Why are you here when you should be in school?你本该上学的怎么在这儿? He stopped trying when he might have succeeded .本该已成功了他却停止努力了. 25. There is ./ Sb. have no doubt that???(同位语从句,that 不可省略)
There is / Sb. have some doubt whether?..(同位语从句不可用 if); Sb. doubt if / whether….; Sb. don’t doubt that… 26. immediately / directly / instantly / the moment +从句; on / upon + n. / doing No sooner had sb. done than ??.(过去时); Hardly had sb. done when??..(过去时) 注意：这几个结构都表示“一??.就” ； 27.every time / each time / the last time / the first time / next time +从句（名词性短语引导一个时间状语从句） anywhere / everywhere +从句（相当于 wherever 引导的地点状语从句） You can go anywhere you like. Next time you come, please bring your son along. 28.If only / I wish +从句(用过去类时态) 表示虚拟语气, “要是??.就好了” “但愿??就好了!” 29.Considering + n. 或 pron. 或 that 从句 / Seeing that???.考虑到/鉴于??. Given + n. / pron 作状语,表示 “在有??的情况下” “如果有” “假定”,有时也表示”考虑到” Seeing (that) he refused to help us, there is no reason why we should help him now. Given good health, I hope to finish the work this year. Given their inexperience / that they are inexperienced, they’ve done a good job. 30.There was a time when??.曾经有那么一度???. 31.other than 与 no, not, none 等否定词连用,表示肯定意思,如: It was none other than Mr. Smith.这正是 Smith 先生. 32. Not until…….did / do/ does / will sb. do…… ; It was / is not until ……that sb……… 33.It’s (un) like sb. to do / to have done??做某事很像某人/ 做某事可不像某人 34.It remains to be seen Wh--words ??..是否??.还有待于看.(不用 that, if 作连接词) 35.It only remains for sb. to do??剩下的只是要某人做某事. We’ve got everything ready. It only remains for you to come to dinner. 36.One moment??., and now???刚才一会儿还在做??而现在却??.. 37.Not all / both / everyone???表示部分否定 38. Such is / are??..这(些)就是??.(谓语动词单复数由后面名词决定) 39. I’d rather (not) do / have done??我宁愿?.. I’d rather +从句（从句中用过去时或过去完成时） 40. It’s important / necessary / strange / surprising?.+that??(用陈述语气或 should do) 41. I like / hate / appreciate it that / when 等从句 (it 表示后面从句的这种情况) I appreciate it if you will give me a hand. 42. By the time +从句（一般现在时/过去时） ，主句（将来完成时/过去完成时） 43???., as is often the case with sb. / as is usual with sb.(as 引导非限制性定语从句) 44 in case / lest / for fear that??.(从句中用陈述语气或 should do) 45.While 置于句首可表示 As long as 或 Although While there is life there is hope. While I admit his good points, I can see his bad ones. 46. can not ( never) ??too +adj. (adv. ) / adj. (adv.) + enough “越??越好” “非常” too + adj. ( anxious / eager / willing / ready / glad 等)+to do?.表示肯定意思 I can’t thank you enough.我非常感激你. He was too glad to see his father.=He was very glad to see his father. 47. not / neve 等表示否定的词与比较级连用表示最高级，如： -----Do you agree with his suggestion? -------I can’t agree more. 48. What if??..要是??.怎么办？ What if he doesn’t come tomorrow? 49. more??..than 与其??.不如??.. He is more nervous than frightened. 50. It is / has been +一段时间+since 从句(从句中如为延续性动词,则实际表示的意思相反) It is two years since he drank.他不喝酒已两年了.
易错常考的日常交际用语 1. 问候和应答 A: How are you doing? B: Fine, thank you. / Just so-so. A: Please remember me to your parents. B: Sure, I will.
