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北师大高一英语必修1-unit1 讲义及练习


第 1 讲必修一 unit1 核心词汇、 短语、 句型 ( 1)

重点句型: Of course, I couldn't live this lifestyle without a good wife. 当然,没有一个好妻子,我是不可能过上这种生活的。 ? 基本用法 without a good wife 属于含蓄虚拟条件句。此处表达与现在事实相反,

因此句子使用 “I couldn't +动词原形”结构。 without+n./pron. 若表示虚拟意义,主句的形式是: 1. 主语+would/could+do/be (表示与现在或将来事实相反) 2. 主语+would/could+ have done/been (表示与过去事实相反) Without electricity, human life would be quite different today. 没有电,今天人类生活将大不相同。 Without your help, I couldn't have made such great progress then. 那时没有你的帮助,我不可能取得如此大的进步。 It takes me less than fifteen minutes to wash, get changed, have breakfast, leave home and get on a bus. 不到十五分钟,我就完成洗漱,换衣,吃早餐,离家,上公交。 ? 基本用法 1. It takes sb. time to do sth. 是固定句型,意思是”做某事花费某人多少时间;某人花多少 时间做成某事“。 It takes more than one day to make a hero. 英雄不是一日成就的。 It took him a period of 45 minutes to work out the math problem. 他花了 45 分钟的时间才解出那道数学题。 2. get changed 换衣服 get done 有两种含义,一是表示被动,二是表示某件事意想不到地,突然地或偶然地发 生。 此结构中的 get 具有与 be 相同的作用。 Some glasses got broken when we were moving. 我们搬家的时候,一些玻璃杯被打碎了。 You'll soon get used to the climate here. 你很快会习惯这儿的气候的。 My fingers got caught in the door. 我的手指被门夹了。 I am always the first person to get to the office. 我总是第一个到办公室。 ? 基本用法
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句中不定式短语 to get to the office 作定语,修饰 the first person,与被修饰词构成主谓关 系。当名词前 有序数词时,常用不定式作定语。如: They were the last guests to arrive that day. 那天,他们是最后到达的客人。 注:中心词被序数词,最高级或 no,all,any 等词限定时,其后常跟不定式作定语。 That's what people call the underground in London. 那就是人们所称的伦敦地下铁路系统。 ? 基本用法 1. 本句为主从复合句。 what 引导表语从句,在从句中充当宾语。what 引导表语从句在 从句中一般 充当主语,宾语,表语等成分。如: He has become what he wanted to be ten years ago. 他已经成为了他 10 年前想成为的。 Fame and personal gain is what they’re after. 他们追求的是名利。 That is not what made her mad. 那不是让她发疯的原因。 2. 句子的主语是代词 that,指代前句出现的 the tube。 ? 知识拓展 what 除了引导表语从句外,还可以引导其他的名词性从句(主语从句,宾语从句,同位 语从句) 。 what 引导名词性从句的五种用法: 1. 表示“?的东西或事情” : They’ve done what they can to help her. 他们已经尽力帮助了她。 What Mary is is the secretary. 玛丽的职务是秘书。 2. 表示“?的人或的样子” : He is no longer what he was. 他已经不是以前的那个样子。 This city is no longer what it was ten years ago. 这座城市已经不是十年前的样子了。 3. 表示“?的数量或数目” : Our income is now double what it was ten years ago. 我们现在的收入是 10 年前的两倍。 4. 表示“?的时间” : After what seemed like hours he came out with a bitter smile. 似乎过了几个小时他才苦笑着出来。 5. 表示“?的地方” : In 1492, Columbus reached what is now called America. 1492 年哥伦布到达了现在所称的美洲大陆。 ? 出题建议 搜索相关题目时,输入关键词“what” 。
