非谓语动词: a.动词不定式 b. v-ing c. 过去分词 概述：1.谓语动词：在句子中担任谓语的动词 2.非谓语动词：是动词的特殊形式,在句中可以作除谓语外的所有 成分 非谓语动词使用条件 一个句子当中，已经存在一个主句（谓语动词）,又没有连词的情 况下, 还有别的动词出现时。 She got off the bus, leaving her ha
ndbag on her seat. She got off the bus, but left her handbag on her seat. 动词不定式 一．动词不定式的时态和被动形式 动词不定式是非谓语动词的一种，由不定式符号(to)加动词原形 构成。不定式的形式有五种： 1.一般式 to do I like to read English. 2.进行式 to be doing He seemed to be reading something at that time. 3.完成式 to have done He seemed to have cleaned the room. 4.被动式 to be done The work is to be done soon. 5.完成被动式 to have been done The boy is said to have been sent to hospital yesterday. 疑问词+动词不定式 What, who, which, where, when, how, why 等疑问词构成不定式短 语，这种短语在句子中可作主语、宾语和表语等成分。 二. 动词不定式的用法 I.作主语 (1)不定式做主语时，可以直接放在谓语动词之前。 To see is to believe． Not to get there in time is your fault. (2)注：常用 it 做形式主语，将 to do 位于之后，使句子保持平衡。 句型 1：It + 谓语 +(+sb.)+时间/金钱+ to do It takes us an hour _to__ get there by bus.
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It costs you only $ 100 a month to cook at home. It seemed impossible to save money. 句型 2：It’s + n. (+ for sb) + to do It’s our duty _to_ help the poor. It is a great enjoyment _to_ spend our holiday in the countryside.. It is a great honor for us to be present at your birthday party. 句型 3： It is + adj （+ for sb） to do sth（是形容事物的性质的 ） It is + adj （+ of sb） to do sth（是形容人的品质的 ） It is easy for me to finish this work before ten. It is very kind of you to give me some help. It's impolite of you to speak to the teacher like that. 疑问词+不定式 作主语 When to start remains undecided. 1. It is easy to get there by bus or taxi. 2. It takes about 3 hours to see all the birds. 3. It is also impolite to speak with your mouth full when you are eating. 4. It ’s our duty to take good care of the old. 5. How long did it take you to finish the work? 6. It is stupid of you to write down everything the teacher says. 7. When to start has not been decided. 8. It seemed selfish of him not to give them anything. 9. It ’s necessary for you to lock the car when you do not use it. 10. It is useful for our health to do morning exercises. II.作宾语 接不定式做宾语 I want to know this matter. I don’t expect to meet you here (1)常见动词有：like, demand, expect, promise, begin, determine, refuse, fail, manage, learn, seem, forget, want, prepare, pretend, plan, wish 等 They want to get_( get ) on the bus, didn’t they? He said he wished __to be ( be ) a professor. (2)it 作形式宾语 I find/feel to work with him interesting ． I find/feel it interesting to work with him．
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Subject+ find/think/feel/make/ consider… it+adj/n + to do sth. 1.We thought _it__ better __to_ start early. 2.Do you consider _it__ better not _to_ go? 3. I feel _it_ my duty _to_ change all that. 4.We think it __ important _ to _ obey the law. 5.I know _ it _ impossible _ to _ finish so much homework in a day. (3)疑问词+不定式 作宾语 常常放在这些动词的后面作宾语： tell, advise, show, teach, find out, decide, discuss, learn, explain… He taught us how to use the tool. No one could tell me where to get the book. The dictionary didn’t tell the Frenchman how to pronounce the word. (4) 作介词 but, except, besides 的宾语。 Can’t choose but do Can’t help but do/have no choice to do Do nothing but do Practice: 1. Would you like to go to Thailand? (would like to do sth.) 2. The driver failed to see the other car in time. 3. I think it our duty to obey the laws. 4. Do you know how to play football? 5. I found it difficult to see him here. 6. Here are some ideas about how to find cheap, fun things to do with your family on weekends. 7. Many people like to go to a restaurant. 8. I haven't decided whether to go or stay. 9. Everyone wants to have a happy weekend. 10. She hope I’ll advise her which to choose. III.作宾语补足语 1. I’ll get someone _to__ repair the recorder for you. 2. What caused him _to__ change his mind? v.+ sb.+ to do advise, allow, ask, beg, cause, expect, encourage, force, get, hate, invite , order, wish , want, warn, remind, promise, permit, persuade, request+ sb. to do 注意： （1）在动词 feel （一感） ，hear, listen to（二听） ，have, let,
