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虚拟语气讲解 详细


语气 英语的动词一般可带有三种不同的语气: 陈述语气,祈使语气和虚拟语气。不同 的语气用动词的不同形式(有的还借助 句法形式)来表示。

虚拟语气

虚拟语气的概念
?虚拟语气是一种特殊的动词形式,一是用 来表示说话人所说的话不是一个事实,而 是一种假设、猜测、怀疑等(在条件从句中 或让步状语从句中);一是表示说话人的愿 望、要求、命令、建议等 (在宾语从句、表 语从句、同位语从句)。

(一)虚拟语气在条件句中
虚拟条件句 与现在 事实相 反的假 设 与过去 相反的 假设 If+主语+动词的过去式 (动词be用were) 主句

主语+should,would, might,could+动词 原形

If+主语+had +过去分词

主语+should, would, might, could +have done

与将来 相反的 假设

1、If+主语+动词过去式 主语+should, would 2、If+主语+were to+ 动词原形 3、If+主语+should +动词原形 might, could+动词 原形

eg:If I had time, I would attend the meeting. If he had hurried ,he could have caught the train. If I were to go abroad ,I would go to America.

More practice: 如果我是你,我就会努力学习. If I were you, I would work harder at my lessons.
如果我知道他的电话号码,我就给他打电话了. If I had known his telephone number, I would have called him. 如果明天下雨的话,我们会取消比赛. If it should \were to rain, we would call off the match.

2010· 北京高考)—The weather has been very hot and
dry. —Yes. If it had rained even a drop,things would be much better now! And my vegetables ________. A.wouldn't die B.didn't die

C.hadn't died

D.wouldn't have died

解析:选 D 。考查虚拟语气。句意:如果下了一点雨的 话,现在的情况会好些,并且我种的蔬菜也不会死了。 表示对过去情况的假设,从句谓语动词用“had done”, 主句谓语动词用“would/could/should have done”。

(3013.重庆)----It rained cats and dogs this morning .I’m glad we tookan umbrella.
------ Yeah, we would have got wet all over if we _______ A. hadn’t B . haven’t C. did’t C. don’t

使用虚拟条件句要注意的几点:
1. 当条件状语从句表示的行为和主句表示的行为 所发生的时间不一致时,被称为:错综时间条件句“, 动词的形式要根据它所表示的时间作出相应的调整. If you had followed my advice , you would be better now. 如果你听我的建议,你现在就会痊愈了. If you had studied hard before, you would be a college student now. 如果你努力学习的话,你现在就会是大学生 了.

(2011· 北京高考)Maybe if I ________science, and

not literature then, I would be able to give you
more help.

A.studied
C.had studied

B.would study
D.was studying

解析:选 C。考查错综时间的虚拟语气。主句
用的是would be able to ...表示对现在的假设, 但由if从句中的then可知,从句表示对过去情况 的虚拟,故选C项。

2.省略句 在条件句中,可省略 if,把were ,had,
should 提到句首,变为倒装句式.

If I were at school again, I would study harder.

Were I at school again, I would study harder.
If you had come earlier, you would have met him.

Had you come earlier, you would have met him

If it should rain tomorrow, we would not go climbing.
Should it rain tomorrow, we would not go climbing.

(2012· 浙江高考)Had they known what was

coming next, they ________ second thoughts.
A.may have B.could have

C.must have had D.might have had
解析:选D 。根据“Had they known ...”可知,

此处是省略了if的条件句,表示与过去事实相
反的假设,所以主句用 should/would/could/might+have done结构, 故D项正确。

(二)、虚拟语气在名词从句中的运用
(1)用于宾语从句 A、wish 后面的宾语从句中。 一般用虚拟语气,表示一种不可能实现的愿望。其谓 语动词形式为:

表现在
表过去

过去时
过去完成时

表将来 would, might, could+动词原形 I wish (that) I were a bird.
I wish (that) I had seen the film last night. I wish (that) I would\could go.