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Usually, it's so crowded that i can't find anywhere to sit. 通常地铁都非常拥挤,我找不到地方坐。 ? 基本用法 1. 本句为主从复合句。So?that 引导结果状语从句;so...that 是英语中常用的一种句型。 so+adj./adv.+that+其他,意为:如此...以致... He was so fat that he couldn't get through the door. 他胖得无法通过这扇门。 He got up so late that he didn't catch the early bus. 他起得太晚了,以致于没有赶上早班公交车。 2. crowded adj 拥挤的,挤满的, be crowded with... 意为:充满..., 满是... The town was crowded with Christmas shoppers. 城镇里挤满了圣诞节购物的人。 He jumped on the crowded bus. 他跳上了拥挤的公共汽车。 3. anywhere adv. 无论何处 If we want to go anywhere in August, we'd better book it now. 如果我们想八月份去什么地方,我们最好现在先订位。 ? 知识拓展 相关单词 crowd n. 人群,一伙人 v. 拥挤,挤满;挤进;聚集 a (large)crowd of “大量,一大群,许多,大批...” They crowded around the table to get their food. 他们围着桌子领取食物。 She lost her son in the crowd. 她在人群中看不见她儿子了。 I was very surprised to suddenly find myself on the floor, in the dark, with a crowd of people surrounding me. 当我突然发现自己躺在地板上,在黑暗里,一群人围着我的时候,非常吃惊。 I work for a French company so I think studying French will help me in my job. 我在为一家法国公司工作,所以我认为学习法语对我的工作有帮助。 ? 基本用法 这是一个并列句,so 是并列连词,链接两个分句。 第二个分句是主从复合句。I think 后 面跟了一个宾语 从句,省略了引导词 that,宾语从句的主语是动名词短语 studying French。 We like to visit nice, quiet places far away from the city and go walking where there are no shops, crowds or the tube. 我们喜欢去那些远离城市,美丽安静的地方,喜欢在没有商店、人群、地铁的地方 散步。 ? 基本用法 1. far away from the city 为形容词作后置定语,修饰 places。 2. 此外,本句为主从复合句,where 引导的从句为地点状语从句。如: Where there is a will, there is a way. 有志者事竟成。 We should put the medicine where the children can't reach it.
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我们应该把药放在孩子够不到的地方。 We don't have the same work hours that office workers in the city have. 我们没有和在城市办公室工作的人们一样的工作时间。 ? 基本用法 本句为主从复合句。that 引导定语从句,先行词为 work hours, 在从句中充当宾语。 ? 知识拓展 as 除了代替整个句子,也可以代替主句中一个特定的词。as 在它引导的定语从句(限制 性或非限制性) 中可以充当主语, 宾语和表语; 在这种用法中它经常和 such, so, the same 等词搭配使用; 且当先行词 中有 such, so, the same 等词修饰时,关系代词通常必须用 as。例如: I never heard such stories as he tells. 我从未听过他讲的这类故事。 (as 在定语从句中作宾语,先行词是 such stories.) The place doesn't look the same as it was before liberation. 这个地方看上一去和解放前大不一样了。 ( as 在定语从句中作表语, 先行词是 the same) 注意: 先行词中有 the same 修饰时,定语从句也可用 that 引导,但意思上有区别,as 表示与此 同类; that 表示 就是那一个,同物。例如: Have you bought the same book as I referred to yesterday? 你有没有买我昨天说的那本书啊?( as 在定语从句中作宾语,先行词是 book) Have you brought the same book that I gave you yesterday? 你有没有把我昨天给你的那本书带来啊?(that 在定语从句中作宾语,先行词是 book。 ) 体会:本句中所指的书是同一本,上句中指的是同一类书,而并不就是那一本。 ? 出题建议 搜索相关题目时,输入关键词“the same” 。 We do jobs when they need to be done and that could be early in the morning or late at night. 什么时间需要工作我们就工作,可能在一大早,也可能在半夜。 ? 基本用法 1. need to be done=need doing 需要被做... The clothes need to be washed.=The clothes need washing. 衣服需要洗了。 注意:当 need, want, require, worth(形容词)后面接 doing 可以表示被动。 Your hair wants cutting. 你的头发该理了。 The floor requires washing. 地板需要冲洗。 The book is worth reading. 这本书值得一读。 2. 代词 that 常用来表示刚刚提到过的事,或代表前面所说的情况。 We see him when he comes to town, but that isn't often. 他进城的时候我们可以见到他,但并不常见。 I have to make sure they are free of sickness.