2. 介绍和应答 A: This is Mr./ Mrs./ Miss/ Ms Brown. B: Hello!/ How do you do ?/ Nice to meet you! 3. 告别 See you (later)! / Good night!( cf. Good evening!)/ Nice seeing you. 4. 感谢和应答 A: Many thanks!/ Thanks for your help!/ I appreciate your help! B: That’s all right (OK). / You are welcome./ Don’t mention it./ It’s a pleasure./ My pleasure. (cf. With pleasure. 用于回答对方的求助、邀请) 5. 道歉和应答 A: I’ m sorry. B: That’s all right (OK.). / It doesn’t matter./ Never mind./ That’s nothing./ Forget it. 6. 邀请和应答 A: Would you like to...? B: Yes, I'd love to. / Yes, with pleasure./ Yes, it's very kind ( nice )of you. / I'd love to, but I have other plans. 7. 请求允许和应答 A: Could I smoke here? / I wonder if I could smoke here. B: Yes (Certainly). / Yes, do please. / Of course you may. / That's OK (all right). / I'm sorry, but it is not allowed / You'd better not. A: Do you mind if I open the window? B: Not at all./ Of course not./ Certainly not./ I’m sorry, but you’d better not. 8. 祝愿、祝贺和应答 A: Good luck! / Best wishes to you. / Have a nice / good time. / Congratulations! / Have a good journey.! B: Thank you. A: Happy New Year! / Merry Christmas! / Happy birthday to you. B: The same to you. 9. 提供帮助和应答 A: Can I help you? / Would you like some help? B: Thanks. That would be nice / Yes, please. / No, thank you all (just) the same. / No, thank you anyway./ That's very kind of you, but I can manage it myself. A: What can I do for you? B: I’d like to go to the No. 3 Middle School. 10. 约会 A: Shall we meet at 4:30 ? / Let’s make it 4:00. B: All right. See you then. 11. 打电话 A: Hello! May I speak to Tom? B: Hold on, please. A: Is that Mary speaking? B: She isn't here right now. Can I take a message for you? 12.就餐 A: Would you like some more meat? / Help yourself to some more meat. B: Thank you. I've had enough. / Just a little, please. 13. 看病 A: What’s the matter? / What seems to be the trouble? B: I don’t feel like eating./ I've got a cough. / I feel terrible （bad）. / I don't feel well. / I've got a pain here. / It hurts here. 14. 购物 A: What can I do for you? / May (Can I )help you? B: I'd like to buy a dictionary. A: How about this one? B: That's fine. I'll take it. 15. 问路和应答 A: Excuse me. Where's the washroom? / Excuse me, can you tell me the way to the post office? B: Go down this street. Turn right / left at the second crossing. Sorry, I don’t know. I am a stranger here. 16. 谈论天气 A: What's the weather like today? / How's the weather in Beijing? B: It's fine / cloudy / windy / rainy, etc. / It's rather warm (cold / hot). today, isn't it? 17. 处理交际中的障碍 Pardon.! / I beg your pardon. / Please say that again( more slowly.) What do you mean by…. ? / I'm sorry I can't follow you. 18. 提醒注意 You can’t ( mustn’t) smoke here. / No smoking!/ Wet paint!/ Mind your head (step) / Take care!/ Be careful!/ Look out! 19. 同意和不同意 Certainly / Sure / Of course. / Yes, please. / That's a good idea. / I agree
No, I don't think so. / I'm afraid not. / I really can't agree with you. / No way (决不,没门) 20 时间或日期和应答 A: What time is it now? / What's the time? B: It's about three. A: What day is it today? B: It's Wednesday. A: Excuse me. Have you got the time? B: Yes, it's six twenty. 十八 动词搭配 6) We decided to bring the matter ___ at the next meeting. 1. add to 增加，增进 7) The wind brought _______ a lot of trees last night. add … to 把…加进… 8) Next month they will bring ________ a new edition add up 相加 of the book. add up to 总计，所有这一切说明 1) I don't think these facts will ________ anything. ( down, in, back, about, up, up, down, out ) 2) Fifty new books have been ________ the library. 