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make（三使） ，notice, see, watch, observe, look at（五看）(即：吾 看三室两厅一感觉)等后面的补足语中， 不定式不带 to， 但变为被 动语态后，必须带 to。 v.+ sb.+ do Let ’s go to Thailand right now. （let sb. do sth.） They saw the boy fall off the tree. (see sb. do sth.) The boy was seen to fall off the tree. He is often heard to sing (sing) the song. Though he often made his deskmate cry (cry).Today he was made to cry(cry) by his deskmate. (make sb. do sth.) (2)help 后面作宾语补足语的不定式可以带 to,也可以不带 to. I often help him（to）clean the room. [help sb. (to) do sth.] I helped him (to) find his things. 比较： The professor told the students how to do the experiment . The professor told the students to do the experiment. Practice: 1. No one lets you sit in the office. 2. I want you to know some rules. 3. I heard her sing today. She sang wonderful. 4. We watched the children play games. 5. Do you feel the house shake? 6.The boss made the workers work for 12 hours a day. 7. We were made to make ten sentences with these words. 8. I’m waiting for Tom to give the answer. 9. Would you like her sing a song for us? 10. Did anyone notice a strange man come into the bank? IV．作定语 I have something to tell you. (不定式作定语) 1.被修饰词是不定式的逻辑主语 She is always the last to leave the room. We need someone to help with the work. She is always the first to answer questions. 2.不定式用来说明所修饰词的内容 I have no chance to go there. He made a promise to be a good boy.
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There is no need to build a dam on the small river. 3. 不定式与它所修饰的词有动宾关系 Do you have anything to wash today? One of the most interesting places to visit in Singapore is Bird Park. 不定式为不及物动词且和所修饰的名词是动宾关系时，须加介词 He bought a cup to drink water with. I have nothing to complain about. He is looking for a room to live in. Practice: 1. Each member can choose a film for the evening to watch together. 2. He sat down at a table and waited for someone to take his order. 3.Is this the best way to help him? 4. Please give me something to drink. 5. She has a child to take care of. 6. He is not the kind of man to do such things. 7. It is already time to begin our class. 8. Thank you for giving me the chance to make the speech. 9. She bought a bookshelf to put her books on. 10.You are the only person to be late. V.作状语 不定式作状语可以表示目的、原因、结果。 I came here to see you．(目的) We were very excited to hear the news． （原因） He hurried to the school to find nobody there. （结果） (1)作目的状语 表示谓语动作的目的， 其逻辑主语通常是句子的 主语。强调动词不定式所表示的目的时，动词不定式可用 in order to +V. (原形) so as to +V. (原形) 但 so as to 不用于句首。 The student saved much money to buy a new mobile phone. He got up early in order to/so as to catch the first bus. = In order to catch the first bus, he got up early. People have learnt the importance of keeping a balanced diet to satisfy (satisfy) their nutritional needs. (2) 作结果状语 不定式作结果状语时，多表示出乎意料的结果，其逻辑主语通常