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我必须保证它们不生病。 ? 基本用法 1. 词句为主从复合句,they are free of sickness 为宾语从句,省略了引导词 that。 2. make sure (that...)/ make sure of /about 保证,确保;弄清楚..., 如: I only want to make sure that this is my row. 我只是想确认一下这是不是我的那排位子。 We and our friends will make sure of that. 我们和我们的朋友要确保这一点。 You need to make sure about the record first. If no controversy, please sign your name here. 你先确认一下笔录,如果没有异议的话,就请在这签字。 3. be free of /from 没有...; 摆脱...; 免于...的 Something may appear to be free of charge, but there may be a hidden cost. 有的东西看似不要钱,但可能会有隐藏成本。 He has been free from poverty since he graduated. 从毕业起,他就摆脱了贫困。 I’m glad to be free of that boring job. 我很高兴能摆脱那烦人的工作。 Unfortunately, my wife is's as fond of them as I am. 不幸的是,我妻子不像我那样喜欢雪茄。 ? 基本用法 1. be fond of 喜欢 2. as...as “ 像...一样 ” ,为比较状语从句,I am 后省略了 fond of them。原级比较的否 定结构是:A+谓语动 词否定形式+as/so+形副原级+as+B,表示 A 不像 B 那么...;A 没 B 那么... 如: This house is not so/as big as that one. 这间房子不像/没那间房子那么大。 三、重点语法 一般现在时 ? 用法 1.表客观真理,科学事实,格言及其它不受时间限制的客观存在。 The earth moves around the sun. A rolling stone gathers no moss. ([谚]流水不腐。 ) 2.表经常习惯性动作。 Father doesn't smoke. He always sleeps with his windows open. 3.表现在的行为或状态。 Someone’s at the door. What’s the matter with you? 4.表主语所具备的特点,特征或能力。 Tom speaks good English. 5. 常用于时间、条件、让步状语从句,表将来,即经常说到的主将从现。 If it is fine tomorrow,we’ll go to the countryside. We’ll go out for a walk as soon as the rain stops. 6. 用于根据规定或时间表预计要发生的动作, 只限于 go, come, leave,start, stay,begin,
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close, open 等动词。 The train leaves at 7∶30 this evening. The term starts on 23rd August. 现在进行时 ? 用法 be doing 用以体现现在(或现阶段)正在发生或进行的动作。 1. 表说话的时刻正在发生或进行的动作。 He is watching TV now. 2. 表目前一段时间内正在进行的动作,说话时动作未必正在进行。 Mr. Green is writing a novel these days. 3. 与频度副词、连词 always,continually,forever, constantly,all the time 等连用,带 有感情色彩,多 半表示说话人不满情绪、惊讶或赞赏等感情色彩。 a. She’s always borrowing money and forgetting to pay me back. b. He is always thinking of others. 4. 用于 go,come,leave,start,arrive,return 等以及 die,marry 等等动词中,表示将 来发生的动作。 a. He is coming to see you tomorrow. b. She is leaving for London soon. 5. 用于动词 get, grow, become, turn, begin, go 等表渐变。 a. The leaves are turning red. b. It’s getting warmer and warmer. 注:不用进行时态的动词 1. 表示知道或了解的动词: believe, doubt, forget, image, know, remember, realize, suppose, understand. 2. 表示 “看起来” “看上去”的动词: appear, resemble,seem 3. 表示喜爱或不喜爱的动词: hate, like, love, prefer 4. 表示感官的动词: hear, see, smell, taste 5.表示构成或来源的动词: be, come from, contain, include 6. 表示拥有的动词: belong to, need, own, possess, want, wish. 一般现在时和现在进行时的区别 ? 基本用法 1. 概念不同 2. 在构成方式上不同 3. 时间状语不同 4. 感情色彩不同 5. 用语范围不同 6. 时间范围不同 ? 用法