4. call on 号召，拜访（某人） 3) The music _________ our enjoyment of the film. call at 拜访、参观（某地） 4) You must have made a mistake when you _______ the call for 去叫某人, 要求, 需要 bill ________. call up 使回忆起, 征召入伍 ( add up to, added to, add to, added…up ) call in 召集，请某人来 2. break away from 打破，脱离，挣脱，改掉 call out 大喊，高叫 break down 出毛病，身体(精神)衰弱，分解，拆开 call off 取消，不举行 1) Doctors are often called _____ in the middle of the war. break off 暂停，中断 2) Please wait for me at home. I'll call _______ you at break in 强行进入，插话 your house at seven tonight. break into 闯入 3) The trains calls _______ several big cities between break into pieces 成为碎片 Beijing and Guangzhou. break out 爆发 4) He called her name __________, but she didn't answer. break up 捣碎，驱散，瓦解，学期结束，拆散 5) The sports meet was called ____ on account of the rain. break through 突破 1) The criminal managed to break _______ ______ the ( in, for, at, out, off) police and ran into the woods. 5. come about 发生，出现 2) When he heard the news, he broke _______ and cried. come down 下跌，落，降，传下来 3) Don't break ________ while others are speaking. come in 进来 4) Why don't you break ________ for a few minutes and come into (sight/being/existence/use/notice/effect) have some coffee? come on 来临/ 快点 5) When does school break ________? come out 出版，结果是 6) After harvest we break _________ the soil with a tool come along 一道来，赶快 pulled by two oxen. come to 达到 (an end/an agreement/a stop)苏醒，合计， ( away from, down, in, off, up, up ) 总共是 3. bring up 抚养，呕吐，提出 come over 走过来 bring about 造成 come up 发芽，走近 bring out 拿出，出版 come across 偶然碰到 bring in 引入，引进，挣钱 come back 回想起 bring back 使回想起 come from 来自，源自 1) I come _________ the book I lent you last month. bring down 使下降，使倒下 1) The shopkeeper brought his price _________ to only 2) How did it come _________ that you both got lost? I five dollars. thought you had a map. 2) The school has brought _________ new foreign 3) It suddenly came _________ to me where I had seen teachers to teach oral English. the boy before. 3) The song brought ___________ happy memories of 4) Come __________ now, or else we shall be late. our schooldays. 5) He came __________ me like a tiger. 4) Do you know what brought ___________ this 6) The price of petrol has come _________ since the misunderstanding? beginning of this year. 5) The kind old man agreed to bring __________ the 7) The word came __________ use many years ago. young orphan. 8) When the examination result came _________, he had
already got a job. 9)The bill came __________ over a thousand dollars. 10) I sowed the seeds over a month ago, but they haven't come __________ yet. ( for, about, back, on, at, down, into, out, to, up ) 6. cut across 抄近路 cut down 砍倒，削减 cut off 切断，割掉，断绝关系 cut up 连根拔除，切碎 through 剪断，凿穿 cut out 删（省）掉，戒掉 cut in 插嘴 1) Don't cut ___ this tree. It will be very shady in summer. 2) You must cut ________ the number of cigarettes you smoke, or it will cause illness. 3) We decided to cut _________ the moor（旷野） to the village. 4) Cutting the tree ____ means cutting the tree into pieces. 5) The electricity was cut ___________ when the lady refused to pay the bill. 6) We were having a pleasant conversation when Tom cut __________. （down, down, across, up, off, in ） 7. die of (disease/hunger/grief/old age)死于（疾病，饥饿， 寒冷，情感原因） die from 死于（意外事故、情形） die away 渐渐消逝 die out 绝种 die down(炉火)渐熄 die off 逐一死去 8. fall behind 落后 fall over one's feet 跌跤 fall down 掉下，跌倒 fall back 撤退，后退 1) Babies often fall _____ when they are learning to walk. 2) Our team seems to have fallen __________ the others. 3) As soon as the enemies fell __________, the people returned to their village. 4) She fell__________ the bench and had her leg broken. （down, behind, back, over ） 9. go in for 从事，喜爱，参加 go through 通过，经受 go over 复习，检查 go up（价格）上涨，建造起来 go after 追捕，追赶 go against 违反 go ahead 先行，开始吧，问吧，说吧 go away 离开 go by 时间过去 go down 下沉，降低， （日、月）西沉