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是句子的主语。作结果状语的不定式通常用一般式，为了表示强 调可在不定式前加上 only. I rushed to the station, only to find the train had already gone. We came home to find our garden neat and tidy. 不定式作结果状语时，常用于 so…as to…,such…as to…, enough to…, too…to…,only to…等结构中。如： She was so late to miss half of the lecture. She is such a good teacher as to be repected by all her students. The house is large enough to hold two hundred people. The hat is too large to wear. He walks too slowly to get there on time. (3)作原因状语。 不定式与情感类形容词连用时，大多表示原因， 用来作原因状语。这类形容词主要有: happy, kind, surprised, frightened, shocked, glad, delighted, dissapointed 等。 They were surprised to be informed of the news. She was very happy to hear that her son had been promoted. Practice: 1.I’m glad to show you around the zoo on such a beautiful day. 2. When people are too tired to cook after work, they often get a “takeaway”. 3. Tart apples are used to make apple sauce. 4. One day he went to a cafeteria to have lunch. 5. I am too tired to think of anything now. 6.I work hard to pass the exam. 7.You couldn’t do that to save your life. 8. The tea is too hot to drink. 9. English is too difficult for me to learn. 10. This question is too hard for me to answer. Ⅵ. 作表语 动词不定式往往放在连系动词 be 的后面作表语。 （1）常说明主语的内容、性质、特征 My wish is to become a teacher. Your job today is to clean the playground. To be kind to the enemy is to be cruel to yourself. My suggestion is to put off the meeting.
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（2）动词不定式作表语，表示将来 They are to marry next week. You are to deliver these flowers before 10 疑问词+不定式 作表语 The question is where to get the medicine. The difficulty is how to do the most of work with the least of money. Practice 1. His dream is to be a doctor. 2. The next step is to turn on the TV. 3. The purpose of education is to develop a fine personality in children. 4. Now my task is to finish the composition. 5. The question was how to do the job well. 不定式的主动形式表示被动意义 I have something important to do. In the accident, the driver was to blame. This question is difficult to answer. The box is not easy to carry. 动词不定式综合练习 1.I want to give up this job but I have to support my family. 2. It will be difficult to live like this after they take back the house next July. 3. It took me 3 days to learn the English song. 4. The passage tells you what to do in the first few minutes. 5. Everyone should know how to call for help in their area. 6. The teachers also help them to do these things. 7. To be a winner, you need to give all you have and try your best. 8. Which of them would you most like to visit? 9. I feel it my duty to help others. 10. The earth is better place to live on, but scientists are trying to make the best use of the moon. 11. The birthday child wears new clothes to mark the special time. 12. A flag is flown outside a window to show that someone who lives in that house is having a birthday. 13. The best way to improve your English is to join an English club. 14. Something is still to find out. 16. How to make requests politely is important.
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17. You must be patient and persistent if you are to succeed. 18. It was necessary for her to talk with his mother. 19. As young adults, it is our duty to try our best to deal with each challenge. 20. I'd invite her to have dinner at my house. 21. He was found to steal in the shop. 22. She was the first woman to win the gold medal in the Olympic Games 23. The man downstairs found it difficult to fall asleep. 24. Do you have the ability to read and write English ? 25. The Browns have a comfortable house to live in. 26. There is nothing to worry about. 27. I allowed the children to play in my room for another five minutes. 28. The doctor advised me not to go to bed too late. 29. We want to see Liu Yu achieve his dreams. 30. Did you find it hard to solve the problem? 动词的 ing 形式（v-ing/doing） 一. 动词的 ing 的基本构成 主动语态 被动语态 一般式 完成式 doing having done being done having been done