B.用于表示命令、建议、要求等一类词后面 的宾语从句。

一个坚持 (insist)(坚决要求) 两个命令(order,command), 三个建议 (advise, suggest, propose), 四个要求 (demand, require, request, desire)等。

We suggested that the meeting (should) be put off.

They insisted that the boy (should) go with them.

注意:suggest 当表示“暗示、表明“讲 时,insist 表示”坚持认为“之意时,应 用陈述语气。
The smile on his face suggested that he was satisfied with our work.

他脸上的表情表明他对我们的工作很满意
The man insisted that he had never stolen the money. 那个人坚持说他没有偷钱.

(2011· 北京高考)—Where are the children? The
dinner's going to be completely ruined.

—I wish they________always late.
A.weren't C.wouldn't be B.hadn't been D.wouldn't have been

解析:选 A。考查虚拟语气。根据问句句意“孩 子们现在在哪里?” 可知wish 后的宾语从句应用 动词的过去式,表示与现在事实相反的愿望,故 答案为A。

(2)用于表语从句和同位语从句

在suggestion / proposal / order / plan / advice / idea / request 等名词后的表语和同位语从句中要用 “should+动词原形” should可以省略.
My idea is that we (should ) think it over before accepting it. My suggestion that we (should) have a meeting has been accepted by others. We all agree to that suggestion that the meeting (should) be put off.

(3)虚拟语气在 在主语从句中
A.在句型 “It is important (necessary, strange, natural) that .... ” 中,that 后面的从句中的谓语动词用: should + 动词 原形 . 主语从句It is/was + 紧急,重要,奇怪/建议,要求,命令(带感情色 彩)+that-clause 1. 我们有必要出去散散步。 It’s necessary that we should have a walk now.

2 她这样做是很自然的。
It’s natural that she should do so. 3 重要的是我们要照顾好病人。 It’s important that we should take good care of the patient.

B. 在It is demanded/suggested/ordered/required…. that-clause句型中从句用(should )+动词原型 It is demanded that we should work out a plan.

C. 在 It is a pity/a shame/ no wonder that….. 句型中从句也常用(should )+动词原型 It’s a pity that you (should) miss a good chance.

(三)虚拟语气在其他从句中
1. It is (high / about ) time that…从句中的谓 语动词用过去式或should+动词原形,should 不能省略. It is high time that you went / should go to school.
2. If only 引导的感叹句(要是...该有多好啊) 表示现在的情况,应用过去式; 如果是过去的情况, 应用过去完成时态 If only I knew the answer! If only I had seen the film yesterday!

3. would rather + 从句 动词用过去式 (对现在或将来事实的虚拟)或过去完 成时 (对过去的虚拟) I would rather you told me the truth.

I would rather you had gone there last Sunday.

4. as if ( as though) 看起来 常用虚 拟形式,即表示与现在事实相反,用 (did);与过去事实相反用过去完成式 (had done).
He treats /treated the boy as if he were his own son. He speaks/ spoke as if he had known about it

5. even if ( even though)即使
Even if he were here, he could not solve the problem.
Even if I had been busy then, I would have helped you.

考点三

其他句型中的虚拟语气

(2012· 北京高考)Don't handle the vase as if it ________
made of steel.

A.is
C.has been

B.were
D.had been

解析:选 B。考查虚拟语气。句意:不要把花瓶像
它似乎是钢制的一样来拿。as if表示“似乎,好像”,

引导的从句通常用虚拟语气,再结合主句的时态可
知是对现在事实的虚拟,所以用一般过去时were。

(2012· 辽宁高考)Jack is a great talker. It's high time that he ________ something instead of just talking. A.will do C.do B.has done D.did

解析: 选 D 。考查动词时态。在句型 “It?s high time that ...”中, 从句中的谓语动词用一 般过去时或should do,所以选D项。

(2010· 江苏高考)George is going to talk about the

geography of his country,but I'd rather he
________ more on its culture.