go on(with)继续进行 go with 相配，陪同 go without 没有，缺少 go out 外出，熄灭 go all out 全力以赴 go off 爆炸，进行，变坏，断电，停止供应 go back on 背约，食言 go beyond 超出 1) Many new factories have gone __ in the past few years. 2) Rents have gone __________ greatly recently. 3) Many years have gone ___________ since we first met. 4) Let's continue our journey until the sun goes _______. 5) His actions went ___________ the will of the people, 6) I can't do it, for it goes ___________ my duty. 7) Over 100 students went ____________ this entrance examination. 8) The bomb went ____________ and killed ten people. 9) The buyer went ___________ the car carefully before reaching a decision. 10) This tie doesn't go ___________ my blue shirt. 11) If you think you can solve the problem, go ______. 12) Many students went __________ playing basketball. (up, up, by, down, against, beyond, through, off, over, with, ahead, in for ) 10. get down 下来，记下，使沮丧 get down to 致力于，专心于 get on 进展，进步，穿上，上车 get off 脱下,下车 get in 收集，插（话） get away 逃跑，逃脱，去休假 get over 忘记，越过，克服，从疾病中恢复 get along with 进展，相处 get up 起床 get through 打通电话，完成，通过 get round 消息传开 get close to sth. 接近，几乎 get into (trouble) get to (know) get back 取回，收回 get out 1) She spoke so fast that I couldn't get ____ what he said. 2) We will find ways to get _________ difficulties. 3) The story has got __________, and everyone knows about it. 4) When I get _________ with the report, I'll go to the cinema. 5) After a delicious meal the two men got __________ to business. 6) Don't always get __________ a word when others are speaking. 7) It took me a long time to get ___________ such an
unpleasant experience. (down, over, round, through, down, in, over) 11. give away 赠送，泄露，出卖 give out 发出，疲劳，分发，公布 give off 发出（光、热、气体） give in (to sb.) 屈服 give up 放弃，让（座位） 1) His accent at last gave him __________. 2) The liquid gave ________ a strong smell. 3) The headmaster gave ___________ the names of the prize-winners. 4) The soldiers gave _________ the town to the enemies. 5) Who will help me to give the books ___________? 6) Don't believe in those who give his friends ________. 7) After a long walk, my strength gave ____________. (away, off, out, up, out, away, out) 12. hand in 交上，提交 hand out 分发 hand down 流传，遗传 13. hang about 闲逛 hang up 挂电话 14. hold back 阻止，隐瞒 hold up 举起，使停顿 hold on 别挂电话，等，坚持 hold out 持续，坚持，伸出 hold down 控制，镇压 1) I'm sure he is holding something _________. 2) She managed to hold ______ her emotion until her guests had left. Then she cried. 3) Tell him to hold ________ a moment. I'll come soon. 4) Our food supply won't hold _________ for more than a few days. 5) The train was held ________ as a result of the floods. 6) These measures helped to hold ___________ the city's population. 7) Hold ___________ your left arm, please. (back, back, on, out, up, down, up) 15. keep up (courage, English, spirits)保持， keep up with 跟上 keep off (grass)不接近，离开 keep away from 避开，不接近，离…远远的 keep out of keep to (rules, promise)坚持，遵守 keep on 继续，坚持下来 keep back 阻止，留下，隐瞒，扣下 keep from 克制，阻止 1) The angry lady told the strangers to keep ________ from her. 2) I can hardly keep ________ my tears after hearing his words. 3) Only pride kept her __________ bursting into tears.