No one likes being laughed at. I don’t remember having ever been given a chance to do it. 二.v-ing 的功用 v-ing 相当于 adj. adv. n.的功能，所以，在句中可以作：主语，宾 语，定语，状语，表语，宾语补足语 1. 作主语 Smoking does great harm to people’s health. Helping her is my duty. Collecting stamps is a good hobby. 与动词不定式作主语的区别。 (1)V-ing 形式作主语，表示一般性、经常性的动作。
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表示一次性的动作多用不定时。 Walking/To walk is a good form of exercise for both young and old. To walk there /Walking there is impossible. (2)不定式作主语常用 it 作形式主语，v-ing 作主语常位于句首。 只有某些习惯用语如 no use, no good 作表语用时，才用 it 作其他 形式主语。 It is no good/use doing sth. It is a waste of time/money doing sth. It is great fun doing sth. It is no use watching too much TV. It is no good talking to him, because he never listens. (3)句子主语若是不定式，主语也用不定式；句子表语若是 v-ing， 主语也用 v-ing。 To see is to believe./Seeing is believing. Talking to him is talking to a wall. 2. 作表语, 表抽象的， 一般的行为， 表主语的特征、 性质和内容。 It sounds interesting. The book seems boring. My job is looking after children. 3. 作宾语,既可以作动词的宾语，也可以作介词的宾语。 She sat there without speaking. 以下动词或短语只 v-ing 形式作宾语： ①admit(承认), avoid （避免， 躲避） , appreciate(感激), consider （考 虑）, enjoy（享受，喜欢）, escape（逃脱）, finish（完成）, keep doing（一直做）, mind（介意）, suggest（建议）, delay（耽误）, deny（否认）, excuse（原谅）, practice（练习）, resist（抗拒） 等动词。 I have finished reading the novel. Do you mind buying a dictionary for me on the Internet? The little boy admitted taking away the money in the drawer. She kept waving to her husband until he was out of sight. ②can’t help（禁不住）, give up（放弃）, feel like（想要）, keep on （继续）, think of（考虑）, set about（着手，开始做）, dream of （梦见， 梦想） ， have difficulty/trouble (in) （做…有困难） , be busy (in)(忙于), put off（推迟）等短语。
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When my father heard the news, he couldn't help laughing. I don’t feel like going to see the film. He was busy (in) preparing his lessons. He kept on working until midnight though he was tied. ③在下列短语中，to 是介词，后面应用 v-ing 作宾语。 be/get used to, look forward to, devote to, pay attention to, object to, get down to 等。 I look forward to seeing him again. Are you used to living there alone? ④下列动词或短语，既可以跟 v-ing 作宾语，也可以跟不定式作 宾语，但意义上有区别。 表示经常性的行为后接 v-ing； love, like, prefer, hate 表示具体的行为常用动词不定式。 I like swimming, but I don’t like to swim this afternoon. 但要注意，如果 like, love, prefer 前有 would，后面择接动词不定 式。 Would you like to go shopping with me? What would you prefer to eat tonight? ⑤下面几组词接 v-ing 作宾语和动词不定式作宾语含义不同。 doing sth. 忘记已做过某事。 forget to do sth. 忘记要做某事 doing sth.记得做过某事 remember to do sth. 记得要做某事 doing sth. 后悔做过某事 regret to do sth. 遗憾要做某事 doing sth. 意味着 mean to do sth. 打算做某事 doing sth 禁不住做某事 can’t help (to)do sth. 不能帮忙做某事
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to do sth. try doing sth
to do sth.停下来去做某事 stop doing sth 停下正在做的事情 to do sth. 继续做原来的事情 go on doing sth. 继续做正在做的事 ⑥动词 need, require, want 作“需要”讲时，以及 be worth 其后用 v-ing 的主动形式表示被动意义。 Your coat wants washing.= Your coat wants to be washed. The method needs improving. This pair of shoes requires mending. The question is well worth discussing 4．作宾语补足语，补充说明主语的性质或状态。常跟动词的-ing 作补语的动词有： ①表示感觉和心理状态的动词。常见的有 see，watch，hear，feel， smell，find，notice，observe，catch 等等。 I could feel my heart beating fast. ②使役动词。常见的有 have，set，keep，get, leave 等。 They had the light burning all night. 5. 作定语。 We have got a swimming pool in our school. Do you know the boy standing at the gate? 6. 作状语,它作状语时，通常都表示主语正在进行的另一动作， 用来对谓语动词表示的动作加以修饰或作为陪衬。它可以表示时 间、结果、条件、让步、方式或伴随动作，相当于相应的状语从 句。 ①表示时间。 Hearing the news, they all jumped with joy. Seeing its mother, the baby smiled. 当强调与谓语动词同时发生时，在 v-ing 前可以用连词 when 或 while.