A.focus
C.would focus

B.focused
D.had focused

解析:选 B 。考查虚拟语气。would rather后
的从句中谓语动词用过去式表示对现在或将来

事实的虚拟。

(四)含蓄条件句
含蓄条件句是指句中没有明显的虚拟条件句,

而是利用其他手段来暗示虚拟条件句。
这类隐含式的虚拟条件句往往都可以转化为由

if 引导的条件句。

(1)由介词或介词短语暗示虚拟结构。常见的介词

或介词短a 语有:without (没有), but for (要不是)等。如:
Without electricity ( =If there were no electricity), human life would quite different today.

要是没有电,人类今天的生活将会不一样。 But for the meeting ( = If it hadn't been for the meeting),
I would have gone to your party last night. 要不是那个会议,昨晚我就去参加你的聚会了。

(2)由并列连词或副词暗示虚拟结构。常见的

并列连词或副词有:but, or, otherwise (要不然)等。如:
I would have gone to America with my friend, but I was stopped by my mother. 要不是我妈妈阻止,我肯定和朋友去美国了。

He didn't get up earlier this morning; otherwise, he would have caught the first bus. 今早他要是早点起床,他肯定能赶上第一趟班车。

考点四

含蓄条件句的虚拟语气

.(2012· 福建高考)We lost our way in that small village, otherwise we ________ more places of interest yesterday. A.visited C.would visit B.had visited D.would have visited

解析: 选 D 。考查虚拟语气。句意:我们在那个小村
庄里迷了路,否则我们昨天会看到更多的名胜。本题是 由otherwise引出的含蓄条件句。由时间状语yesterday 可知,此处是与过去事实相反的虚拟语气,故选D。

.(2012· 北京高考)We________ the difficulty together, but
why didn't you tell me? A.should face C.could have faced B.might face D.must have faced

解析:选 C 。句意:我们本可以共同面对困难,可你为

什么不告诉我呢?后半句用的是一般过去时,由此可知
前半句是对过去情况的推测,所以用“情态动词+have done”形式。could have done表示过去本可以做某事, 而实际上却没有做,符合句意。

.(2011· 天津高考)I ______ sooner but I didn't know that
they were waiting for me. A.had come C.would come B.was coming D.would have come

解析:选 D 。考查虚拟语气。句意:我不知道他们一直

在等我,要不然我肯定会迅速点儿。根据句意可知,这
里是对过去的虚拟,故主句用“would have done”的形式, 选D项。

虚拟语气练习题
? 1. It is strange that the little boy _____ speak two foreign languages. A. could B. can C. should D. would ? 2. He gave orders that the experiment ____ before 5:30pm. A. be finished B.will finish C. finish D.was finished

虚拟语气练习题
?3.He _____ you more help,even though he was very busy. A, might have given B. might give C. may have given D. should have given ?4.Without the leadership of the Party,there ____no New China. A. would be B. has been C. should be D. was

虚拟语气练习题
? 5. He is talking so much about America as if he_____ there. A. had been B. has been C. was D. has gone ? 6. Had you listened to the doctor, you _____ all right now. A. are B. were C. would be D. would have been

B 7. The young man insisted that he _____ nothing wrong and _____ free. A. did; set B. had done; should be set C. should do; be set D. had done; must be set B 8. You _____ come earlier. The bus left a moment ago. A. would B. should have C. may D. have

(补充) 情态动词+ have done 1.could have done 本来可以- - 2.might have done 本来可能 - - 3.should / ought to have done 本来应该做 - - 4.shouldn’t / ought not to have done 本不该做 - -

你本不应该告诉她真相。
You shouldn’t have told her the truth .

5.needn’t have done 本不必做 - - 比较:didn’t need to do 没必要做也没有做 -

我没必要擦窗户。我兄弟做了
I didn’t need to clean the windows . My brother did it. 6.would have done 本来会去做---我没有足够的钱.否则我会买那本书的. ?I didn’t have enough money, otherwise I would have bought that book.


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