4) I can scarcely keep __________ asking him what he has done. 5) "Don't touch me," screamed the woman, "Keep __________!" 6) Keep _________ until you succeed. 7) Keep _________ your courage, and you'll succeed in the end. 8) The thick coat can keep the cold ___________. 9) Always try to keep ___________ the rules when you play a game. 10) I can't keep ________ with everything you're doing. (away, back, from, from, off, on, up, out, to, up) 16. knock at/on 敲 knock into 撞到某人身上 knock down 撞倒 knock out of 把…敲出 knock over 撞倒 knock off 停止工作，休息 1) The boxer soon knocked his opponent _________. 2) The office stuff knocks _________ at six every day. 3) Try knocking __________ the window and see if there is anyone indoors. 4) He was so absorbed in his book that he knocked __________ the car parked there. (down, off, on, into) 17. leave for 离开前往 leave out 删去，遗漏 leave behind 遗留,忘记拿走 leave to 留给，遗嘱赠于 leave over 遗留，剩下，延期 1) "Whose name has been left __________?" demanded the teacher. 2) When he died, he left all his property _____ his niece. 3) He suddenly realized that he had left his umbrella ___________. 4) Don't leave this matter _________ until tomorrow. 5) Leave some meat ___________ for tomorrow. 6) Those are questions left _________ by history. (out, to, behind, over, over, over) 18. look up 查找，向上看 look through 翻阅，浏览 look on 旁观 look on…as 看作 look into 调查 look after/ at / for 照顾/看/寻找 look out(for)当心 look about / around/round 四下查看 look down upon 瞧不起 look back upon 回忆，回顾 look ab. up and down 仔细打量某人
look ab in the face/eyes 直视某人 1) I spent two hours looking ______ the students' papers. 2)Look _______! There is a big hole in front. 3) He took part in the game, and the rest of us just looked ______ and cheered for him. 4) The old man looked _____ upon the days of his youth. 5) She was so snobbish（势利）that she looked __________ upon all his neighbours. 6) The police promised to look __________ the case as soon as possible. 7) He looked __________ but saw nobody, and he listened but hear nothing. (through, out, on, back, down, into, about/around/round) 19. make up 编造，配制，打扮，组成 make up for 弥补 make into / of / from 制成 make out 弄懂，发现，看出,填写，开列（清单） make for 走向，驶往，促使 1) Can you make this length of cloth __________ a suit? 2) I asked the driver if he was making ___________ London? 3) My father made __________ a check for me to buy the camera. 4) We must make the loss _________ next week./ He tried hard to make ________ for the damage he had done. 5) He made __________ a story, which I found hard to believe. 6) Someone is coming, but I can't make ___________ who it is. (into, for, out, up/up, up, out) 20. pass away 去世 pass by 经过 pass down(on)…to 传给 pass through 经历 pass over 漠视，忽视 1) The old clock has been passed ________ to me from my grandfather's grandfather. 2) The man passed ___________ last week in peace. 3) We are passing ____________ difficult times. 4) The secretary passed ___________ the details in the first part of his report. (down, away, through, over) 21. pay back 还钱，报复 pay for 付钱，为…受到惩罚，因…得到报应 pay off 还清 1) How much did you pay __________ the dictionary? 2) You should pay _________ the money you borrowed from me. 3) I'll pay him ____________ for all his crimes(罪行) against me.
4) Some day, you'll pay __________ what you have done today. 5) Has she pay ____________ the debt yet? （for, back, back, for, off） 22. pick up 拾起，获得(information)，接人，站起，收听， 自然习得(language /knowledge)，恢复重获(pick up health) pick out 挑选，辨认，看出 1) I picked the information __________ while waiting in the queue. 2) My friend has arranged to pick me _________ at 6:00. 3) The patient has picked _________ health during the last two weeks. 4) She picked _______ the most expensive pair of shoes. 5) I can't pick John ___________ in the crowd. 6) Can I pick __________ VOA with this short-wave radio? 7) He fell down suddenly, but picked himself ___________ quickly. (up, up, up, out, out, up, up) pick cotton/flower/leaves/words 选词 23. put up 搭起，张贴，举起，安装，投宿，安排住下 put up with 忍受 put out 伸出，扑灭 put off 推迟 put into 放进，翻译 put away 放好，存钱 put down 记下，平息 put on 穿戴，上映，增加(put on weight/speed) put forward 提出，提前 put through 接通电话 put aside 放到一边 put back 放回 1) He put _________ half his wage every week. 2) The government soon put __________ the revolt（暴 乱）. 3) Put your watch __________. It's slow. 4) He put __________ his hand for me to shake. 5). Please put me __________ to Extension（分机）2. 6) We put ___________ for night at the village inn. 7) He is very proud, and he often put _________ airs. （摆 架子） 8) We had a telephone put _____________ in our office. 9) I can't put __________ with your laziness. (away, down, forward, out, through, up, on, up, up) 24. pull down 拆掉， 推翻 pull on 匆匆穿上 / off 脱 pull in 进站 pull out 取出,(火车)离站 pull down 往下拉,拆毁 pull over 驶到一边 pull through 恢复健康,渡过难关,脱离险境 pull up （使）停住 1) The train slowly pulled __________ and disappeared