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Be careful when crossing the street. ②表示原因。 Being ill, he went home. ③表示条件。 Working hard, you will succeed. ④表示结果。 The snow lasted a week, leading to a serious traffic jam in the whole area. ⑤表示伴随， v-ing 形式表示的动作和谓语动词所表示的动作同时 发生。它没有相应的状语从句代替。 She sat at the desk reading a newspaper. They walked on the way home, singing and laughing. 三．v-ing 的复合结构 v-ing 前可以加一个物主代词或名词所有格来表示这个 v-ing 的逻 辑上的主语 ，构成 v-ing 的复合结构或 v-ing 短语。 1.v-ing 复合结构作主语时一般用名词所有格或形容词性的物主 代词。 Nixon’s visiting China marked a new year between U.S. and China diplomatic relations. Their coming to help was a great encouragement to us. 2. 在口语和非正式语体中，只要不是作主语，v-ing 复合结构中 的逻辑主语常采用名词通格或人称代词宾格。 The doctor does not mind me /my eating a little meat occasionally. Do you mind Jack’s/Jack leaving now? I’m afraid of the tent falling down. Practice 1. Playing basketball is very interesting.. 2. He likes playing basketball. 3. The girls in our class aren’t interested in playing football. 4. My hobby is playing basketball. 5. The boy playing basketball on the playground is our monitor. 6. I saw him playing basketball when I passed the playground. 7. After having played basketball, he felt tired. 8. His parents died, leaving him a lot of money. 9. Many people come to the parks, looking for relaxations and entertainment.
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10. He admitted having done wrong. 11. The room wants cleaning. 12. His not getting to the station on time made all of us worried. 13. The problem needs working out. 14. The students’ knowing English well will help them to learn French. 15. Do you remember John and his father coming to see us last Christmas? 16. Besides, smoking does harm to brains and it can influence studies. 17. We don’t need to go far to find an interesting site. 18. Instead of traveling to famous sites on the other side of the country, we can find out more about our own local historical flavor. 19. I remembered setting up a tent and sleeping outside with my families. 20. Learning about computers can be like learning how to ride a bike or drive a car. 21. To raise wage means increasing purchasing power. 22. He forgot buying the book several days ago. As a result, he bought another one yesterday. 23. You can try writing some compositions in English. 24. The teacher asked the students in the class to stop talking. 25. The little boy couldn’t help crying after his toys had been taken away. 26. The scientist began his career in 1975 by working on a rice research project in his home country. 27. The movie was definitely worth seeing. 28. The mechanic went on checking the machine in the factory after the leader ’s coming. 29. Mr. Hu came in the classroom, carrying a handbag in his right hand. 30. The manager found the clerk playing computer games at work. 过去分词 过去分词相当于 adj. 和 adv. 的功能，所以，它可以作定语，状 语，宾语补足语和表语。过去分词的用法，一是表完成，二是表 被动。规则动词的过去分词以-ed 结尾构成，不规则动词的过去