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1. 掌握第一课重点单词,短语及句式。 2. 了解时态,一般时进行时的基本概念

练习题:
Ⅰ.单项填空 1.—How’s your tour around the North Lake?Is it beautiful? —It ________ be,but it is now heavily polluted. A.will B.would C.should D.must 2.The train________ arrive at 11∶30,but was an hour late. A.was about to B.was likely to C.was supposed to D.was certain to 3.Progress so far has been very good.________,we are sure that the project will be completed on time. A.However B.Otherwise C.Therefore D.Besides 4.During the war,he________ much pain. A.is suffered B.suffered C.was suffered D.was suffered from 5.I would keep my________ from that dog,if I were you—it will bite. A.space B.distance C.length D.reach 6.The old lady came in,________ herself with a walking stick. A.raising B.supporting C.lifting D.rising 7.Ladies and gentlemen,please switch________ your mobile phones!The plane is taking off. A.over B.on C.to D.off 8.—Would you like me________ the radio a bit? —No,it’s all right.I’m used to________ with the radio________. A.to turn up;work;on B.to turn down;working;off C.turning up;working;off D.to turn down;working;on 9.After studying in a medical college for five years,Jane________ her job as a doctor in the countryside. A.set out B.took over C.took up D.set up 10.—Four dollars a pair?I think it’s a bit too much. —If you buy three pairs,the price for each will________ to three fifty. A.come down B.take down C.turn over D.go over 11.When day broke,we found ourselves________ on the shore. A.lying B.lain C.lay D.to lie 12.—Have you finished your homework?
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—Yes.________? A.How about you B.How come C.How so D.How about it 13.—John!Is this bag yours? —Yes.It is the same bag________ I lost yesterday.Where did you find it? A.which B.as C.that D.so 14.________ about the economic crisis that he decided to look for more information about it. A.So curious he was B.So curious was he C.Such curious he was D.Such curious was he 15.Does___s_____ matter whether he can finish the job on time? A.this B.that C.he D.it A 二.阅读下面短文,掌握其大意,从每题所给的 A、B、C、D 四个选项中,选出最佳 选项。 Four years ago, I felt lucky after escaping one of those terrible 2-mile runs. I hated running; it was just something that 1 came easily to me. At that time, if you had told me that I would one day run a marathon, I’ d have told you honestly that I had a better 2 of winning the lottery(彩票). The turning 3 came when I met Mrs. Green. She was fifty years old, going through chemotherapy (化学疗法)for her cancer, and still managed to run 30 miles a week. I thought that if Mrs. Green could run 6 miles at a time, I could run at least two. In February, in cold weather, I started a 2-mile 4 around my neighborhood. Two months later, I 5 the running for the first time. I felt very tired, but I felt happy. Over the next several years, I continued to push each run for a few 6 minutes, slowly building my endurance(耐力). I didn’t need to 7 against other runners, for my most important competitor was myself. After continuing to 8 myself, I knew it was time to step my training up. I 9 I would train for the Detroit Free Press/Flagstar Marathon. The race day 10 came, and I was filled with excitement and worry. It was final time to see what I was made of. The 11 ended up surprisingly. I did 12 through the last few miles, but after my running, there was no doubt in my mind that I’d finished. As I 13 the finish line, I experienced the strongest sense of 14 and happiness I had ever had in my life. I am now a marathoner. As John Bingham once said, “The miracle(奇迹)isn’t that I finished. The miracle is that I had the 15 to start.” 1. A. never B. always C. usually D. often 2. A. belief B. suggestion C. chance D. hope 3. A. situation B. stage C. case D. point 4. A. race B. walk C. hike D. ride 5. A. closed B. changed C. finished D. considered 6. A. perfect B. extra C. actual D. basic 7. A. compete B. go C. speak D. argue 8. A. treat B. interes t C. challenge D. enjoy 9. A. forced B. decided C. doubted D. seemed 10. A. certainly B. immediately C. frequently D. finally 11. A. experience B. moment C. walk D. reward 12. A. look B. live C. travel D. struggle 13. A. toured B. moved C. crossed D. stopped
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14. A. touch 15. A. courage

B. pride B. ability

C. humor C. choice

D. belonging D. thought

C 三.阅读下列短文,从每题所给的 A、B、C、D 四个选项中,选出最佳选项。 In high school, George Lucas didn’t do much work because he spent all his time dreaming about racing cars. Just a few days before graduation, George was driving home from the library in his Fiat; he prepared for a left turn by looking in the minor. But as he started the turn, he heard the sound of another car, a blowing horn (喇叭) , and the speeding Chevy hit the driver side of his car. The little Fiat turned over four or five times before it was stopped by a big tree. Luckily, George did not die in the accident, but his recovery was slow and he needed months of physical treatment. He would never be able to race ears now. The accident really changed George’s life. He decided there must be some reason he survived, and made up his mind to get his act together and make something out of his life. He decided to go to university and developed an interest in reading and writing. He got on quite well in his studies. He didn’t quite forget about racing cars. At that time instead of driving race cars, he began filming them. You may have seen one or all of George Lucas’s most famous films from the Star Wars series or the Indiana Jones trilogy. Not only has George produced movies, but also he has helped invent and develop new technologies to modernize the movie industry. Today, Lucas, who earns as much as $3.0 billion, is one of the American film industry’s most successful directors and producers. 1. What was George Lueas’s life like in high school? A. He was the best race ear driver. B. He did very well in his school subjects. C. He didn’t spend much time on his studies. D. He was one of the worst students in school. 2. We can learn from this passage that __________. A. George’s Fiat was not seriously damaged B. the Chevy driver didn’t break the traffic law C. George was seriously injured in the accident D. the Chevy driver wasn’t injured in the accident 3. The greatness of George Lucas mainly lies in his __________. A. earning a great deal of money B. directing several famous movies C. making movies about racing cars D. making the film industry more modern