in the distance. 2) All the old houses here have now been pulled ______, and new ones are to be built. 3) The car pulled _________ when I blew the horn. 4) The doctor thinks the man will pull __________. 5) The driver pulled ________ at the traffic lights. (out, down, over, through, up) 25. push over 推倒，刮倒 push ahead(on, forward)继续前进，坚持下去 push through 排除困难办好谋事，努力设法通过，挤 过 1) We've decided to push __________ with our plan to build a new road 2) Many trees were pushed __________ in the hurricane. 3) They were determined to push the new rules ________ at any cost.. 4) Take care not to push the baby _________. 5) They pushed ___________ the crowd and at last reached us. (on, over, through, over, through ) 26. run across 偶然碰到 run after 追逐，追捕 run away 逃跑 run for 竞选 run into 偶然碰到（困难）遇见（人） ，相撞 run out of 用完 1) If you drive so fast, you'll run _________ someone some day. 2) I ran __________ a friend of mine in the exhibition. 3) Our water has run __________. Can you fill up some more bottles? 4) Why do you always run __________ adventure? 5) He didn't want to run ___________ president that year. 6) In that way you will only run __________ difficulties. ( into, across/into, out, after, for, into) 27. see off 送行 see through 看透，识破 see to 照料，照管 28. send for 派人去请 send off 送行 send out 发出（光亮）等 send up 发射 29. set up 建立 set off 出发，触发，引起 set out 动身，着手(to do)，陈述 set about 开始着手(doing) set to work(n.)开始做 set back 拨回，使推迟 1) I shall set my watch ___________ by five minutes. 2) We set __________ reading the text aloud immediately the bell rang. 3) We set _________ at daybreak yesterday and we've
been travelling ever since then. 4) I set __________ to advise him not to drink. 5) What were the reasons he set ___________ in his report? 6) The president set __________ a special group of soldiers to guard him. 7) The unpopular law set _________ a series of protests. （抗议） (back, about, off/out, out, out, up, off) 30. take off 脱掉，起飞 take on 呈现 雇佣 take away 拿走 take in 吸收，领会 take up 从事，占用（时间空间） take down 记录，取下 take back 收回 take for 误认为 take along 随身带 take over 接管 take out 1) I take _________ all I said about his dishonesty. 2) He went to the shelf and took __________ a book of poems. 3) At first I took him _________ a doctor. 4) I can see that most of you have taken ________ everything that the teacher taught. 5) Bill has now taken __________ his father's business. 6) My job takes __________ most of my time. 7) The boss took ____________ twenty people for his new company. (back, down, for, in, over, up, on) take charge of 负责, take sth. for granted 想当然, take hold of 抓住, take pride in 以… ……为自豪, take the place of, 代替 take turns to do 轮流做, take office 就职 31. think of 想起 think of…as 把…看作 think out 想出 think up 想出 think about 考虑 think over 仔细考虑 think well of sb. 对某人看法好 32. turn off / on 打开 turn over 翻身，反复考虑，翻（书页） ，翻转 turn out 证明为，结果，制造成品 turn to 转向，求助 turn down 调低，拒绝 turn against 变得敌视，反对 turn away 打发走，驱逐，转过脸去 turn back 返回，转回去 turn round 转过身来 turn up 向上翻，露面，出现，音量调大 turn in 上缴 turn upside down 把倒置，弄得乱七八糟 1) The child turned __________ its mother for comfort. 2) Turn ___________ and let me see your face. 3) However much he turned the problem ________ in mind, he could find no satisfactory solution. 4) The English evening party turned _________ a great success.
5) The sight of the accident was too much for her to bear, and she turned _______. 6) The football stadium was full, and many people had to be turned __________. 7) The army turned him ___________ on account of (因 为) his poor health. 8) She turned the whole house ___________ in her search for her missing purse. 9) Where did your purse turn ____________? I found it in the snow. 10) The villagers suddenly turned __________ the foreigners who lived nearby. 11) The factory turns ____________ 2000 new cars last year. (to, round, over, out, away, away, down, upside down, up, against, out)
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