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分词变化见不规则动词表。 1．作定语：过去分词作定语，如果是单个的词，常置于其所修 饰的名词之前。如果是过去分词短语作定语时，一般置于其所修 饰的名词之后。 a broken cup 一只打破的杯子(被动) spoken English 口语（被动） a retired worker 退休的工人(完成) badly-built house 修得很差的房子（完成） newly-arrived visitors 新来的参观者(完成) well-behaved children 表现好的孩子（完成） 注意：过去分词作定语与 v-ing 形式，动词不定式作定语的区别。 the risen sun 已升起的太阳（完成） the rising sun 正在上升的太阳（进行） the fallen leaves 落在地上的叶子（完成） the falling leaves 正在飘落的叶子（进行） Have you read the book written by Lu Xun？ Have you seen the person writing the book? I have an important letter to write. The bridge ,built in 1950 ,broke down yesterday. The workers having built the bridge have left here. The workers to build the bridge are from mountainous areas. 2．作表语 The cup is broken. (表被动，完成) He is retired. (完成) 注意 过去分词作表语与被动语态的区别。 The cup was broken by my little sister yesterday. (被动语态， 表示动作) The library is now closed. (过去分词作表语)
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注意 过去分词作表语与 v-ing 形式作表语的区别。interest, bore, worry, surprise, frighten 等通常用其过去分词来修饰人，用 v-ing 形式来修饰物。 The book is interesting and I’m interested in it. We are excited at the news. The news he told us is exciting. 3． 作宾语补足语: 过去分词作宾补， 和宾语有逻辑上的动宾关系， 要注意与动词不定式、v-ing 形式作宾补的区别。 能够接过去分词作宾语补足语的动词: (1) 表示感觉或心理状态的动词，如：see, watch, observe, look at, hear, listen to, feel, notice, think 等。 I heard the song sung in English。 I heard her singing the song in the classroom. I heard her sing the song yesterday. We found the ground covered with snow. We found him lying on the ground. (2) 表示“使，致使”意义的词。如:have, make, get, keep, leave 等。 I’ll have my hair cut tomorrow. He got his tooth pulled out yesterday. Don’t leave those things undone. 4．作状语, 表被动，完成的动作，和句子主语之间有逻辑上的动 宾关系。 Seen from the hill, the village looks move beautiful. Given another hour, I can also work out this problem. 注意：与动词不定式、v-ing 形式作状语的区别。 Seen from the top of the tower, the factory looks beautiful. Seeing from the top of the tower, we can see a beautiful factory. (Hearing/heard) the bad news, they couldn’t help crying.(When they heard the bad news) (Giving/Given) more time, we could do it better. (If they had been given more attention)
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I stood by the door, not daring to say a word. Being so angry, he couldn’t go to sleep. (Because he was so angry) They came into the classroom, singing and laughing. (and they were singing laughing) To serve the people well, I study hard. (In order to serve the people well) with + 复合宾语结构 （1）with + 名词 / 代词 + 形容词 Don’t speak with your mouth full. （2）with + 名词 / 代词 + 副词 The square looks more beautiful than ever with the lights on. （3）with + 名词 / 代词 + 介词短语 He was asleep with his head on his arms. （4）with + 名词 / 代词 + v-ing She felt very nervous with so many people looking at her. With the old man leading, the two started toward the mountains. （5）with + 名词 / 代词 + 不定式 With five minutes to go before the last train left, we arrived here. （6）with + 名词 / 代词 + -en 分词 With his matter settled, we left the room. Practice 1. This supermarket is now closed. 2. The letter posted today will reach him tomorrow. 3. The machine produced last year are very expensive. 4. He looked interested in the idea I put forward. 5. The man loved by all the students is our headmaster. 6. Deeply moved by his words, I promised to help him. 7. The old professor sat there, surrounded by many students. 8. Considered as a building material, wood is not very strong. 9. She followed the guide with her head down. 10. I had the windows repaired. 11. He slept with his mouth closed. 12. He sat there with his eyes looking forward. 13. He spoke so loudly as to make himself heard. 14. With winter coming, it’s time to buy warm clothes. 15. After invited to his birthday party, she bought a watch for him as a gift.