二.阅读下列短文,从每题所给的 A、B、C、D 四个选项中,选出最佳选项。 Knott’s Berry Farm is the nation’s oldest, and first, theme park and draws around five million visitors each year. Knott’s Berry Farm hardly had a very good start. Arriving in Southern California in the 1920s, the Knott Family farmed about 20 acres of land and finally started a restaurant called Mrs. Knott’ s Chicken Dinner Restaurant. Mrs. Knott’s food became well known and her husband Walter built a Ghost Town as a way of entertaining waiting customers. Today Knott’s Berry Farm has 165 rides, shows, attractions and restaurants. For more than 80 years, Knott’s Berry Farm has been entertaining families and visitors from around the world. There are six different themed areas with rides and attractions in Knott’s Berry Farm. Fiesta
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Village throws attention to California’s Spanish heritage(遗产). Indian Trails is similar to Fiesta Village but with an accent on Native American legends, crafts, music and dancing. The heart and soul of Knott’s, Ghost Town is an 1880s California Boom Town with cowboys, gunfights, and a real steam train. The Boardwalk makes people think of Southern California beach. Wild Water Wilderness is an 1800s-style park with water rapids and a magical journey into Native North America. For Peanuts fans, Camp Snoopy is a six-acre children’s wonderland with 30 rides and attractions. Knott’s Berry Farm is in Buena Vista, Orange County, California. It is about half an hour from downtown Los Angeles and 10 minutes from Disneyland. Knott’s Berry Farm is open from 10 a.m. to 6 p.m. during the week. The park is open on Saturdays from 10 a. m. to 10 p.m. and from 10 a. m. to 7 p.m. on Sundays. During the summer months, the park is open later. The theme park is closed on Christmas Day. 1. The first paragraph is mainly about Knott’s Berry Farm’s __________. A. attractions C. services A. Fiesta Village C. Wild Water Wilderness A. It is in Northern California. B. history D. prices B. the Boardwalk D. Camp Snoopy B. It is open all the year round.

2. Besides Indian Trails, you can also experience Native American culture in __________.

3. What do we know about Knott’s Berry Farm from the passage? C. It has eight themed areas. D. It is not far from Disneyland. 二.阅读下面短文,掌握其大意,从每题所给的 A、B、C、D 四个选项中,选出最佳选 项。 My Father's son It's hard being an astronaut's son. Everybody expects you to be 1 .I'm just an average eleven-years-old kid. My father is so good at everything. I often wonder 2 my father ever had a son like me . One morning my teacher announced a 3 Day essay contest(竞赛)for the whole school. What would I 4 ?My father is an astronaut: I would start out with that. No, I decided I wouldn't do that. The whole country and maybe even the whole 5 saw my father as an astronaut,6 that wasn't the way I saw him. How did I 7 my father? Hmm I saw him sitting with me in the dark when I was little and had a nightmare. I saw him teaching me how to throw a baseball. I remembered him hugging me for hours when my dog was killed by a car. And I remembered how he 8 me with a new little dog at my eighth birthday party. These were the things I was going to write about my dad. To me, he wasn't 9 a world-famous astronaut, He was my dad. On Thursday night the winning essays would be 10 in the hall with all the parents and students present. I hadn't shown Dad the essay, and now I almost 11 I wouldn't win. When the third prize was announced and it wasn't me, I was 12 and disappointed at the same time. Then the second prize. It was me! I went up to the stage and read my essay "My father's Son."I watched my parents as I read. When I finished reading, the audience applauded. I saw me father 13 his nose. Tears were running down my mother's face. Dad cleared his throat, and put his hand on my shoulder,"Son,
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this is the proudest moment of my life." It was the proudest moment of my life, too. Maybe I'll 14 be a great hero or win a Nobel Prize, but just then, it was 15 just to be my father's son.

36. A. perfect 37. A. when 38. A. Children's 39. A. write 40. A. school 41. A. but 42. A. care 43. A. frightened 44. A. simply 45. A. edited 46. A. knew 47. A. embarrassed 48. A. holding 49. A. ever 50. A. natural

B. happy B. how B. Mother B. take B. family B. and B. see B. confused B. really B. read B. accepted B. amazed B. breaking B. still B. enough

C. tall C. where C. Teacher's C. send C. city C. so C. help C. surprised C. certainly C. elected C. hoped C. regretful C. blowing C. even C. fair

D. lovely D. whether D. Father's D. make D. world D. for D. ask D. tired D. clearly D. published D. guessed D. relieved D. pickling D. never D. wise

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