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Exercises of non-finite verbs
1. In some parts of London, missing a bus means ______ for another hour. A waiting B to waiting C wait D to be waiting 2. Boys, don't forget ____ the windows before you leave the classroom. A. closing B. closed C. to closing D. to close 3.She reached the top of the hill and stopped _____ on a big rock. A. to have rested B. resting C. to rest D. rest 4. Remember ______ the lights when you leave the office. A. to turn off B. turning off C. turn off D. to turning off 5. Tony lent me the money, ___ that I’d do as much for him. A. hoping B. to hope C. hoped D. having hoped 6. I remembered the door before I left the office, but forgot to turn off the lights. A. locking B. to lock C. having locked D. to have locked 7. When for his views about his teaching job, Philip said he found it very interesting and rewarding. A. asking B. asked C. having asked D. to be asked 8. ______to work overtime that evening, I missed a wonderful film. A. Having been asked B. To ask C. Having asked D. To be asked 9. We’re having a meeting in half an hour. The decision ______at the meeting will influence the future of our company. A. to be made B. being made C. made D. having been made 10. The party will be held in the garden, weather . A. permitting B. to permit C. permitted D. permit 11. Film has a much shorter history, especially when_ such art forms as music and painting. A. having compared to B. comparing to C. compare to D. compared to 12. One learns a language by making mistakes and ______ them. A. corrects B. correct C. to correct D. correcting 13. _______ with care, one tin(罐) will last for six weeks. A. Use B. Using C. Used D. To use 14. ______ at the door before you enter my room, please. A. Knock B. Knocking C. Knocked D. To knock
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15. China recently tightened its waters（海域，近海） controls near the Huangyan Island to prevent Chinese fishing boats from ________ in the South China Sea. A. attacking B. having attacking C. being attacked D. having been attacked 16. Pressed from his parents, and ____ that he has wasted too much time, the boy is determined to stop playing video games. A. realizing B. realized C. to realize D. being realized 17. _______ in a long queue, we waited for the store to open to buy a New iPad. A. Standing B. To stand C. Stood D. Stand 18. If he takes on this work, he will have no choice but _____ an even greater challenge. A. meets B. meeting C. meet D. to meet 【解析】动词不定式常作连词 but, except, besides 的宾语。如果这 些介词前有 do 的任何形式，后面就省掉 to. 常用的结构有： can’t choose but do can’t help but do 不得不,只得 have no choice but do do do nothing but do Seeing the room crowded, I had no choice but to stand in the dark. Seeing the room crowded, I could do nothing but stand in the dark. What do you like to do besides play football? They didn’t open their mouths except to complain. 19. George returned after the war, only _______ that his wife had left him. A. to be told B. telling C. being told D. told 【解析】only to do 却，不料竟会….. 20. After completing and signing it, please return the form to us in the envelope _____. A. providing B. provided C. having provided D. provide 21. We’ve had a good start, but next, more work needs ____ to achieve the final success.
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A. being done B. do C. to be done D. to do 23. Time, ______ correctly, is money in the bank. A. to use B. used C. using D. use 24. He got up late and hurried to his office, ______ the breakfast untouched. A. left B. to leave C. leaving D. having been left 25. Having finished her project, she was invited by the school _____ to the new students. A. speaking B. having spoken C. to speak D. to have spoken 26. The old couple often take a walk after super in the park with their pet dog ____. A. to follow B. following C. followed D. follows 27. This machine is very easy ______. Anybody can learn to use it in a few minutes. A. operating B. to be operating C. operated D. to operate 28. Tom took a taxi to the airport, only _____ his plane high up in the sky. A. finding B. to find C. being found D. to have found 29. I looked up and noticed a snake ______ its way up the tree to catch its breakfast. A. to wind B. wind C. winding D. wound 30. Before driving into the city, you are required to get your car ____. A. washed B. wash C. washing D. to wash 31. No matter how bright a talker you are, there are times when it’s better ____ silent. A. remain B. be remaining C. having remained D. to remain 32. I think Tom, as the head of a big department, should either study regularly or ____ his job. A. quits B. to quit C. quitting D. quit 33. “It’s such a nice place,” Mother said as she sat at the table _____ for customers. A. to be reserved B. having reserved C. reserving D. reserved 34. ______ an important decision more on emotion than on reason, you will regret it soon or later. A. Based (以…作基础) B. Basing C. Base D. To base
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